Multiple Versions of the Text

Livingstone's Final Manuscripts (1865-1873)

This page allows users to engage in comparative study of the Livingstone manuscripts published through the present edition. Here users will find critically encoded and edited versions of many different texts related to Livingstone's final journey: twelve final field diaries (1865-73), the Unaynayembe Journal (1866-72), four bonus texts, and the published version of the Last Journals (1874). We have based the colors and layouts of each digital text on the colors and layouts of the original manuscripts.

Field Diary I
David Livingstone


Date of composition: 4 August 1865 - 31 March 1866
Repository: David Livingstone Centre, Blantyre, United Kingdom
Shelfmark: 1123
Clendennen & Cunningham number(s): Field Diaries, 014
Digital edition and date: Livingstone Online, 2017
Publisher: University of Maryland Libraries, College Park, MD, USA
Project ID: liv_000001
Critical encoding: Adrian S. Wisnicki, Megan Ward, Heather F. Ball, Christopher Lawrence, Kate Simpson, Angela Aliff, Ashanka Kumari
Encoding dates: 2014-04-29, 2014-05-01, 2014-05-03, 2014-05-05, 2014-05-07, 2014-05-08, 2014-05-09, 2014-05-10, 2014-05-13, 2014-05-14, 2014-05-15, 2014-05-18, 2014-05-27, 2014-06-03, 2014-08-21, 2014-10-31, 2014-11-22, 2015-12-15, 2016-12-06




0001

I


0002
0003

This contains a rough
diary of Livingstone's voyage
to Bombay from Marseilles
in 1865, his stay in Bombay,
5his arrival in Zanzibar &
{the} beginnings of his last
Journey - March 1866


It does not closely corres-
pond with Waller's "Last
10Journey"
& seems like rough
notes that were written
up carefully later; For
instance its [ ] well-known
passage in the Joys of
15Travel
appears on Jan-
uary 1866
as written
at Sea, whereas Waller
gives it under date
March 26th



0004

À Monsieur
Monsieur Cailliatte
Marsauceux
pres Dreux
5Eure et Loir




Monsier Calliatte
Marsauceux
Pres Dreux
10Eure et Loir



0005

À Madame Hocidi
du Docteur Livingstone




À Madame Hocidi
5chez M. Frédine de
Comisets


Le Havre
du Docteur Livingstone
Hotel des Deux Mondes
10        Paris


"Nous sommes à Marsauceux
Mercredi à onze heures
et demi -"


In answer to the above Mrs
15Hocede
came up from Havre
to Marsauceux & we met
her there - on 17th left Agnes
on 18th God bless her



0006

£1300 per ton
185 for ivory - The
largest price given




5

19th August 1865
reached Marseilles
at noon - slept
in a Hotel Louvre
et Paix
and on
1020th came on
board Massalia
P & O. steamer to
sail as soon as
the mails come
15on board -


Dined with M. Champlones
in Paris - a good geographer

0007
#Dreux where Agnes remains
in order to speak French is
a very old town - country
on chalk, a wine growing
5one - people well off - no
poor - mostly agricultural
in a small way - very
merry and careless
This region was that
10in which Julius Caezar
was when we wrote his
2d book of his com-
mentaries. The people
seem changed now
15for they are small &
dark instead of being
the big fair blue eyed
Gauls of old - The
burying place of the
20Bourbon family is
near Dreux - some
fine stained glass in it

0008
The country along which
we coast is sterile
in appearance but is
fertile - it looks stoney


5

21st August 1865


Beautiful sailing - The
Massilia goes at 12½ knots
over a silent sea, and it is
pleasantly warm
- Mr
10Maine
eminent as a
lawyer & writer on ancient
law is on board & Mr Tucker
also a lawyer - Mr Sterne
an American merchant
15well educated & clever -
and all are agreable --


22d Reached Malta
about 5 P.M. and found
quarantine regulations
20in full force - boats at
once surrounded us

0009
each having a man with
a yellow collar & yellow
flag - and all who had
come with us to Malta
5were to be put in quarantine
for 10 days - some cases
of cholera had appeared at
Marseilles. The ship's
papers were recieved in
10a box at the end of a
pole and tongs employed
to open & and shut it.


A man of war's crew
was said to have been
15put into quarantine
for one of the men having
touched a man of our
ship - too much defer-
ence is paid by our
20government to the
Maltese who are very
presuming.


0010

23d Aug. 1865. We were
prevented from coaling
till this morning. Then
left at midday - Dr
5Parkes
& family went
off to quarantine - a
Mrs Webb heard that her
husband was ill of
fever & unable to come
10near her before she
went into th Lazaretto
as we left we entered
into a thick fog which
seemed to be only near
15the island & not on it
We may hear of this at
a later date as associated
with an outburst
of cholera


20

Weather outside very
fine
we hope to get to

0011
Alexandria by Saturday at
noon & thence start at
once for Suez.


Mrs Tucker going up to
5Mahableswar at night
her horse went over a
precipice {in} the dark
and was jammed between
the{a} tree and the rock. both
10horse & rider saved.
This is surely Providen-
tial


26th Aug. 1865. arrived at
Alexandria about 4 P.M.
15and at once went on to-
wards Cairo. reached it
at 12.30 & stopped at
Shepherds Hotel - to start
at 9 A.M. Sunday morn-
20ing. went at 8 A.M.
to call on Mrs Lieder.


0012

Mr Lieder long a missionary
in Egypt died lately - & so
did an old companion
Miss Daniels - so she is left
5alone. Palgrave is at
Cairo among Abyssinian
merchants and the
worthless Burtonites alias
unprincipled - going to
10try & liberate Dr Cameron
& other missionaries in
Abyssinia - Mrs L. thinks
that Cameron was im-
-prudent only in presuming
15too much as a hunter
and thinking he had more
influence with the
king than he possessed
Mr Flad a very prudent
20& able missionary is one
of the captures. Miss
Whately
is coming out

0013
again in six weeks to
resume her labours
among the Mahometan
children = she retires in
5the hot season and
therein is wise. May a
blessing rest on her
labours.


An accident had happen
10ed on the railway & one
man killed on Saturday
night - this was the
reason we had to sleep
at Shepherds Hotel - the
15cholera cholera was very severe
on this line. Fifteen
engine drivers died of it
one was taken ill and
died before he could get
20to a station


0014

28th Aug. 1865. Went
on board the "Benares"
and set sail this morning
with a fine breeze down
5the Red Sea. -


29th at noon we were
220 miles from Suez
and 1050 from Aden
a nice breeze keeps us
10pleasant & steady
Reading Palgrave
very ambitious in
his style


30th noon Distance
15run 218 miles -
From Aden 832 miles
A fine breeze astern
helps us on & cools us


0015
{figure}
0016

31 August 1865
Distance run today
219 miles - 614 from
Aden - warmer
5but wind still keeping
up
-


1st Septr 1865 - 206
miles
distance run
went down to stoke hole
10where Somalis are
employed ½ an hour
at a time - thermom
eter in stoke hole at
roof 150° Fahr
15yesterday 163° - Engine
room 109 - yesterday
110°


0017

3d Septr 1865 Visited
Aden - and went
with Col. Merryweather
to the old Tanks from
5which the town is
supplied = They are built
in a gully & across it
the workmanship
solid & prodigious -
10a few trees are planted
It is mentioned by
Balthazar an old
Portuguese who called
there 300 years ago
15that Aden was a
perfect garden - the
old tanks held more
than the present -
The town is built
20over many of them


two Parsees & a

0018
Mahometan have in
company cleared out
one & selling 100 gallons
for 1 Rupee realize
5about 25 per cent
on the outlay - People
have increased to 30,000
and are crowding in
fast from starvation
10in the country caused
by Murrain. Dined
with Col. Merryweather
& Col. Woolcombe &
then sailed at nine
15P M


Prodigious quantities
of fish in Gulph of
Aden
- I wonder that
no fisheries have
20been established

0019
a sudden lowering of
Temp. took place in
the sea as soon as
we came out of the
5Red Sea to Gulph of
Aden
. The bath made
us start from its
coldness. query a
current from south
10brought to surface - ?


5th Sept 1865


Still in Gulph of
Aden
= 1570 miles
from Bombay - went
15212 miles -


6th Septr when we
got out of Gulph of
Aden
came to southern
swell & wind - going
20well & cool - 254 miles


0020

The Roman Emperors
looked on Christianity
as politically subversive
and morally abominable
5As many of ourselves
do Mormonism &
our rulers do the
Jesuits. Christianity
is still looked on
10as a new spirit
likely to act as a
dissolvent of Eastern
systems. It produces
an instinctive
15shrinking, and
repugnance - Asiatic
rulers have an
instinctive prescience
of the result & naturally
20shrink from

0021
closer contact with
Western commerce &
Christianity which
combined will inevitably
5modify the whole
structure of society


No oriental com-
prehends the meaning
of benefitting the people -
10the notion of promoting
the welfare of a nation
is scouted as a matter
of course " - and we are
always supposed to be
15following own{our} so{own}
ends in all we do -




[                ]

0022

7 Septr 1865 Distance
run 235 miles. Flying
fish are caught by
nets held behind a
5light - The French
soldiers were shockingly
ill treated by their own
officers on board our
transport ships, but
10no complaint made -
thrown overboard
without any ceremony
not even sewn up
in great coats - These
15were usually stolen
ere they were dead -


8{9}th 226 miles & we are
now 352 miles from
Bombay - light breeze
20and         some     sea


0023

A foreign people is not to
be understood in a short
or hurried visit - nor indeed
to be appreciated by the
5oldest inhabitant, unless
he will consent to
waive all prejudice & live
as one of themselves -
Difficult to realize the
10true aspect of the people
- learn to respect their
hearts -


Quickness of apprehension
a ready wit & retentive
15memory
cruel old platitudes
about governing orientals
by fear - the "stick" -
"vigour" They are the
20same as free born Instinct

0024
not long ago &
Germans were regarded
as we now regard "niggers
& Egyptians" - our
5island belt of prejudice
with better knowledge
we learn that black &
white are men of like
passions with our
10-selves-


Treat savages as you
would countrymen
remembering that
you lose nothing
15by the act & they gain
all -


little pet tucked her
legs under her & ate daint
ily

0025
such a darling of sweet
pure beauty -
slave is a term of
affection -"slave whom
5he loved"


Genuine sympathy
with human beings
obliterates the distinctions
of race & clime rank
10& religion & even of
intellect.




It is evidence of brutal
vulgarity of mind to
15treat all natives as "niggers"
Avoid this unhappy
form of slang & without
falling into unreal sentiment
endeavour to return to that
20chivalry which regards with
especial forbearance & con
sideration the inferior & helpless


0026

#a man at Rio de Janero
catching a rope was
bit by a sea snake
which{and} shewed sym-
5-ptoms of poisons
This case was men-
-tioned by Captain White
of the Benares as
having come under
10his own personal
observation


[                ]

0027

10th Septr 1865
Divine service this
morning at 10-30
After inspection
5all attended - We are
within 120 miles of
Bombay - We have
now been 4 Sundays
on board from
10Marseilles: viz. - one
at Marseilles - one
crossing Desert -
one at Aden & thus
y which we reach
15Bombay at about
4 A. M. Monday


0028

Chaplain Holberton
        Brigade Major

River side
          Kirkee


5

13th start for Nassuck
at 8 A M & reach
4 - 30. Mr ^ Rev W. Prxel




10

11th Septr 1865
Arrived at Bombay
at 4 A M - Went
to House of Mr
G M Stewart
on
15Kambala hill
visited Governor

0029
in forenoon. He
recommends a
visit to Nassuck
to see a school of
5Africans there to
select men for
journey - dine
with him tomorrow
evening & then go
10Wednesday morning
up country -


12th


went to Pareill to
residence of the Governor
15offered a room &
then to dine in the
evening - sat beside

0030
Mr Chisolme Anstey -
who is rather notorious
in Bombay - a disciple
of Daniel O'Connell -


5

14th Went up to
Nassick to see if any
of the Africans there
would suit me.
Recieved by Major
10Houghton
very kindly


15th Septr As the
reamination of the
school by the Bishop
of Bombay
. children
15did very well indeed
sang beautifully
an African com
poses tunes and

0031
has made about 25
with songs in his
own language - The
tongue of Londa -
5told the young men
that it was not
play they were going
to but work, and
they had better think
10about it for some
time before giving an
answer - Two volun
-teered at once - but I
requested them to
15pause -


16th came down to
Bombay - very many
of the plants seem

0032
identical with those in
Africa -- saw the
ghants clearly and they
are very fine and the
5jungle is very like
what we have near
Kolobeng & elsewhere
Teak trees - Euphorbias
acacias & palmyras
10bring back African
scenery vividly -


17th Septr 1865
Went to Fort to settle
affairs - four of
15my men have died
climate disagrees with
them - Chuma &
Wikotane have done
very well at Bombay
20under Dr Wilson


0033

Sunday 18th Septr 1865
went to Scotch church
under Mr Boyd & to the
English church in the
5evening -


19th came up to Guny-
skind
- residence of Sir
Bartle Frere
the Governor
Went after dinner to
10an entertainment given
by the Officers - Private
theatricals very well
performed - Supped with
Col. Foster - Home at
152 in the morning -


20th Sleep in quarters
of staff of Governor,
go over to Gunyskind to
meals -


0034

20th Septr 1865


After breakfast Governor
told me that Major Clarke
had spoken to Officers
5& men of the Marine
Battallion & found
them very willing to
go - He says many
of them have been
10wrecked & kept at
places where they have
been obliged to rough it
much and he will
ensure their pay &
15pensions - They are
accustomed to making
packs for beasts of
burden -

0035
spoke of buffaloes as
able to bear bite of the
tsetse - Thought favourably
of it - He also said
5that any Africans &
myself wish to send
of one tribe he would
see to their expenses
being paid


10

very pleasant weather
up here


22 Septr 1865


Visited a cave
temple and walked
15to Holkar's bridge
Read Duffy's
history of Kirkee
battle
-


0036

#Mr Dalzell gardener
wished seeds of
mosokoso - and
Buarze {figure} send them


5



Invited to lecture
at United service
institution - Mutiny
medals distributed
10A fakeer seen in
Scinde came to
tell Sir Bartle
that the last of
the Imams would
15soon appear -


0037
a woman washed
her face - Political
officer still en-
quiring into the
5case when he
left Oude -
men put on a
new coat over
the old & his age
10is asked by how
many coats has
he?


[                ]

0038

25 Septr 1865 - Came
down to Bombay
saw Mr Stearn's about
calico & buffaloes
5Paid Govr 609 Rupees
3 annas for repairs
of steamer & keep of
men - Mr Hoggan, an
engineer volunteers to
10go with me - I decline -
I go to Lady Nyassa
to shew her to Captain
Blackmore
with a
view to advertisement
15for sale -


She is advertized twice
a week. Two offers
Mr Tucker spoke of
a company buying her


0039

29th Went up again to
Poonah after spending
a week in Bombay
and on 3d Oct. gave
5a lecture in the United
Service Institution
to a crowd - Governor
and bishop present
the latter introduced
10me & voted thanks
afterwards -


Visted a Sirdar or
native gentleman
in Poonah with the
15Governor - garlands
of flowers hung
round or necks
wands of Do in hands
other of Roses - &c.

0040
stairs so narrow
only one person can
ascend - for defence
in lawless times -


5

5th Octr 1865


Came down to
Bombay - gave
a lecture in Town
Hall to a crowd who
10gave three cheers
and subscribed
some thousands of
Rupees to help -


17th Sultan gave
15me an order to
his captain to carry
12 buffaloes for
me to Zanzibar


0041

14 men of Marine
Battalion volunteered
to go - Men drew back
and there 14 volunteered
5after hearing that we
had carriage pro-
vided for their luggage
order - goods -
provisions - blankets
10boots -


Visited Sultan several
times - very gracious
which I owe to Sir
Bartle Frere
shewing
15me so much
attention - and calling
me his Moushee


0042

22d Octr went to
Scotch Church in
morning - spent
some time with
5Dr Wilson Then
go back to Mr
Stewart
to lodge




25 Shipped 14
10buffaloes and two
calves on board
the Gazelle - bought
iron tanks for their
water - Hay supplied
15by commissariat
at instance of the
Governor - The
Sultan changes his
mind about sailing

0043
and may not leave
for some days yet -
Commissariat is
getting saddles made


5

#Phenembe is name
of Dr Peters "Caia"
Lizard = It eats chickens
& mice - Nganye is
10the Ajawa & Manganja
name for same
animal = Kaia
falls during rains -




15

[In] an inscription given -
by Cosmas the Adulike
inscription copied in
A.D. 545 Ptolemy the
Great
is made to say
20that "he invaded Asia
with his land & sea forces

0044
#"and with elephants
from the country of the
Troglodites & Ethiopians.
This body of Elephants
5was found collected out
of those countries by his
father and himself and
brought into Egypt and
tamed for the service
10of war. with these forces
Ptolemy advanced -
into Asia, reduced all
his country on this side
the Euphrates xxxxx
15In this Expedition having
captured also manyy
Indian elephants
and subjectingall the
princes to his obed
20ience he crossed to
Euphrates, entered"

0045
#Mesopotamia &c"
Vincent's Ancient Commerce
II pp-538"




5

#Leave articles & retire.
ancient way of trading
in gold - Do Do




1st Novr 1865 We have
10had heavy rains for some
days
- The Captain of the
Gazelle rather disobliging
about the buffaloes -
wont help my men - is
15a drunken Mahometan
Mahomet Ali Durt.
got letters from Mr Price
about boys - From Sir
Roderick
about Bakers
20Lake
- He wishes me to
hasten on to Tanganyika
2 Marines come daily &
act as orderlies -


0046

4 Novr 1865 Went
up with Mr Tracey to
the Mountain sanatorium
Mattaran which has
5most gorgeous scenery
remained with Mr
Hammay
on monday
& returned to Bombay
on the morning of the
107th.


On 9th went to Surat
and remained overnight
at Rev Montgomery's
of Irish Presbyterian
15Mission - Saw the old
tombs of English mag
nates of former days
they are very grand -
imitations of Mahometans


0047

10th On to Mr Taylors
at Borsad - reached
him by bullock cart
at ₑ⁄₄ to 12 at night
5remained net day
and on 12th went on
to Ahmedabad - country
identical with many
parts of Tropical
10Africa
- Take away
hedgerows which are
of African Euphorbias
and no imagination
is needed to fancy one
15-self on the other side of
Indian Ocean - Ruins
very fine - Went out
on 13th to service at
native christian village


0048

The expression of
countenance of women
very pleasant as com
-pared with the heathen -
5one motherly person
did not like to see us
go away fasting &
brought a draught of
milk for me -


10

Mrs Oliphant the collectors
wife is a daughter of
my friend Genl Alex
-ander
- She was absent


14 Novr 1865


15

Returned to Bombay
in one day a distance
of 300 miles - Railway
very straight & level
not a tunnel in it
20all - Several large
bridges built on

0049
iron tubes screwed
into the mud - The
Narbudda at Breach
₃⁄₄ of a mile - The
5bridges are very
elegant & high -


Caste the result in a
measure of having
been yielded to by the
10English - When the
natives found that
they were believed in
capable by caste rules
of performing certain
15duties they added to
the regulations -


A banker seen in a
third class carriage
Love of money stronge
20than love of caste


0050

In a ship a Sudrah may
cook for them - a bath
is taken by throwing
a stone in water - a
5vicarious ablution
and then the mark is
put on the ˄ forehead as
emblematic of purifica
tion -


10

A woman taken in
a palankin & screened
into carriage was
seen to take a bundle
of dirty clothes on her
15back when leaving
it -


Hear of Rae's death
"Leave his sins to his
saviour
" is the line
20we must follow
a sad end enough


0051

14 Novr 1863 returned
in one day to Bombay
and lived in Mr Stearn's
house Malabar Hill -
5No news of importance
had come -


About 20th H M S Severn
came and the Commodore
told me that I had to go in
10the Vigilant and she would
be here in about a
month - no help for it
Recieved from Asiatic
Society Rupees (6450) about
15£645 - very handsome
contribution Resolve
to dedicate it to careful
commerce & place it
at Ritchie Stewart & Cos
20at 6 percent interest
to be given to any feasible
committee for that

0052
purpose -


24th Sailed to Hog island
visited caves of
Elephanta
about 900
5years old - My expectations
had been over excited
Recieved a number
of articles for journey
from Authorties here


10

5th Decr waiting
for M. "Thule" being
ready as I am to go
in her - a guest of
the Government -
15negotiating sale
of Lady Nyassa
Mr Tucker failed
to get up a company

0053
to purchase her - dined
in company with
Mr Justice Anstey -
has a fund of anecdote
5admired O'Connel -


8th Decr /65 - visited the
Rock Temples of
Kanera - Budhist
and one is very fine
10like saloon of News
tead Abbey
- a row
of pillars runs down
each side some carved
at top with elephants
15many figures of Budh
with Hindoo gods
under him


7th Shocked by the sudden
death of Mrs Holberton


0054

8 Decr 1865






#

Since my return
to Bombay I have
5noticed that my men
from the Zambesi
have lost the African
& emit the Indian
odour - They com-
10plain of weakness






Scinde is notable
for darkening the
complexion - Bombay
15whitens it - Devon
shire
- darkens more
than most places






Captain Osborne
20offers to take me
up to Nagpore free
of expense -


0055

[#] 10th Decr 1865 Chuma
and Wikatani were
baptized this morning
by Dr Wilson - John W -
5& James Chuma - trust they
will be followers of
Christ in truth -


11th Recieved an
anonymous note
10from "African Asylum"
complaining of un-
kindness - sent it to
Mr Price - It shews
ingratitude


15

12th Went to Commodore
he shewed me his
order to East Coast
Captains to assist
me as much as they
20could


0056

Declined Captain
Osborne
s very
kind invitation
to go up country
5with him -


Went to observatory
about 2 chrono-
meters to be sent
home by H. M. S.
10Severn


18th Decr 1865.
Went on board the
Thule and find
her a very fine
15vessel with
ample cabin
accommodation


0057

22 Decr 1865. Sold
the Lady Nyassa for
£2300 to Rajah of
Bhownugger{ree}
-
5the Government have
given me the honour
of formally presenting
the Thule to the Sultan
of Zanzibar
- This is
10to shew the consideration
in which I am held &
will aid me with the
Arabs = It is very kind
in the Governor so to
15arrange the matter -
A Colonel would have
been sent had the
commission not been
given to me


0058

26th Decr 1865 =
Tiffin on board the
"Windsor Castle." after
service at the Cathedral
5yesterday - Lord Edward
Seymour
with whom
I went to Elephanta
caves
after going with
Sir Bartle Frere to the
10South Maratha country
went to hunt bears -
Placed above a bear
cave he shot one of
two cubs which first
15came out. Then the
mother followed & he
retiring fell - The beast
gave him one of the
tremendous bites on the
20inside of the thigh which
the brutes can give &
went on - Two days
elapsed ere medical

0059
assistance could be
brought. Then amputation
and death followed -
an untimely end for a
5hopeful young man
who came to learn that
knowledge of India not
easily found in books -
Pity the poor father &
10mother & sisters if he
has any -


4th January 1866 -
embarked on board
the Thule going to
15Zanzibar as a pre-
-sent to the Sultan - the
mules were not on
board so we had to
wait till the morning
20of the 5th before

0060
sailing - Two Seedies
were by accident
knocked overboard
but were picked up -
5weather fine - but
winds light


16 January 1866 Had a
squall this morning
mules find it difficult
10to stand on account of
rolling of vessel - We
are more than half
way now to Zanzibar


19th began to steam
15on 17th on account
of want of wind -
It is now dead calm


[                ]

0061

When one travels
with the specific object
in view of ameliorating
the benighted natives of
5Africa every act becomes
enobled - While exchanging
the customary civilities -
Recieving a nights shelter
- purchasing food for
10the party - asking for
information - or giving
answers to the African's
polite enquiries as to the
objects of the travelers - We
15begin to spread inform
-ation respecting that people
by whose agency their
hand will yet be freed
from the cursed slave trade
20The mere animal pleasure
Travelling is very great

0062
the elasticity of muscle
imparted by brisk exercise
fresh & healthy blood
circulates through the
5brain - the eye is clear
the step firm and the
days exertion has been
enough to make repose
thoroughly enjoyable -
10We have always the
influence of remote
chances of danger either
from men or wild
beasts - Our sympathies
15are drawn out to our
humble hardy com-
panions by a com-
munity of interests
and perils - and
20makes us all friends indeed

0063
the mind meanwhile
is made more self
reliant - confident in
resources with greater
5presence of mind -


The body & limbs become
well knit - the muscles
loose{lose} all their fat & are
as hard as a board - the
10countenance bronzed
no dyspepsia-


The sweat of ones brow
is no longer a curse
when one works for
15God - It is converted
into a blessing - It is a
tonic to the system - The
charm of repose can
only be known after
20severe exertion


0064

24th January 1866 = After
several days of very light
winds we have a breeze today
but she does not go quick
-
5A shark bit the revolving vane
of the Patent log several days
ago and on 22d repeated
the bite and left several
pieces of the enamel of his
10teeth indented in the brass
We caught several dolphins
yesterday - the dorsal fin
is prolonged & large on to the
nose - This gives him great
15power in turning his head
& mouth to catch the fishes
All the fishes in their stom
achs were partially con
sumed though they could
20not have been long in
The gastric juice is very
strong {figure} found
inside & of this size


0065

25 January 1866. a good
wind today
and vessel
going slowly never
-the-less


26 get up steam in the
Afternoon -


28th Sunday came into
Zanzibar harbour this
10afternoon - all the Europe
-ans off on a picknick -
Opened mail bags in order
to see that man of war
letters might not be
15kept from Officers &
men of the "Vigilant" by
the picknick affair - called
at Vigilant


29th Went to call on
20Sultan in accordance
with request for a
private interview
which sent in the evening
we were recieved by a

0066
gaurd - A band at the
bottom of stairs struck
up the "Queen's Anthem"
when we shook hands
5with his Highness - We
told him that I was com-
missioned to deliver the
Thule as a present from
the Bombay Govern-
10-ment but a few days
were required to clean
& repair her. Then we
should get up a trial
trip if he would come
15on board - to this he
assented - on drinking
coffee & sherbet we came
away & the band struck
up the "British Grenadiers"
20called on Mr Shultz
acting for Dr Seward
I did not accept his

0067
mediation as political
agent because he is a
foreigner =


He says Baron van
5der Decken
is murdered
His bloody clothes were seen
by some Mahometans
who were allowed to
escape - Dr Link ran into
10the water and tried to escape
but was slain - They
spared one light coloured
man on his repeating
part of the Koran - (Dr
15Seward
is at Seyschelles)
The Baron was said not
to be cautious and rather
liked to drive all before
him - Poor fellow an
20untimely end - the river
is said to wind so much
at times as scarcely to
allow a long steamer to
go up - He went 300 miles about


0068

19th February 1866 -
Captain Brebner left in
the Nadir Shah at noon
Sultan offered a money
5present through Sheikh
Sulieman
which was
decidedly declined -


20th This morning
the Sultan goes out
10to buy the Thule =


22d He sent some one
else - He seems too feeble
& irresolute to do anything
He is like all Easterns
15profuse of promises


8th March. Sultan
sent Thule over to
examine a new bay
nearly opposite to
20this and Sheikh
Sulieman
tells us

0069
that he intends to build
a custom House there
and get his way at
the spot = They have
5difficulties when it is
embarked elsewhere
Bought two camels
one for 20 the for 32
dollars


10[10th]

Bought another camel
and a white Donkey
of Muscat


case of a man a
Monyar who ran
15away from this &
was sold at Muscat
his Zanzibar owner
getting information
thereof sent an order
20to sell him - He was
taken to Calcutta &

0070
becoming sick was
deserted by his master
there - when he got
out of hospital sailed
5in P. & O ships for six
years - then coming
back worked to Fraeser
& co for 18 months but
was again paid sold
10to Captain Abdullah
2 months ago - Sultan
says he purchased him
from said Abdullah
& will give him over
15to Consul but will
not say he has done
wrong


[                ]

0071

19th March 1866 - sailed
from Zanzibar on
board H M -S Penguin
Lieutt Garforth - with
5a dhow having camels
mules donkies &
buffaloes on board -
Paid 180 dollars for it
Reached Rovuma
10bay
on 22d and
anchored in 5 fathoms
went up left bank &
examined gullies to
see if camels can
15cross them - very
difficult, so told the
master of the dhow
to go up along right
bank which always

0072
was deep - on 23d he
warped up some dis-
tance - We then went
to examine further up
5on left bank & foun
it utterly impracticable
from thickness of
jungle & Mangrove
swamps full of
10gullies & roots plant
in excessively stick
mud - The dhow went
up about a mile on
the right bank and
15grounded while we
were examining
the left bank and
getting a Hippopotamus
calf shot by Mr Fan[ ]

0073
in one of the small gullies
Went over to dhow
& found she had grounded
and could proceed
5no further - Went in-
land from dhow
& found mangroves
quite as bad as other
side roots sticky
10mud & gullies without
end - s{T}hought of
landing at point
where Mr May observed
and then wading the
15camels up on the
sands in river
but it occurred to
me that if that should
fail we should be
20fairly jammed

0074
and obliged to leave
camels altogether -
went to Penguin &
Lieutt Garforth agreed
5that it would be
better to go to Kilwa
Captain of Dhow
strongly recom-
-mended Mikindany
10in which bay there is
a fine harbour calle
Pemba completely
shut in by land -
on west side the
15seaface rises up at
once from the water
to about 200 feet
the slope down being
clothed in rich

0075
green foliage very
pleasant to behold -
went over to sirkar
of Synd Majid - we
5were landed on N.
point of the gap in
got out camels &
hired a house - then
Penguin left us
10the Lieutt behaved
most kindly &
liberally


Kalane name of man
to whom I am to pay
15rent
of 4 dollars a
month = the hill John
is the landmark in
making the harbour



0076

28th March 1866
The Arab who acts as
soldier here for the
Sultan came today
5with a man who is
said to know all the
Interior - and who
was offered if I shoul
pay him handsome-
10ly beforehand to be
a sort of guide - an
ill looking fellow
I replied that I wante
porters and if these
15could not be had
I would go on
with the men I
had - After a

0077
long talk we decided
nothing - They have
no cattle here nor
at Magaa{ao} which is
5said to be six hours
North of this - all
sadl{d}les finished


30 March 1866 - Plenty
of game in country
10adjacent but no
Tsetse - They have not
tried cattle - having
been here only five
or six years here
15They know the Tsetse
on Rovuma -


We have several
times been asked by
the half-caste Arabs

0078
for brandy which the
drink in secret but
may have not made it
an article of commerce
5as we have done on
the West Coast -
no carriers to be had
Sirkar will give two
men to shew road =
10refuse rent of house
for things we leave
behind


[31st]

Excercising camels
two very stubborn
15ruin was a mosque


[                ]



0079
5 bags of beads
5 boxes instruments
    books clothes -
1 bag bedding
51 box soap 1 Do Tea -
15 bales cloth #camels
1 box preserved meats
1 bag coffee -
1 box candles
107 boxes ammunition
15 small bales cloth
1 sugar - cooking utensil



Camels carry all the
15bales -




3 bags clothes -
4 instruments
1 medicine box
201 ammunition


0080
chaza = oyster
makararu another shellfish
eaten - good pia

John = {figure} the direction
5hill W N W of entrance

        Distances
Makonde
Kuaridelwi = 2 Kuaridea
[1] Jantulo
10 [3] Ligongonda
Lehuma

Mgg{a}o is said to only
six hours north
of Kindany harbour


15 [                ]

0081
{figure}
0082
Paid Antonio Rs 14 -
  soap                 Rs 4
candles & serge £5-3-8

advanced to Johanna
5men by Captain Garforth
  £29-4 & repaid by me

        15{0} R. Ghee at Kindan
advanced Wikatn{d}ani 4/
for gun mending

10 [                ]

0083
mill - 2
Big beads 500 2 50
Buffalo house 35
soap - 1 box 2.50

5

1100 = 12
1112 = 18
  138 - 63


101250      81 = 1291 = 31
26[  ]{89} = 8254 Rs

on second coffe 6
account sugar 3.50
R 2776-5 Brandy 11      
15men 20

Koroje bin
Volamadasa


0084
2 frasilah beads [  ]
  26.75
20 pieces cloth 46.25
20 Do 46.25
520 Kaniki 46.25
20 Do 28.50
samesame 5¼ 70.25
Golaleia 5¼ 5{6}1.69
unduo24.16
10Langĩo 5¼ 49.88
Powder - 4.
Balls     63
2 guns 6


15Buggalo 100
food 86.57
presents 22.50
porters   -- 200
food of Do   7

0085
{figure}
[                ]


0086
Colobus Guereza = Tippet monkey
the Polume - or Mbega of E As{f}rica



Tangoe = Honey bird
5  Sakirdornis melanota = black
backed goose

{figure}

Leave with Dr Seward
one hundred Pounds
10£100 - to send buffaloes
& other matters
12 March 1866 =




Kerje to send 300 lbs
15beads - 500 egg beads
& 80 pieces cloth
to Thani bin Suelum
at Ujiji - Then his Sepoy
to come back to Said bin
20Salem
at Unyembe



0087
{figure}
cousins are Bari
& not marrigiable



5neiche{es} not marriagi
able = Bokaru

Bariao Do Do
Nkamoane
grandneices Do D
10mbui{e}a meje{u}ala may
marry or be married
but the blood relation
ship is finished

[                ]


0088

a large peace & opposite
shore just visible in a
clear day - Salim bin
Abdullah
was his Arab
5guide thither - Mafite are
there = Kingomanga
carried him in a cot
His village is Mamemba
Roscher left goods with
10Likoomboo a chief at
Rovuma & was going
for them -


Mukokota name of
murderer


0089

Dr Roscher was killed
at a village called
Kisoongoona 3 days [      ]{to}
the North East of Lake
5Nyassa
- 19th Novr reached L.
He remained at Nussewa
on the borders of the Lake
nearly 4 months - The
chief is Makawa - to
10him Roscher's servant
returned - He gave an
escort to the district
chief Kingomanga ^ a mogace 4
days
from the Lake
15who went with 50 followers
Kingomanga & Makawa
sent all the goods &
murderers to Kilwa
Roscher lodged in
20Marvole's house at
Nussewa


0090
Amoda 10 Feby Rs 10
Suzi         Do          Rs 10
being February & ½ March

Juma & Wikatani 1 R. each
5Gave Chitko & Dungudza
12 days provisions &
1 Rupee passage to
Mosambique 11 Feby /66

Amoda         R 1 + 1
10Suzi for Dobi       R 1
Suzi 4 [ ] for        1 musket
Suzi for stealing to pay
10 Rupees -

Amoda 1 yd. - 1 Shilling
15Suzi blue jumper 6/
eight Johanna men
Jumpers                 6/

Nassick boys each 6/
Paid fine by Johanna man   2/

0091
Paid to Theodor Schulby [  ]
at Zanzibar £27-4
for keep of buffaloes
at Zanzibar

510th Feby 1866
Paid Havildar for 3 days
for grass to Do & mules R 2

for other five{six} days Rs 3
for feed of cattle   R 5

10 [                ]

{figure}


0092

Hamid bin Sulayyam
arab of the Dhow on Lake
Tanganyika




5

Khamis bin Juma another
who knew him well but
was East of Lake
Uvira
last point of Arabs N.
S. of Lake is land of Marunga


10

Ubwari island
Uvinza salt comes from
Wabembe = man eaters
Uvira - stalwart sons of
15Sultan Maruta





0093
Morofi = sawfish is said
to eat Mabande a spears
of grass growing in wet
places = saws it through

5Chinyessi = electric fish
eats Makamba or craw
fish.

Dōwe = Mchura or its
own tail which grows again -

10Colour of Dolphin fins
bright blue - body light
green - causes fascin-
-ation in flying fish
as cobra's hood does
15a fish if once it comes
in its sphere cannot
fly scarcely

zikombo other side or
country

0094

26 Decr 1865 Sent off
to ship by Dubash


10 Loads of calico
8 ---     of coloured and
5                woolen cloths

18 boxes provisions


36 in all



1010{1} bags of beads sent
3 --     shot -
6 boxes                29th



{figure}
0095
No 3 remains
2d N 1 goes - medium
box -
Revolver
essence of beef - compas

5Left with Mr Francis
3 tin boxes (clothing)
1 wooden box
(Microscope)

1 medicine box
101 box magic Lantern
11 saws
4 axes
1 wooden box - books





15{figure}
0096
No 2 to go to Zanzibar
travelling clothes
& some books - mbane
inside -

5No 1 - Hammock
of Ms Alington -
6
s{c}hecked shirts

Mosquito curtains
needles looking glasses
10coloured woolen 4
[4] roles -
knives - silver
spoons -
looking
glasses -
iron spoons
1 towel = Preseved tin kirnes
15-files
-
Lancaster gun &
powder horn -
shot belt
shells -- bullet moulds
Foolscap paper = piece of
red striped stuff =
shawl

0097
No 4 box to be left
at Ms Tracey's contains
Uniform - black dress
coat & Trowsers - New
5blue coat & checkd
trowsers -
1 pr boots

No 5 contains -
Uniform hat - paper
flannel & other shirts
10stockings - boots 1 pr
microscope box

0098

8th Paid Livery Company
for buggy hire R. 24




Psylli of Strabo whose
5bodies were supposed
to have antidote to poison
of serpents


In India = Saadi




10        Ben Habibs Journal
mentions Umarungu
R.
flowing into S. End of
Lake = He went to Peto -

Karembo = Makunga
15Karunguesi
=

    Charéka name of Cazembe
R. Ragira flows past
Katanga & joins Luapula

country Buira =
20Makololo Ujenje

0099

Speke says page 165 of
His Journal - On starting
to the rescue, my companion
complained of the shock
5his nerves recieved since
the Somali encounter,
and this appeared to
affect him during the
whole of this journey"
10he evinces an evident
dislike to Burton and
did not hesitate to call
him a coward, but this
does not justify Speke
15in stealing a march on
Burton by publication
of his Journal after
promising not so to do


                                        DL


20

Nsango Divination


0100
native measures
Gora = 15 cloths of 4 cubits each
(Kinike Indigo dyed stuff)
Sahari = Dubuani &c
5Barsate tablecloths of various
colours

cloth of 4 cubits = a Shukka
Dhote = piece of 12 fathoms{feet}
or 8 cubits = 8 + 18 = 16{4}4
10= to 12 feet or 6{4} yards
= 2 fathoms

Kitindi = brass rings

"To save repetition, I
may as well mention thatthe
15fact that neither Captain
Burton
nor myself were
able to converse in any
African language until
we were close to the coast on
20the return Journey -" foot
note page 199 Speke's Journal


0101

4{7} Novr


Paid for 800 pages
of map blanks 10 Rs 8



5Drew to self 20 Rupees


Paid for calico 259-8
Rupees - to Nicol & Co

2 Decr To Do R 260
10--         --                          5R34
To Nicol & Co calico   500 Rs
Sundries       ----             10
-                         ----           10
-                         ----           10
15self -                                   24
    watches repair         19
Paid to ColMajor Muler
for shoes 24 pai R 120

at 5 R per pair
20for Tin                    R: 5
Dec 8th Drew Currt 12100 R
Sundries         R 46-13 2

0102
{figure}
0103
{figure}
0104
1st Octr
Suzi 12 Rupees
Amoda 12 Do
Manta - 30
5

16th
Mantu 15 R.
Dungodza 10


10to self             --- 20
washing 10


Amoda 55
Monita 5 5
15

Amoda 6

0105

27 Sepr 1865


Paid Wikatani & Chuma
2 months & a half - 12-3 or
Rs 25 ---
5+




{figure}


{figure}
0106
        Fare to Paris #£ 5 3 4
£ 2 11 8
        Luggage --- £ 1 8 6
£ 4 0 2
5self         £ 0-5 = £ 3-5-0
Marseilles £ 4-
Hotel Paris - £ 2 8
& Marseilles £ 1 10
20 Aug £ 11 30
10medicine box



#26th Sept-r Paid on
my own private acct-
for painting steamer
15food for men & to the
Bombay Government
609-3 Rupees = and
wages of men
500 Rupees -/ 100 Rupees 289 Sepr


0107

May 9th 1865 / £ 121 17
Paid to Macdougall &co
clothing         £ 11 18
29 May to
5Mr Joseph Starkey
for caps & belt - £ 3 14 6
20 Aug. [ ]           £ 11 3   
                                £ 148 2 76

10Eitre Luggage
to Bombay £     9-14-9
stewards fees £ 1 10
Cairo Hotel            16
Suez Hotel               8 6
15                        £ 160 12 9
To Mr Young   105          
for clothing £ 265 12 9
Magic Lanter
watches &c


0108

9th August 1865
To P & O Company
for passage from
Marseilles to
5Bombay         £ 82-10
Stereoscope =       12
11th August
Bought of John Searle
one Leathern trunk
10for Journey         £3-5
Stationary -         £ 11-
Drew for
Journey through
France & to Bombay £ 25-



15Expenses             £ 121-17


0109
4 August 1865 Mem.
[to] Bind Obsn books
candles - Lantern
sextant stand
5watch - Bombay
Dentist =
[sell] steamer - compass &
ruler -
Beads string
Tea = coffee - sugar
10preserved meats - sardines
Tarpauling -
kettle. saucepan -
Frying pan -
Flour
0110
0111
{figure}
0112
0113


Field Diary II
David Livingstone


Date of composition: 4 April - 14 May 1866
Repository: David Livingstone Centre, Blantyre, United Kingdom
Shelfmark: 1124
Clendennen & Cunningham number(s): Field Diaries, 015
Digital edition and date: Livingstone Online, 2017
Publisher: University of Maryland Libraries, College Park, MD, USA
Project ID: liv_000002
Critical encoding: Adrian S. Wisnicki, Megan Ward, Heather F. Ball, Christopher Lawrence, Kate Simpson, Jared McDonald, Angela Aliff, Ashanka Kumari
Encoding dates: 2014-06-03, 2014-06-08, 2014-06-12, 2014-06-14, 2014-06-15, 2014-06-19, 2014-06-21, 2014-06-29, 2014-07-03, 2014-07-04, 2014-07-05, 2014-07-11, 2014-08-01, 2014-08-20, 2014-08-25, 2014-10-04, 2014-10-15, 2014-10-31, 2014-11-22, 2015-12-15, 2016-12-06




0001

II.


0002
0003

Rough notes which
are the basis of the
entries in the 'Last
Journals
' There is
5lillte verbal similarity
& there is a good deal
in the Journal that is
not here. Dates too
are, wiltin limits,
10somewhat different &
there are omissions but
not of any great
importance. These have
been pencilled where
15noticed.



0004

4th April 1866. At
Kindany - about to
start across to the
village called Pemba
5& there arrange the
burdens before
starting - a buffaloe
gored a donekey &
his bowels being
10out - shot him &
cut of points of
the buffaloe's horns
on the principle of
locking stable door
15after steed is stolen
camels sank up to
their bodies in level
level bare crusted spots



0005
1   Mtawatawe
2   Maromba
3   Janga
4   Ngomano
55   Vangindo

The above are
mentioned as stages
above Nyamatolole
or Mtawatawa
10rapids
where we
turned on Rovuma
The sirkar was
profuse in professing
but did not do
15anything - He

0006
got frightened when
we set our gaurd
& collected all his
men at night with
5matches lighted - we
explained & left our
boat & boats cargo
with him -


2 boxes Flour
101 --         Tea
1     sardines
1     boiled mutton
1     cartridges - (1200)
1     Rockets & long lights
156 bags beads -

The sardines Tea & small
cask pork to be sent
to Zanzibar = the beads
& ammunition kept


0007

5th got luggage in
order and on the
7{6}th made a short
march to a village
5at South end of the
Lakelet -


7th started at 5 AM
& got camels, buffaloes
& donkies loaded -
10a couple miles
off we came to a
village the headmen
of which pressed us
to stop but being
15informed that the
next village could
be reached in [      ]{two}
hours
we went on

0008
a pretty straight wend
in a valley from
which rose well
wooded low heights
5of some 200 or 300
feet
- The path was
in dense grass over
which the camels
alone could see - Trees
10plentiful & of good
size - We went on
6 instead of two
hours
& had to cut
down overhanging
15branches of Bamboo
which though offering
no obstruction &
rather an agreable
shade to boot pass [      ]

0009
could not be passed
by our tall animals
We got the last of
men in to a village
5called (Nyangedi)
where we spent
Sunday 8th. all
around would in
India be called
10Dense jungle - wild
Dogs and antelopes
abound & here on
the evening of the
7th April 1866
15buffaloes & camels
made acquaintance
ship with Tsetse


0010

Bōto = bale
Masudi -
Bahari -
Usene - box
5Bakari - bale
Salem       Do
Suliman     Do
Kombo - semsem
Umari - big bale
10Urindi       Do
Juma
Umari (2)
Masudi       Do
Muftaha       Do
15    Musa           Do
Bonale my bag



names of carriers hired
at Nyañgedi on Sunday
(8th)
station (to ease the
20cattle), at 2 yards to Nuri
a day & a half distant



9th ^ April the country rather
curious in being
without stones on
25surface - deep rich
soil - covered with

0011
dense vegetation and
a good deal of it
Bamboo which
entails considerable
5use of axes by us
the paths are good
for country purposes
being cleared of
all obstructions
10for foot passengers
but the height of
the camels makes
us clear higher up
than the people need
15our path today &
part of yesterday
lay along a valley

0012
with slopes on each
side of 100 or 150
feet
quite jungles
From Nyangedi on
5wards the people
are all Makonde
and seem great
cultivators for
export by the Arabs
10of Kindany - the
names of people
shew much inter
course with Arabs
large gardens of
15Mapira or dura
and Indian corn
& cassava are

0013
seen on the slopes -
The people much
more taken up
with the camels
5& buffaloes than
with me - Ali
a good looking
coast Arab guides
us to Ndonde
10for 20 dollars. He
has a friend by way
of dealing with the
people who all
speak Swaheli -


15

My own people
not well broken
in yet often skulk


0014

10th April 1866
After almost 3 hours
actual travel
we
arrived at Nuri
5a few huts among
extensive gardens
a thick crop of trees
springs up when
a garden is deserted
10and the same sort
but grown must
be cut down before
a garden can be
made - the Makonde
15have no paramount
chief - all are very
independent within

0015
bearing - foreheads
narrow & low but
compact - heads
small - alae nasi
5broad - hips ordinarily
thick - legs ^ & body well formed
hands & feet small - colour
dark & light brown


At Nuri on 10th April
101866


{figure}


0016

Ishmael fever & vomiting
R cal & qu{ar}omatic p. stopp[  ]
vomiting - Purg. Jal & cal
11 got cal. & quinine tongue fu[ ]r Pandich Rum much 10th
5got pill cal. & Res. Jal.
11 better - quinine Sakiska - fever &
purging - quinine &
morphia


G{J}ainach Gun much
10got cul & quinine
feels better Recovered - Rep. (much better
Ramnuch Lucknuch{k}
got fever at 6 P.M
cal & quinine - purges & vomits
15Quinine 12th Nahunoa - Johanna man
cal. & quinine - purges - Rx
cal & quinine Musa cough w ^ better fever
Richard Isenberg - cal &
quinine - still headache
20better but weak O --- headache had
cal & Jalap


0017

Shah Malim = headache &
fever pil cal. & jal. Recovered




Saddle with 2 bales & 2 powder
5case fra camel with sore on
thigh - [ ]2 bales 2 br

2         th Tea box on big brown
3 Friesien saddle blind eye - w
boils on Mrieut

104 - thin scraggy - crooked saddle
5        Bobery wallah - box Cane
6      Do big musty sepoy bag 4 bales
& my - [      ]{tools} shot bag

[                ]

0018
√ Somari 15 Men of Nuri on
11th April

Rupimi 13
Boamusa 10
5Monyesa 8
Salem 1
Monyamas{z}i 7
Hamesi
Monyadade 11
10Asani 9
Mohamadi 12


Masuri 1
Suluman 2
15Salem 2d 14
Katembe 3
Sah{d}ke 4
Bahari 5
Stomali 6


0019

11th April, at Tandahal{r}a.
We came only about 4
miles
- eleven of the
men had fever for which
5I gave medicine last
night & ^ today and all are better
though not quite well -
course along what seems
to be ancient river beds
10but we are still ascending
as seen where water flows
They paths are ^ in wady's in a
rich fertile country - a
good deal of sand in
15soil but very heavy
crops of maize - dura
& cassava are grown
The bamboo's are cleared
off & burned as manure
20Iron is scarce for many
appear with sharpened
sticks for spears - but

0020
in some spots where an
ooze issues from the
ground. Its red with
oxide of iron - & no
5springs have yet been
seen - people trust to
wells - not so much
cutting to clear the paths
today - grass about
10knee high. The intense
#eagerness with which
the people listen to the
accordion is very
interesting - No demands
15have been made as yet
but each of the head men
with whom we spent
the night gave a present
of fowls & maize &
20watermelons which I
returned with a fathom
of calico & pleased them


0021

The Makonde dialect is
quite different from the
Swaheli. I hire men to
c{c}arry at the rate of 2 cubits
5a day - This is not high
seeing we are so near the
coast & the carriers assist
in cutting the path clear
All have been quite civil as
10yet


{figure}

12th April 1866 on
starting this morning
we found the bush so
15dense that as the people
thought there "was no
cutting of it." We cut
half a mile & when going
forward to see the termi
20-nation I found that
the thicket stretched
some th[    ] miles


0022

The trees are not large
many might be called
s{m}ere poles with scrub-
but the crop is densely
5planted every where
save where bamboos
have starved other
ligneous plants out
Then they are intertwined
10with climbing plants
like a ship's ropes in
thickness - One species
is a flattened ribbon
of about 2 inches thick
15by ¼ to ½ an inch thick
along the middle of its
flattened sides every
few inches rises a
a brush ^ tuft of sharp
20thorns


0023

{figure} It turns
            on itself
            at sharpp
        angles and hangs
5from tree to tree and its
tangled limbs straggle
out at{on} every side like
so many tape worms -
another climber is small
10but very tough & not
to be broken with the
fingers - a third is
like a young tree but
has the straggling habit
15of its class and where
you cut through its
tough woody stem
of from one to two
inches in diameter
20you find that it

0024
has its length 20 or 40
yards still to be disposed
of - then a fourth climber
resembles a leaf of aloes
5twisted in as fantastic
an way as shavings
from the plane of a
carpenter - It is dark
{figure} green in colour and
10when the bark is
removed beautifully
striated inside - a
fifth is a thin string
with a succession
15of large knobs on it
each seems a
thorn - a sixth
is a cord covered
all over with hookd
20spines like our sweet
briar but woefully

0025
tough


Another {figure}
The woods are still - few
new birds appear - this
5is probably owing to the
want of running water
If you hear a bird in the
forest it makes you
wonder


10

When I found that it
would be a tedious
affair to cut a way
for myself & offered
2 cubits to any of
15Monyadade's men
who would act as
sappers - six jolly young
men were glad of the
job - (more offered-)
20and they made the

0026
path clear for camels
in a way that did
the heart good to see -
They use a tomahawk
5{figure} with great skill &
speed - climbers &
young trees melted like
a cloud before the
sun - a long vista of
10light soon appeared
where the vision before
was confined to 20
or 30 yards
- they worked
with a will - a slope
15took us down to a
fley as the Cape folks
call a ˄ flat hollow with or
without water - here
there was water with
20tall grass hiding it
from the eye -


0027

Resting here a little we
had another brisk spell
with our merry wood
-men - and then arrived
5at an old man's village
on the Southern slope
of the Rovuma - We
now got a glance of
the country - It is hilly
10forest all dark green
at present - & only one
or two sterculias had
changed their colour to
yellow & diversified
15the scene - grassy glades
were few & again the
grass was as tall as
when we first plunged
into it South of its
20harbour Kindany -

0028
The old man ˄ Monyinkō presented
a goat and I gave
him 2 fathoms of
calico - to the other
5headmen I gave one
fathom or 2 yards in
return for a basket
of ˄ maize & a couple fowls - they
demanded nothing
10I employed some of
the Makonde as carriers
at the rate - a large one
- of 2 cubits or 1 yard
of calico per day -
15for this we can have
as many as we
choose - the wood
cutters desired to be
employed another
20day in order to
have the 2 yards

0029
which make a dress
"Robo" - The tall ones
had exhausted their
strength by the spirits
5of yesterday - the
shorter worker briskly
still. Meat feeding
seems essential to
long continued ex-
10-ertion in all - The
chinese may be
exceptions to this -


Sepoys rice done
last night - say they
15came not to eat
but to die with me
and if they got
some maize - or
Joari they would
20be content to

0030
follow wherever I
may lead - It is said
that we can get plenty
of food in front


5

13th Saw rocks of grey
sandstone probably
of coal - & Rovuma
in distance - Reached
after a little cutting
10a village on a height
called Didi Chombokea - all
the hollows seem to
be escued - we had
11 cases of fever by
15sleeping in a low
lying place against
our will


Informed tonight that
Ndonde had been visited
20by the Mazitu and

0031
had lost everything five
months ago - we could
not get a word of this
at Zanzibar - Every one
5carefully avoided any
particulars - "I shall
give you a letter to my
friends" with this we
were got off - The
10Arabs are all very jealous
of our going into the
country


14 April 1866 found
about 2 miles of
15thicket to cut through
hired men and got
down to sleep by the
Rovuma opposite
some very red cliffs


0032

15th Spent Sunday on
banks of Rovuma - some
of Ndonde's men passed
on their way down to
5a port near Rovuma's
mouth with dried
fish & rice in their canoe
they confirm report of
the Mazitu having swept
10over the country and thus
have left no food in it -


16th along Rovuma
for some 7 miles - the
sun is very sharp
15indeed - it scorches -
All Sepoys had fever except
Pando - cured them w
calomel & quinine -
when they recovered
20the Johanna men, and
Nassick boys took it -
they complain of headach

0033
tongue is clean usually or
rather having a white
washed out appearance
the calomel & quinine acts
5on bowels and tongue
then fouls - I sometimes
add resin of jalap to
clear out but it is the
quinine which cures
10the calomel seems to
increase the power of
the quinine.


17th came on yesterday
to a village on the slope
15down to Rovuma - An
old doctor with a foot
wanting gave me two
large bags of uncleaned rice
and his wife cleaned them
20for us - The Sepoys have
too much luggage - both
buffaloes & donkeys are
distressed by t[  ] miles to

0034
Bariwara - name of vil.
Fundindumbo of old
doctor headman.


Went on about 3 hours
5cutting again in the
thickets between the
Makonde gardens - We
are led off our line a
little I believe to come
10near a village of Ali's
A fine country to the eye
the rice which seems
much cultivated among
maize and sorghum
15is pining for want
of water - sleep on a
slope of a valley about
2 or 3 miles from
Rovuma - many
20of the people much
tattooed in wavy

0035
lines - The population
seems very considerable
though really little of the
country is cultivated -
5no cattle - only goats &
fowls -


18th April 1866 After
making a camels saddle
we came on in rather
10a zigzag course cutting
a clearance for the
camels in many parts
The guide Ali misled us
to one of his numerous
15houses and being
charged with this at the
beginning of the deviation
he stoutly denied it "that
was the road to Ndonde"
20and we were led the
right way - Today we

0036
had to return back to the
path and he took upon
himself the aggrieved
tone of one injured - This
5made our actual
distance again very
small probably not
more than 6 or 7 miles
though we started at
1010-15 & continued at
it till 5 PM --
through woods &
gardens - but water
is scarce - the stumps
15in the gardens are a
trouble


19th April 1866 - We
have been plagued by
being led up one of the
20big spurs that come

0037
out of the table land as
hills and then down
into the valley beyond
the slope is usually
5covered with a dense
jungle and involves
much cutting - To
avoid this up & down
work I objected to go
10down today preferring
to send for water - We
are on the plateau now
& tasted water of a
low temperature today
15for the first time since
we left Kindany -
Where radiation goes
on as on the plateau
it is usually deliciously
20cool - We made but a

0038
short march six miles
or so but all in the right
direction - Ali seems to
think that we must be
5led from one water to
another but now we
shall get on better -


People very rude
especially the women
10and many of the men
profusely tattooed -
teeth sharpened to points
they say for beauty


Found Tsetse biting
15buffaloes again


20th April 1866 - Two
camels were allowed
to trespass on a man's
tobacco patch & spoiled
20it - We had to pay one
yard of calico for it

0039
then came on down to
level of Rovuma & cut
or rather widened the
path all the way - In
5actual distance we did
not do two miles - The
camels very tired - on
ascending the opposite height
I decided to remain as
10the air is pleasanter
than on the lower levels
we are close to the River -
the great sand banks are
in many cases bare -
15The Makonde very eager
to engage in cutting a
way for us at one yard
a day - and they work
hard & well - whittling
20down the climbers w
great dexterity - they are
accustomed to clear
their garden of them

0040
they do it merrily too
for every now & then
one bursts forth with
a cheerful shout - We
5are quite lost in the
gigantic grasses of the
lower lands - so that
to take angles & directions
is out of the question
10Elephants & hippopotami
and pigs are the chief
game & we see none
Every headman
[ ]rofesses to be a
15doctor - Komuaha to slep


21st April 1866 We
left Komuaha and
with Wrongwe hill on our
left we went on cutting
20all the way to valley
Mehambwe
to spend

0041
Sunday 22 - all glad it
has come -


Met some men from
Ndonde's who say that
5the Mazite are still in
the country eating the
cassava of the people -
they can easily cross the
Rovuma high up as it
10is a mere mountain
torrent there - The features
of these men are rounded
like the Batoka - faces
deeply tattooed - an[ ]
15all front
part of bodies
{figure}

0042
when saluting they catch
each others hands &
say Ai! Ai! I am
glad that no misunderstanding
5has yet arisen between
them and us -


In coming up the hill
Wrongwe
a camel fell
and rolled over - We
10took off his burden &
turned him round &
lifted him - He was much
hurt


The main rock of this
15part of the country from
the point where we
joined the Rovuma to
this is coarse grey
sandstone capped
20with a ferruginous
sandstone conglomer
-ate - no fossils seen


0043

22d April 1866 - In
Mehambwe valley -
A one eyed ill looking old
fellow came about us
5He was the instigator of
the attack on us in our
former visit and to
him I gave cloth to


        prevent a collision
1023d said nothing to him -
Juvi = leopard - They{e}
Makonde take off skin
and burn body in fire
We passed one this
15morning which had
been so treated - the
reason given is that
it eats men therefore
its flesh cannot be
20eaten - this shews

0044
the opposite of an inclina-
tion to cannibalism -
came along the Northern
highlands near the base
5we attempted to go on
top to camels could
not ascend a steep
space near summit -


Found fossil trees
10on surface - Leaves
beginning to shew
yellow tints of autumn


Buffaloes bitten by
Tsetse again - they
15shew no signs of
being affected like
oxen & have lost
flesh only as one
might expect from
20hard work - The

0045
camels are more
affected but whether
by Tsetse or labour
I cannot say - One
5mule seems dull &
out of spirits - I sus
-pect the work as the
cause


a carrier stole the
10shirt & powder of a
Johanna man - Ali
went off by night
caught him - made
him pay handsome
15ly for the theft and
came back early this
morning -


24th It was a pity that
anyone was hit when
20the Makonde fired on us

0046
as the friends will not
look on us as innocent
though the attack was
wholly unprovoked by
5us and we fired strictly
in self defence.


The low lands generally
are uncultivated - This
is probably from their
10unhealthiness - The
meadow land now
stretching along the
North bank about
2 miles wide is without
15an inhabitant - We
see but few marks of
game either - pigs are
the chief animals -
very few birds about
20and only near water


0047

We did not make 5
miles
in a straight
line today - 3 sepoys
fell out sick - They
5are speedily cured by
a dose of Calomel &
quinine but again
relapse - then the
Johanna men have
10a turn of it and last
of all the Nassick
boys - but we are
favoured in losing
none yet -


15

I have altered all
the saddles & made
them so that they
dont hurt the camels

0048
nearly so much as
at first - {figure} We
have showers tonight
all are under cover in
5sheds or screens --


a good deal of
Rice is cultivated
among the maize
and dura - This
10shews a moist
climate
even on
the hills for there
the gardens are
situated -


15

#     a kind of potato
first seen by me
at Nambwe & all
called Mamt{and}are


0049

25 April 1866 Had
a little rain last
night. seven sepoys
ill of a fever - day
5gloomy. We are in a
forest and all is
damp


a serpent bit "Jack"
one of the dogs above the
10left eye - Chuma alone
saw it - The upper eyelid
swell up very quickly
but next day all
inflammation was gone
15The quantity of poison
injected must have
been very small --
came along the side of
the valley as our
20course has been in dense
tall grass with ups & down

0050
to which the camels object
some stand doggedly refusing
to step into a gulley of
less than two feet depth
5and easy slope - and
their pace is distressingly
slow. arrived at a
valley near the end of
the plateau as seen from
10Rovuma called Narri
and there resolve to
wait on the .


26th April 1866 and
purchase food as there
15is much hunger in front
in consequence of the
prolonged raid of the
so called Mazite - the
people all civil and
20eager traders with their
meal, fowls, eggs, honey
women very naked


0051

Took obsns ʘ Time & alt
Mer. Lat. 10° 54' 48" S
purchase plenty of
meal - one camel
5lamed by beating with
a stick - a sepoy the
defaulter (Pando) -
Reproved him and
have to leave the
10camel with the
headman at Narri


box x Nakochindorè - 8 B. pepier
bale x Tetamwa
box x chirombwe e mwene flower
15box x Nachihumo
bale x Chitete
bale x Ntima kirenga
meal x Tuknodil
0052
Mapuru meal x Nyamwewe
        x Ma{Ba}kari Tea box & bead bag
        x Dinganya sugar
        x Navichindeke coffee & bag
5        x Kahitane
        Nambeha's men - camel
        left with him



28thApril vil. ilaha
We passed end of hills
10on North apparently
they still continue on
South - made a good
march through field
of sorghum all of it
15very high 12 to 13
feet
- many people
running to see the
camels & buffaloes

0053
which are the great
attraction - rains fall
every few hours
&
delay us as we
5cannot put our
things up wet without
mildewing them


People all listen to
the accordion with
10intense delight. They
would afford a study
to a painter when in
the attitudes of intense
eagerness they assume


15

country scattered
over with petrified
wood in fragments
& blocks - with quartz,
gravel & shimpall

0054
a gap in the Southern
table land gives passage
to a river arising in
a lakelet which may
5be three miles across
as a man cannot be
distinguished at the
distance by the keen
eyes of the natives - It
10is called Nangadi &
abounds in large fish
The people are Mabiha
a little further up is
Konayumba also
15famous for fish
Kimbembe is the chief
& further still on same
side are Matambwe
who speak a different
20dialect but under-
standable by Makon[  ]

0055
Nachuhu vil. at
which we arrived to
spend Sunday 29th is
nearly opposite - S.
5Ali draws a very
dark picture of the
Makonde - They know
nothing of God - of
future state or of
10any religion - no
Arab has ever tried
to convert them - only
when slaves are taken
to the coast they are
15circumcised so as
to be clean & some
of them pray - He
says they know
no Muavi or ordeal

0056
but blame witches
for disease & death --
remove a village if a
death occurs in it -
5An awe has come
over them all at
our approach and
those who are notorious
for fines & mulcts
10have said nothing
though our beasts
have broken a good
deal of the cornstalks
they are said to fear
15the English - They
sell each other to the
Arabs - answer to
my prayers


0057

29th April 1866. at
Nachuchu. After
worship tried to say
a few words to the
5Makonde by the
Nassick boys all
pretended that they
could not speak
their tongue though
10we are in their
own country (Ndonde)
where they were born
and they converse
on ordinary topics


15{figure}
0058
{figure}


29th the reverence
with which the
5Makonde view us
I ascribe to that
influence which
I besought The
almighty to grant
10I regret that I
cannot speak
to the heathen that
good of his name
I feel they deserve


0059

Went and saw a
specimen of the
gum copal tree -
It drops on the ground {figure}
5Leaves in pairs
glossy green with
the veins a little
      raised on face
          & back - The
10      bark light ash
          colour - tree
            large - small
      branches
        diverge from
15              same points
{figure}

0060
The gum is digged
for in vicinity of the
modern trees in
the belief that the
5ancestors of these
same dropped gum
unheeded when it
had no purchaser
In digging said one
10none may be found
on one day but
God (Mungu) may
give it the next
to this all Makonde
15asserted shewing
a belief to which
they were this morning
denied


0061

The Makonde get the
gum in large quanities
This attracts traders who
remain in the country
5a long time & marry
but do not teach
their b{r}eligion - They
despise the Makonde
but many light
10coloured persons &
the hair of others
shew that intimate
relations have sub-
-sisted - Hernia Hu-
15-moralis abounds -
no reason for lip
ring but beauty &
fashion


0062

30th April 1866 at
Kunyane to which we
made a very short
march - camels getting
5weaker & full of ulcers
possibly old dhow
bruizes now working
out. People here sent
word that they were
10cleaning rice for us
but when we came
we found it to be
false, as they sent
for some we waited
15till they pounded it
and will sleep here
We get the fish called
Pende on Zambesi
a mullet?

0063
The crops of sorghum are
very good but not
yet being ripe the people
complain of hunger-
5sepoys better Nassick
boys now take their {figure}
turn so 4 of them com-
-plain         women are
very naked - men
10have mostly the
tattoo common here -
They have no goats &
only fowls of a small
sort - but no sheep
15or other domestic animal
pigeons appear in a
few villages - Bang or
Hemp is not commonly
smoked - in this they
20are better than the
Manjaja - no

0064
iron is found in this
part consequently it is
scarce & dear - many
men have been seen
5with wooden spears
Honey is very cheap
a pot with four fowls
were given for 2 yards
of calico - The pot was
10about a gallon - No
game appear in these
parts if we accept
wild hogs & guinea fowl


The buffaloes were bitten
15by the Tsetse badly
yesterday evening
I caught many on
them - Those on the
camels were full of
20blood - Rain has
fallen
since first of Mar


0065
Kunyane carriers 1st May
                                        1866

- Marakocha coffee
- Chonkondidi sugar
5- Nahaorango box
- Baba         bale
- Mpoto         bale
- Bakari         Tea & beads
- Chirombwe e mwene bale
10- NeperiKolumba box flour
- Makoane bale
- Kantande rice &c

1st May 1866 we
came on through a rich
15country again - but
most of it was free
of wood requiring
cutting by us - It is
very beautiful to look
20out upon when one
gets a glimpse - The

0066
country seems clothed
with great masses
of umbrageous foliage
mostly of a dark green
5A great many of the
individual trees have
leaves glossy like
laurels - We passed
a gigantic specimen
10of the Kumbe or gum
copal yielding tree -
and many Malole fruits
were on the ground -


came to Ntande village
15a strong stockade was
round it for fear of
the Mabiha who come
& steal people going for
water - This is for the
20Iboe market -


0067

Before we came to N-
-tande
we passed the
ruins of two villages
deserted as the custom
5is when death occurs
The owners were the
attacking party in our
case when we ascended
the Rovuma in boats
10In the return fire by
the 2d boat one ball
struck the father on
the chin, and another
went through his son's
15head - It may have been
best that the English
were known as people
who can hit when
unjustly attacked - never
20was a murderous assa
-ult more unprovoked [      ]{than} this

0068
all look on the English
with awe, and no
impudence is shewn
by those Makonde
5who were notorious
for fines - on the most
frivolous pretexts -
Ali's brother fought
them till 2 of his men
10and five Makonde fell
They then agreed to
molest him no further.


In afternoon we had
two smart showers
15We have had no
continuous rain
as
yet - In travelling I
dont measure the
amount - It is not
20worth while as I
shall not be long

0069
in the low coast lands
We sleep in a valley
near the village of
Ntande
- another
5species of fly exactly
like the housefly only
with a sharp proboscis
annoys the cattle more
than the Tsetse - They
10fill themselves with
blood too - Tsetse bit
the buffaloes last night
evening again.


[#] Wikatani attempted
15to take once for me from
Havildar without
leave. The Havildar
seized him by the
throat and Wikatani
20struck him. This

0070
was a bad example
[#] and had the Havildar
not laid hands on
Wikatani I would have
5punished Wikatani
severly - As it is         the
Havildar sulks, and
feels his dignity in-
-jured in which I sym-
10pathize with him but
a public whipping to
Wikatani would
possibly break his spirit
and it would be
15commented on by
the Makonde as terrible
& severe beyond pre-
-cedent


2d May 1866 This
20morning all our

0071
things being wet we have
to wait an hour or two
to dry them. - The high
mountain {figure}
5noted in our first trip
up is called Liparu
and a stream comes
down from it to the
Rovuma forming
10a little lagoon - We
came to a Makoa vil
and it being surrounded
with corn fields likely
to be damaged by the
15animals we went on
& camped on the spur
of the range beyond it
in a nice clear spot
when we stopped a

0072
while in a village on the
way the poodle dog
Chitane whose fierce
looks are mainly a way
5to one not knowing
at which end his head is
rushed after the village
curs in the most frantic
manner and apparently
10in the belief that it was
his prowess they
fled from - They made
for the charpois on which
their masters sat &
15went Chitane was kept
off their chase set up
a hideous yelping
bark - The head woman
is said to be a doctor
20A woman came for
ward & offered me

0073
some meal in a gift
even when I was on the
move off - a nice
motherly looking person
5We passed a Makoa
village
and ascended the
spur of the part of the
range near to avoid
damage to peoples corn
10The Makoa have the
half moon on forehead
and many of them have
the forehead & cheeks
deeply tattooed & the skin
15raised a very much
at the cuts - {figure} It gives
rather a hideous look
or perhaps fierceness
such as was put on
20by our ancestors

0074
when having their
portraits taken -


3d May. 1866. A
man with defective
5arm bones came &
tried to make a case
against us by saying
that some of my
men had cut down
10his corn with swords
sent Ali & Abraham
to see - they found it
to consist of 2 stalks
broken off by the
15mule's burdens - the
Nassick boys are
careless & without
forethought We
paid nothing the
20damage being too small

0075
came on about 2
miles
to a village by
a stream coming
down from the
5mountains for such
the range may now
be called - It is
named Nkonga
It is embowered in
10groves of succulent
trees the spreading
roots by which form
the solo{i}d portion of
the banks - It is only
15a few yards wide
at parts only one &
it gurgles over the
roots in perpetual
shade - had to make
20bridges for camels


0076
Ungoye carriers 4 May
Chunjia coffee
Nahauraga box
Nchoma         sugar
5Ntepe         tea & beads
Ntwene bale
Narihinga box with flour &c
Nakorapia   bale
Naloe                 box
10Ntanda                 luggage
Madwana       Do#Nassi
Nando{e}nga

4th May 1866 The
buffaloes were bitten
15by Tsetse on the 2d
and again today
the cow's blood
seems to have under
gone a change for
20the bites or stings of

0077
The ordinary gadfly or
large mangrove fly
bleed freely and the
blood running down
5the skin is arterial
in colour. Today
her right eye is all
inflamed and she is
dull & listless - a
10large swelling appears
on the lumbar portion
of the pelvis ^ calf unaffected - the grey
one has been sick
but seems better - the
15black male has never
been the worse of his
bites - It is not seen
on the camels that
they feel the fly though
20they get weaker which
may be from hard work

0078
no symptoms of Tsetse
in mules or donkeys


Passed a vil. and
came on to Nyamba
5Another on a spur
all rolled gravel of
reddish quartz - At
the end N.         many
Makoa live. Their
10vil. a very large one
is called Nyuthe


The head woman of
our village is a
great doctor and
15rain making is
one of her accom
plishments - She
gave us a good
present of a small
20green round pea

0079
common in India =
^ = Mung and a fowl - she is
profusely ornamented
all over and over
5hips & buttocks so is
not ashamed to
shew these parts -
(they have doves and
Muscovy ducks) she
10is tall - well formed -
and with finely shaped
legs, hands & feet --
Sesamum - Tobacco -
beans - ground nuts -
15a good deal of salt is made


{figure}

5 May 1866 a tame
Khangatore or

0080
tufted guinea fowl here
As we marched we
came to sandstone
hardened by fire &
5then granitic masses
from which the sand
-stone had been left
so as to leave a
dip to the East -
10With the geological
structure the trees
& vegetation changes
acacias - and
thorny mimosas
15ebony and the
vegetation is more
sparse allowing
us now to go
along without
20cutting


0081

We are now opposite S.
a hill named Simba -
Livu
from its shape
Mabiha are around it
5in great numbers &
they make raids over
to the Makonde side
for slaves - The men
wear the lip ring as
10well as the women
and Rovuma being very
shoal at certain times
it is easily forded -


[#] Tsetse again all day
15the blood of the bitten
seems all of the colour
of arterial blood for
when stung the points
bleed bright scarlet
20the buffaloes seem

0082
ill - drowsy looking
& eyes bleared - one
eye of cow dimmed


6th May 1866 our
5course has been ex-
-cessively crooked
in fact from vil.
to vil. though these
have not been on
10a straight line - This
prolongs our march
& all the animals
feel it - [ ]{N}umbers of
people come to see
15us - seem intelligent
& respectful - no
drunkeness seen
This is not the beer time


0083

At service a man
began to talk & when I
told him we were
"soma Mungu" praying
5to God ^ he understood it & was
silent 7 May 1866


7th Camel & buffalo died
this morning -


carriers -
10Itonga luggage begin again
on 10th

Karihenge food powder
Lekakwe box tool
Liyoyo powder box #
15Kamide ^ sail & carpet bag box & rice
PdNankodaonje bale 3
Pd Chombokela coffee 3
Komota luggage powder
Limila luggage pans

20

Tsetse again


0084

On getting up this
morning I found one
camel dead and
the grey buffalo ex
5-pired soon afterwards
got carriers and in
coming on two
camels gave in
from weakness &
10had to be unloaded,
Sepoys reported to
sit down & eat letting
camels stand in the
hot sun - The whole
15country of Ndonde
we find dried up

0085
and no corn will be
op{b}tained this year
mules shew fatigue
We dont go so far but
5we dawdle - got up
at 4 A.M. but did
not get off till 8 -
We are now opposite
a mountain on S-
10side called Nabungala
looks like an elephant
lying on its belly
another camel
died on the way
15a very good one


8th May 1866
arrived at Iponde
opposite granitic hill sketched
in my notebook from



0086
Rive 8th is their first day Iponde
one day
on 8th

x Chande   beads bale & mat
5x Nahida   2 bales & bag
x Nherema baggage^ bale powder box
x Mandike   powder & tools{bags}
x Kovenga   box & B pepper
x Kanyindwa box red beads
10x Miniñgene   bale big
x Chinkawene   Tea box beads
o{x} Omyanga - box{bale} & bag
x Hamadi   sugar & saddle
    Mandik Likeka bale
15x Likunga 11 bales & mat
o{x} Moholoa     bags of
x Mahanyoka box & bag cer[  ]
x Liphepo   bale big
x Pandamoka bale big
20x Tiwanga         box & horn
x Mpoto


0087

  named Nakapuri - I
leave Havildar & men
at Iponde while I go
on to Machumora
5at Ngomano with the
baggage - the object is
to rest camels - buffaloes
& mules


{figure}
10

Lat 11°     9         00
of Iponde 8th May


0088

9th May 1866 I left the
animals in charge of the
Havildar and Nassick
boys at Iponde
5the camels are so
weak and so are the
mules & buffaloes
that this seems to
be a measure of
10necessity - left 24
yards of calico with
them and took on by
24 carriers all the goods
It was impossible to
15prevent the Nassick
boys from putting
their things on the
heavily laden beasts
As soon as my back
20was turned on they
went again & they
evidently thought this

0089
clever - told them
repeatedly that they
would kill the buffaloes
and mules but in
5vain - sneaking deception
seemed dear to them
one Baraka took
high ground and un
-less I let him put on
10a[   ] filled with
maiz[ ] on a mule
already lying down
with over weight "he
would do nothing"
15You may take your
gun & shoot me
I wont lead a mule
or do anything - I
applied a stick so
20briskly to his bottom
that he soon changed
his mind, but it
was continual vexation

0090
and I gave up annoying
myself by seein ing
matters - The buffalo
was killed by over
5work - and a mule
seems likely to follow
it from same cause
Today we came at
least eight miles
10in three hours &
tomorrow we shall
do more


at Moeda we had a
valley with large
15thorny Mimosae -
- rocks still granitic
or syenite - passed a
Euphorbraceous tree
with seed vessels as
20large as mandarin
oranges & three seeds
inside - collected some

0091
for Sir Bartle Frere - the
country is burned up
by one of these strange
droughts - rust which
5plagued us nearer the
coast ceases here -
The grass crisp & yellow
is burned off in places
Passed spot where
10Birkall, an Arab,
resisted payment of
chiefs demand for
leave to pass & after
two days parley killed
152 Makonde & woundded
chief mortally which
settled the matter -
no more demands
have been made
20since


0092

Engaged on 10th


P Kanjoje big bale
P Likakwe tool box & bag
P Chimasera powder box
5P Mwhipa
P Kovinga 2 bags one beads
                                        coffee



10th May 1866 came
10on about six miles
and then the carriers
having had no food
the day before could
not proceed furth[  ]{er}
15All is hunger in front
to Ndonde but
food is to be had on
the South Side among
the Matambwe
20The hunger is
caused by the

0093
inroad of the Mazitu
who devoured all
before them like a
flight of locusts -
5and partly by the
drought -


#The clouds have been
coming steadily from
the South West for
10many days - today
they come from East
with small showers
a good shower in
evening


15

chronometer 5158
stopped during the
night - It has been
stopping in the winding
up for some days


0094

11th May 1866. A
quarrel between Ali
and Musa evoked
a great deal of abuse
5and this morning
Ali sulks & is off at
one of the villages -
we got a little rice
for the carriers but
10they had served them
three days & are off
We got others and
marched 3 ₑ⁄₄ hours
part of it up a
15sand stream the
Nyedi - maize &
beans will soon
supply the want
caused by Mazitu
20met a run away



0095
Engaged on morning of
11th May

P Dihiala - box flour
P Kangkwangye Tea & beads
5P Nikala bag & bale
P Komota     bale & mat
P Pandamoka powder box & carpet ba
P Chande     big powder box
P Nkatwe bale
10P Kipeta     bale
P Likao     bale
P Chikungu bale
P Kihota box
P Matoke bag & beads
15P Zionga     sugar
P Dowa - big powder box
P Nchika box - red beads
    Sikako tool & beads
P Nyope big bale
0096
P P Nyangan[  ]{ya} big bale a second
    Lipondo big bale
P Mandike bale & mat
P Nangaladia my bag
5P Nkanaide powder box
P Pangola -     tin box
P Nkoaia       pots & pans
P Kangkoje     big bale



10

She was caught by
Ali and he seemed
confident that
he would get a reward
and would not
15yield to my entreaty
to let her go - we
soon came to her
village and she had
to be given up -
20met a perfect figur
of a woman in the
sand stream



0097
{figure}
P Galola big bale 12th
P Makwenya coffee & beads
P Ngomīre big bale
5    Kayimola my bag & bag beads

{figure}
{figure}


0098
P Chirenga 13th box mutton &
P Chitete bale
P Likako working things



5{figure}

Kanañgone at -
Matanatawa a
pleasant looking
lady came forward
10while we rested in
her village as our
turning point &
put a bunch of
sweet reed at my

0099
feet. Saying "I met
you here, pointing to
the spot at the river,
before - Her face
5was profusely tattooed
and I remember her
coming and asking
us to wait while
she brought us some
10food - gave her a
looking glass and
she went & brought
me her only fowl -
and a dish of cuc-
15-cumber
seeds and
said it was hunger
with them now
gave her a cloth
20& parted to come on

0100
four miles above
the cataracts - through
a dried up country
full of dwarfish
5thorn - acacias &
mimosae - carriers
very useless from
hunger




10P Chikungu bale 14th May
P Komota -       bale
P Namoantu       bale
P Bungani         box
P Akarimona wawa powder box
15P Chiwema beads & coffee
P Nkopike       box flour
P Ngomanya sugar
P Ntanamarire big bale
P Ntarika bale & beads
20P Karihonge box P & carpet bag
P Kamkwanye tea box & beads
P Suliman box & sail
P Nkoba big powder box
P Nahang kaladia my bag
25P Chipangola 2 bales one ½
P Nkoana 2 bales one ½

P Lipondwe cooking pot P Ntungata Powder
P Katemwa                                                  [            ]


0101

Matambwe country
abounds in elephants
and the tusks are very
large shewing a
5moist climate
The people very black
but beautiful accg
to Ali - have liprings
Plenty of gum copal
10also which the Ibo
people purchase




Pephela
millet a grass
15seed collected now
and made into
porridge - very
good -


0102

The claims of the few
who were born to govern
the Makonde therefore
are not wholly bad in
5the mass though individually
before God desperately
wicked -


an attention to man's
happiness & comfort
10and intellectual advance
ment in this life is
essential for the promotion
of his religious life
This has been learned by
15slow & unwelcome
experience - We now
try to improve the condition
of those on whom society
presses severely as the
20indispensible pre-
liminary to improving
the condition of the sufferers

0103
which is not wholly
bad - with noble aspirations
for what is good - if light
were permitted to beam on
5their darkness & a place
of repentance were given to
the erring - wa{Ca}tholicism
attempted to bind men
as the Bible does to
10indi[   ]{vid}uals &{in} their
devotional moments -
that grew oppressive -
and in process of time
it was thrown off -
15no one now believes in
the doctrine of the worth
lessness of man in the
presence of God as
applicable to the
20worthlessness of the
mass of mankind
in compassion with

0104
Makonde as he (& we)
must appear to himself
in the presence of God
then there is no truth
5but the one truth that he
is desperately wicked -
Every heart capable of
comprehending the
nature of holiness will
10pass this sentence on
itself - The Bible thus
applies the doctrine of inborn
sin, not to man in society
but to the individual in the
15presence of his Maker -
Possibly the confounding
what is true of individuals
and to all individually
has been the great stumbling
20block to men of intellect for
in relation to other men
& the world they are
conscious of a nature


0105

26 April 1866 Take these
Makonde in their relations
to each other and to the
place they occupy on
5the earth there is much
good in them - It was
their natural sense of
justice that permitted
Ali to go back - seize the
10thief in his own village
and fine him eight
cubits of calico for
a shirt & some cartridges
not worth half that
15amount - He was
accompanied by
two Makonde alone
and they spent most
of the night in pursuit
20unpaid. It is a
different matter if
we look to the individual


0106
{figure}
0107
{figure}


0108
1 - Mesuri Route - 2 Moessii -
    3 Mosinjeive = 4 Nchessi -
5 Rovingu - 6 Miembe
7 Chipande - 8 Mangodji
59 Nyassa = = -by an
Ndonde man




{figure}


10

Fruit like small orange
but with large brown
seeds - eatable = dark
berries - Do       milole - Do




15

Euphorbia {figure} fruit
with three seeds


{figure}

Mandare = potato


0109
{figure}
{figure}


De[      ]
5af[      ]
I he[      ]
has [      ]




Ma[      ]
10tree [      ]
bon[      ]
frui[      ]
pupls eaten by maggots
colour of fruit green
15with red on sides

0110

II.



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Field Diary I
David Livingstone


Date of composition: 4 August 1865 - 31 March 1866
Repository: David Livingstone Centre, Blantyre, United Kingdom
Shelfmark: 1123
Clendennen & Cunningham number(s): Field Diaries, 014
Digital edition and date: Livingstone Online, 2017
Publisher: University of Maryland Libraries, College Park, MD, USA
Project ID: liv_000001
Critical encoding: Adrian S. Wisnicki, Megan Ward, Heather F. Ball, Christopher Lawrence, Kate Simpson, Angela Aliff, Ashanka Kumari
Encoding dates: 2014-04-29, 2014-05-01, 2014-05-03, 2014-05-05, 2014-05-07, 2014-05-08, 2014-05-09, 2014-05-10, 2014-05-13, 2014-05-14, 2014-05-15, 2014-05-18, 2014-05-27, 2014-06-03, 2014-08-21, 2014-10-31, 2014-11-22, 2015-12-15, 2016-12-06




0001

I


0002
0003

This contains a rough
diary of Livingstone's voyage
to Bombay from Marseilles
in 1865, his stay in Bombay,
5his arrival in Zanzibar &
{the} beginnings of his last
Journey - March 1866


It does not closely corres-
pond with Waller's "Last
10Journey"
& seems like rough
notes that were written
up carefully later; For
instance its [ ] well-known
passage in the Joys of
15Travel
appears on Jan-
uary 1866
as written
at Sea, whereas Waller
gives it under date
March 26th



0004

À Monsieur
Monsieur Cailliatte
Marsauceux
pres Dreux
5Eure et Loir




Monsier Calliatte
Marsauceux
Pres Dreux
10Eure et Loir



0005

À Madame Hocidi
du Docteur Livingstone




À Madame Hocidi
5chez M. Frédine de
Comisets


Le Havre
du Docteur Livingstone
Hotel des Deux Mondes
10        Paris


"Nous sommes à Marsauceux
Mercredi à onze heures
et demi -"


In answer to the above Mrs
15Hocede
came up from Havre
to Marsauceux & we met
her there - on 17th left Agnes
on 18th God bless her



0006

£1300 per ton
185 for ivory - The
largest price given




5

19th August 1865
reached Marseilles
at noon - slept
in a Hotel Louvre
et Paix
and on
1020th came on
board Massalia
P & O. steamer to
sail as soon as
the mails come
15on board -


Dined with M. Champlones
in Paris - a good geographer

0007
#Dreux where Agnes remains
in order to speak French is
a very old town - country
on chalk, a wine growing
5one - people well off - no
poor - mostly agricultural
in a small way - very
merry and careless
This region was that
10in which Julius Caezar
was when we wrote his
2d book of his com-
mentaries. The people
seem changed now
15for they are small &
dark instead of being
the big fair blue eyed
Gauls of old - The
burying place of the
20Bourbon family is
near Dreux - some
fine stained glass in it

0008
The country along which
we coast is sterile
in appearance but is
fertile - it looks stoney


5

21st August 1865


Beautiful sailing - The
Massilia goes at 12½ knots
over a silent sea, and it is
pleasantly warm
- Mr
10Maine
eminent as a
lawyer & writer on ancient
law is on board & Mr Tucker
also a lawyer - Mr Sterne
an American merchant
15well educated & clever -
and all are agreable --


22d Reached Malta
about 5 P.M. and found
quarantine regulations
20in full force - boats at
once surrounded us

0009
each having a man with
a yellow collar & yellow
flag - and all who had
come with us to Malta
5were to be put in quarantine
for 10 days - some cases
of cholera had appeared at
Marseilles. The ship's
papers were recieved in
10a box at the end of a
pole and tongs employed
to open & and shut it.


A man of war's crew
was said to have been
15put into quarantine
for one of the men having
touched a man of our
ship - too much defer-
ence is paid by our
20government to the
Maltese who are very
presuming.


0010

23d Aug. 1865. We were
prevented from coaling
till this morning. Then
left at midday - Dr
5Parkes
& family went
off to quarantine - a
Mrs Webb heard that her
husband was ill of
fever & unable to come
10near her before she
went into th Lazaretto
as we left we entered
into a thick fog which
seemed to be only near
15the island & not on it
We may hear of this at
a later date as associated
with an outburst
of cholera


20

Weather outside very
fine
we hope to get to

0011
Alexandria by Saturday at
noon & thence start at
once for Suez.


Mrs Tucker going up to
5Mahableswar at night
her horse went over a
precipice {in} the dark
and was jammed between
the{a} tree and the rock. both
10horse & rider saved.
This is surely Providen-
tial


26th Aug. 1865. arrived at
Alexandria about 4 P.M.
15and at once went on to-
wards Cairo. reached it
at 12.30 & stopped at
Shepherds Hotel - to start
at 9 A.M. Sunday morn-
20ing. went at 8 A.M.
to call on Mrs Lieder.


0012

Mr Lieder long a missionary
in Egypt died lately - & so
did an old companion
Miss Daniels - so she is left
5alone. Palgrave is at
Cairo among Abyssinian
merchants and the
worthless Burtonites alias
unprincipled - going to
10try & liberate Dr Cameron
& other missionaries in
Abyssinia - Mrs L. thinks
that Cameron was im-
-prudent only in presuming
15too much as a hunter
and thinking he had more
influence with the
king than he possessed
Mr Flad a very prudent
20& able missionary is one
of the captures. Miss
Whately
is coming out

0013
again in six weeks to
resume her labours
among the Mahometan
children = she retires in
5the hot season and
therein is wise. May a
blessing rest on her
labours.


An accident had happen
10ed on the railway & one
man killed on Saturday
night - this was the
reason we had to sleep
at Shepherds Hotel - the
15cholera cholera was very severe
on this line. Fifteen
engine drivers died of it
one was taken ill and
died before he could get
20to a station


0014

28th Aug. 1865. Went
on board the "Benares"
and set sail this morning
with a fine breeze down
5the Red Sea. -


29th at noon we were
220 miles from Suez
and 1050 from Aden
a nice breeze keeps us
10pleasant & steady
Reading Palgrave
very ambitious in
his style


30th noon Distance
15run 218 miles -
From Aden 832 miles
A fine breeze astern
helps us on & cools us


0015
{figure}
0016

31 August 1865
Distance run today
219 miles - 614 from
Aden - warmer
5but wind still keeping
up
-


1st Septr 1865 - 206
miles
distance run
went down to stoke hole
10where Somalis are
employed ½ an hour
at a time - thermom
eter in stoke hole at
roof 150° Fahr
15yesterday 163° - Engine
room 109 - yesterday
110°


0017

3d Septr 1865 Visited
Aden - and went
with Col. Merryweather
to the old Tanks from
5which the town is
supplied = They are built
in a gully & across it
the workmanship
solid & prodigious -
10a few trees are planted
It is mentioned by
Balthazar an old
Portuguese who called
there 300 years ago
15that Aden was a
perfect garden - the
old tanks held more
than the present -
The town is built
20over many of them


two Parsees & a

0018
Mahometan have in
company cleared out
one & selling 100 gallons
for 1 Rupee realize
5about 25 per cent
on the outlay - People
have increased to 30,000
and are crowding in
fast from starvation
10in the country caused
by Murrain. Dined
with Col. Merryweather
& Col. Woolcombe &
then sailed at nine
15P M


Prodigious quantities
of fish in Gulph of
Aden
- I wonder that
no fisheries have
20been established

0019
a sudden lowering of
Temp. took place in
the sea as soon as
we came out of the
5Red Sea to Gulph of
Aden
. The bath made
us start from its
coldness. query a
current from south
10brought to surface - ?


5th Sept 1865


Still in Gulph of
Aden
= 1570 miles
from Bombay - went
15212 miles -


6th Septr when we
got out of Gulph of
Aden
came to southern
swell & wind - going
20well & cool - 254 miles


0020

The Roman Emperors
looked on Christianity
as politically subversive
and morally abominable
5As many of ourselves
do Mormonism &
our rulers do the
Jesuits. Christianity
is still looked on
10as a new spirit
likely to act as a
dissolvent of Eastern
systems. It produces
an instinctive
15shrinking, and
repugnance - Asiatic
rulers have an
instinctive prescience
of the result & naturally
20shrink from

0021
closer contact with
Western commerce &
Christianity which
combined will inevitably
5modify the whole
structure of society


No oriental com-
prehends the meaning
of benefitting the people -
10the notion of promoting
the welfare of a nation
is scouted as a matter
of course " - and we are
always supposed to be
15following own{our} so{own}
ends in all we do -




[                ]

0022

7 Septr 1865 Distance
run 235 miles. Flying
fish are caught by
nets held behind a
5light - The French
soldiers were shockingly
ill treated by their own
officers on board our
transport ships, but
10no complaint made -
thrown overboard
without any ceremony
not even sewn up
in great coats - These
15were usually stolen
ere they were dead -


8{9}th 226 miles & we are
now 352 miles from
Bombay - light breeze
20and         some     sea


0023

A foreign people is not to
be understood in a short
or hurried visit - nor indeed
to be appreciated by the
5oldest inhabitant, unless
he will consent to
waive all prejudice & live
as one of themselves -
Difficult to realize the
10true aspect of the people
- learn to respect their
hearts -


Quickness of apprehension
a ready wit & retentive
15memory
cruel old platitudes
about governing orientals
by fear - the "stick" -
"vigour" They are the
20same as free born Instinct

0024
not long ago &
Germans were regarded
as we now regard "niggers
& Egyptians" - our
5island belt of prejudice
with better knowledge
we learn that black &
white are men of like
passions with our
10-selves-


Treat savages as you
would countrymen
remembering that
you lose nothing
15by the act & they gain
all -


little pet tucked her
legs under her & ate daint
ily

0025
such a darling of sweet
pure beauty -
slave is a term of
affection -"slave whom
5he loved"


Genuine sympathy
with human beings
obliterates the distinctions
of race & clime rank
10& religion & even of
intellect.




It is evidence of brutal
vulgarity of mind to
15treat all natives as "niggers"
Avoid this unhappy
form of slang & without
falling into unreal sentiment
endeavour to return to that
20chivalry which regards with
especial forbearance & con
sideration the inferior & helpless


0026

#a man at Rio de Janero
catching a rope was
bit by a sea snake
which{and} shewed sym-
5-ptoms of poisons
This case was men-
-tioned by Captain White
of the Benares as
having come under
10his own personal
observation


[                ]

0027

10th Septr 1865
Divine service this
morning at 10-30
After inspection
5all attended - We are
within 120 miles of
Bombay - We have
now been 4 Sundays
on board from
10Marseilles: viz. - one
at Marseilles - one
crossing Desert -
one at Aden & thus
y which we reach
15Bombay at about
4 A. M. Monday


0028

Chaplain Holberton
        Brigade Major

River side
          Kirkee


5

13th start for Nassuck
at 8 A M & reach
4 - 30. Mr ^ Rev W. Prxel




10

11th Septr 1865
Arrived at Bombay
at 4 A M - Went
to House of Mr
G M Stewart
on
15Kambala hill
visited Governor

0029
in forenoon. He
recommends a
visit to Nassuck
to see a school of
5Africans there to
select men for
journey - dine
with him tomorrow
evening & then go
10Wednesday morning
up country -


12th


went to Pareill to
residence of the Governor
15offered a room &
then to dine in the
evening - sat beside

0030
Mr Chisolme Anstey -
who is rather notorious
in Bombay - a disciple
of Daniel O'Connell -


5

14th Went up to
Nassick to see if any
of the Africans there
would suit me.
Recieved by Major
10Houghton
very kindly


15th Septr As the
reamination of the
school by the Bishop
of Bombay
. children
15did very well indeed
sang beautifully
an African com
poses tunes and

0031
has made about 25
with songs in his
own language - The
tongue of Londa -
5told the young men
that it was not
play they were going
to but work, and
they had better think
10about it for some
time before giving an
answer - Two volun
-teered at once - but I
requested them to
15pause -


16th came down to
Bombay - very many
of the plants seem

0032
identical with those in
Africa -- saw the
ghants clearly and they
are very fine and the
5jungle is very like
what we have near
Kolobeng & elsewhere
Teak trees - Euphorbias
acacias & palmyras
10bring back African
scenery vividly -


17th Septr 1865
Went to Fort to settle
affairs - four of
15my men have died
climate disagrees with
them - Chuma &
Wikotane have done
very well at Bombay
20under Dr Wilson


0033

Sunday 18th Septr 1865
went to Scotch church
under Mr Boyd & to the
English church in the
5evening -


19th came up to Guny-
skind
- residence of Sir
Bartle Frere
the Governor
Went after dinner to
10an entertainment given
by the Officers - Private
theatricals very well
performed - Supped with
Col. Foster - Home at
152 in the morning -


20th Sleep in quarters
of staff of Governor,
go over to Gunyskind to
meals -


0034

20th Septr 1865


After breakfast Governor
told me that Major Clarke
had spoken to Officers
5& men of the Marine
Battallion & found
them very willing to
go - He says many
of them have been
10wrecked & kept at
places where they have
been obliged to rough it
much and he will
ensure their pay &
15pensions - They are
accustomed to making
packs for beasts of
burden -

0035
spoke of buffaloes as
able to bear bite of the
tsetse - Thought favourably
of it - He also said
5that any Africans &
myself wish to send
of one tribe he would
see to their expenses
being paid


10

very pleasant weather
up here


22 Septr 1865


Visited a cave
temple and walked
15to Holkar's bridge
Read Duffy's
history of Kirkee
battle
-


0036

#Mr Dalzell gardener
wished seeds of
mosokoso - and
Buarze {figure} send them


5



Invited to lecture
at United service
institution - Mutiny
medals distributed
10A fakeer seen in
Scinde came to
tell Sir Bartle
that the last of
the Imams would
15soon appear -


0037
a woman washed
her face - Political
officer still en-
quiring into the
5case when he
left Oude -
men put on a
new coat over
the old & his age
10is asked by how
many coats has
he?


[                ]

0038

25 Septr 1865 - Came
down to Bombay
saw Mr Stearn's about
calico & buffaloes
5Paid Govr 609 Rupees
3 annas for repairs
of steamer & keep of
men - Mr Hoggan, an
engineer volunteers to
10go with me - I decline -
I go to Lady Nyassa
to shew her to Captain
Blackmore
with a
view to advertisement
15for sale -


She is advertized twice
a week. Two offers
Mr Tucker spoke of
a company buying her


0039

29th Went up again to
Poonah after spending
a week in Bombay
and on 3d Oct. gave
5a lecture in the United
Service Institution
to a crowd - Governor
and bishop present
the latter introduced
10me & voted thanks
afterwards -


Visted a Sirdar or
native gentleman
in Poonah with the
15Governor - garlands
of flowers hung
round or necks
wands of Do in hands
other of Roses - &c.

0040
stairs so narrow
only one person can
ascend - for defence
in lawless times -


5

5th Octr 1865


Came down to
Bombay - gave
a lecture in Town
Hall to a crowd who
10gave three cheers
and subscribed
some thousands of
Rupees to help -


17th Sultan gave
15me an order to
his captain to carry
12 buffaloes for
me to Zanzibar


0041

14 men of Marine
Battalion volunteered
to go - Men drew back
and there 14 volunteered
5after hearing that we
had carriage pro-
vided for their luggage
order - goods -
provisions - blankets
10boots -


Visited Sultan several
times - very gracious
which I owe to Sir
Bartle Frere
shewing
15me so much
attention - and calling
me his Moushee


0042

22d Octr went to
Scotch Church in
morning - spent
some time with
5Dr Wilson Then
go back to Mr
Stewart
to lodge




25 Shipped 14
10buffaloes and two
calves on board
the Gazelle - bought
iron tanks for their
water - Hay supplied
15by commissariat
at instance of the
Governor - The
Sultan changes his
mind about sailing

0043
and may not leave
for some days yet -
Commissariat is
getting saddles made


5

#Phenembe is name
of Dr Peters "Caia"
Lizard = It eats chickens
& mice - Nganye is
10the Ajawa & Manganja
name for same
animal = Kaia
falls during rains -




15

[In] an inscription given -
by Cosmas the Adulike
inscription copied in
A.D. 545 Ptolemy the
Great
is made to say
20that "he invaded Asia
with his land & sea forces

0044
#"and with elephants
from the country of the
Troglodites & Ethiopians.
This body of Elephants
5was found collected out
of those countries by his
father and himself and
brought into Egypt and
tamed for the service
10of war. with these forces
Ptolemy advanced -
into Asia, reduced all
his country on this side
the Euphrates xxxxx
15In this Expedition having
captured also manyy
Indian elephants
and subjectingall the
princes to his obed
20ience he crossed to
Euphrates, entered"

0045
#Mesopotamia &c"
Vincent's Ancient Commerce
II pp-538"




5

#Leave articles & retire.
ancient way of trading
in gold - Do Do




1st Novr 1865 We have
10had heavy rains for some
days
- The Captain of the
Gazelle rather disobliging
about the buffaloes -
wont help my men - is
15a drunken Mahometan
Mahomet Ali Durt.
got letters from Mr Price
about boys - From Sir
Roderick
about Bakers
20Lake
- He wishes me to
hasten on to Tanganyika
2 Marines come daily &
act as orderlies -


0046

4 Novr 1865 Went
up with Mr Tracey to
the Mountain sanatorium
Mattaran which has
5most gorgeous scenery
remained with Mr
Hammay
on monday
& returned to Bombay
on the morning of the
107th.


On 9th went to Surat
and remained overnight
at Rev Montgomery's
of Irish Presbyterian
15Mission - Saw the old
tombs of English mag
nates of former days
they are very grand -
imitations of Mahometans


0047

10th On to Mr Taylors
at Borsad - reached
him by bullock cart
at ₑ⁄₄ to 12 at night
5remained net day
and on 12th went on
to Ahmedabad - country
identical with many
parts of Tropical
10Africa
- Take away
hedgerows which are
of African Euphorbias
and no imagination
is needed to fancy one
15-self on the other side of
Indian Ocean - Ruins
very fine - Went out
on 13th to service at
native christian village


0048

The expression of
countenance of women
very pleasant as com
-pared with the heathen -
5one motherly person
did not like to see us
go away fasting &
brought a draught of
milk for me -


10

Mrs Oliphant the collectors
wife is a daughter of
my friend Genl Alex
-ander
- She was absent


14 Novr 1865


15

Returned to Bombay
in one day a distance
of 300 miles - Railway
very straight & level
not a tunnel in it
20all - Several large
bridges built on

0049
iron tubes screwed
into the mud - The
Narbudda at Breach
₃⁄₄ of a mile - The
5bridges are very
elegant & high -


Caste the result in a
measure of having
been yielded to by the
10English - When the
natives found that
they were believed in
capable by caste rules
of performing certain
15duties they added to
the regulations -


A banker seen in a
third class carriage
Love of money stronge
20than love of caste


0050

In a ship a Sudrah may
cook for them - a bath
is taken by throwing
a stone in water - a
5vicarious ablution
and then the mark is
put on the ˄ forehead as
emblematic of purifica
tion -


10

A woman taken in
a palankin & screened
into carriage was
seen to take a bundle
of dirty clothes on her
15back when leaving
it -


Hear of Rae's death
"Leave his sins to his
saviour
" is the line
20we must follow
a sad end enough


0051

14 Novr 1863 returned
in one day to Bombay
and lived in Mr Stearn's
house Malabar Hill -
5No news of importance
had come -


About 20th H M S Severn
came and the Commodore
told me that I had to go in
10the Vigilant and she would
be here in about a
month - no help for it
Recieved from Asiatic
Society Rupees (6450) about
15£645 - very handsome
contribution Resolve
to dedicate it to careful
commerce & place it
at Ritchie Stewart & Cos
20at 6 percent interest
to be given to any feasible
committee for that

0052
purpose -


24th Sailed to Hog island
visited caves of
Elephanta
about 900
5years old - My expectations
had been over excited
Recieved a number
of articles for journey
from Authorties here


10

5th Decr waiting
for M. "Thule" being
ready as I am to go
in her - a guest of
the Government -
15negotiating sale
of Lady Nyassa
Mr Tucker failed
to get up a company

0053
to purchase her - dined
in company with
Mr Justice Anstey -
has a fund of anecdote
5admired O'Connel -


8th Decr /65 - visited the
Rock Temples of
Kanera - Budhist
and one is very fine
10like saloon of News
tead Abbey
- a row
of pillars runs down
each side some carved
at top with elephants
15many figures of Budh
with Hindoo gods
under him


7th Shocked by the sudden
death of Mrs Holberton


0054

8 Decr 1865






#

Since my return
to Bombay I have
5noticed that my men
from the Zambesi
have lost the African
& emit the Indian
odour - They com-
10plain of weakness






Scinde is notable
for darkening the
complexion - Bombay
15whitens it - Devon
shire
- darkens more
than most places






Captain Osborne
20offers to take me
up to Nagpore free
of expense -


0055

[#] 10th Decr 1865 Chuma
and Wikatani were
baptized this morning
by Dr Wilson - John W -
5& James Chuma - trust they
will be followers of
Christ in truth -


11th Recieved an
anonymous note
10from "African Asylum"
complaining of un-
kindness - sent it to
Mr Price - It shews
ingratitude


15

12th Went to Commodore
he shewed me his
order to East Coast
Captains to assist
me as much as they
20could


0056

Declined Captain
Osborne
s very
kind invitation
to go up country
5with him -


Went to observatory
about 2 chrono-
meters to be sent
home by H. M. S.
10Severn


18th Decr 1865.
Went on board the
Thule and find
her a very fine
15vessel with
ample cabin
accommodation


0057

22 Decr 1865. Sold
the Lady Nyassa for
£2300 to Rajah of
Bhownugger{ree}
-
5the Government have
given me the honour
of formally presenting
the Thule to the Sultan
of Zanzibar
- This is
10to shew the consideration
in which I am held &
will aid me with the
Arabs = It is very kind
in the Governor so to
15arrange the matter -
A Colonel would have
been sent had the
commission not been
given to me


0058

26th Decr 1865 =
Tiffin on board the
"Windsor Castle." after
service at the Cathedral
5yesterday - Lord Edward
Seymour
with whom
I went to Elephanta
caves
after going with
Sir Bartle Frere to the
10South Maratha country
went to hunt bears -
Placed above a bear
cave he shot one of
two cubs which first
15came out. Then the
mother followed & he
retiring fell - The beast
gave him one of the
tremendous bites on the
20inside of the thigh which
the brutes can give &
went on - Two days
elapsed ere medical

0059
assistance could be
brought. Then amputation
and death followed -
an untimely end for a
5hopeful young man
who came to learn that
knowledge of India not
easily found in books -
Pity the poor father &
10mother & sisters if he
has any -


4th January 1866 -
embarked on board
the Thule going to
15Zanzibar as a pre-
-sent to the Sultan - the
mules were not on
board so we had to
wait till the morning
20of the 5th before

0060
sailing - Two Seedies
were by accident
knocked overboard
but were picked up -
5weather fine - but
winds light


16 January 1866 Had a
squall this morning
mules find it difficult
10to stand on account of
rolling of vessel - We
are more than half
way now to Zanzibar


19th began to steam
15on 17th on account
of want of wind -
It is now dead calm


[                ]

0061

When one travels
with the specific object
in view of ameliorating
the benighted natives of
5Africa every act becomes
enobled - While exchanging
the customary civilities -
Recieving a nights shelter
- purchasing food for
10the party - asking for
information - or giving
answers to the African's
polite enquiries as to the
objects of the travelers - We
15begin to spread inform
-ation respecting that people
by whose agency their
hand will yet be freed
from the cursed slave trade
20The mere animal pleasure
Travelling is very great

0062
the elasticity of muscle
imparted by brisk exercise
fresh & healthy blood
circulates through the
5brain - the eye is clear
the step firm and the
days exertion has been
enough to make repose
thoroughly enjoyable -
10We have always the
influence of remote
chances of danger either
from men or wild
beasts - Our sympathies
15are drawn out to our
humble hardy com-
panions by a com-
munity of interests
and perils - and
20makes us all friends indeed

0063
the mind meanwhile
is made more self
reliant - confident in
resources with greater
5presence of mind -


The body & limbs become
well knit - the muscles
loose{lose} all their fat & are
as hard as a board - the
10countenance bronzed
no dyspepsia-


The sweat of ones brow
is no longer a curse
when one works for
15God - It is converted
into a blessing - It is a
tonic to the system - The
charm of repose can
only be known after
20severe exertion


0064

24th January 1866 = After
several days of very light
winds we have a breeze today
but she does not go quick
-
5A shark bit the revolving vane
of the Patent log several days
ago and on 22d repeated
the bite and left several
pieces of the enamel of his
10teeth indented in the brass
We caught several dolphins
yesterday - the dorsal fin
is prolonged & large on to the
nose - This gives him great
15power in turning his head
& mouth to catch the fishes
All the fishes in their stom
achs were partially con
sumed though they could
20not have been long in
The gastric juice is very
strong {figure} found
inside & of this size


0065

25 January 1866. a good
wind today
and vessel
going slowly never
-the-less


26 get up steam in the
Afternoon -


28th Sunday came into
Zanzibar harbour this
10afternoon - all the Europe
-ans off on a picknick -
Opened mail bags in order
to see that man of war
letters might not be
15kept from Officers &
men of the "Vigilant" by
the picknick affair - called
at Vigilant


29th Went to call on
20Sultan in accordance
with request for a
private interview
which sent in the evening
we were recieved by a

0066
gaurd - A band at the
bottom of stairs struck
up the "Queen's Anthem"
when we shook hands
5with his Highness - We
told him that I was com-
missioned to deliver the
Thule as a present from
the Bombay Govern-
10-ment but a few days
were required to clean
& repair her. Then we
should get up a trial
trip if he would come
15on board - to this he
assented - on drinking
coffee & sherbet we came
away & the band struck
up the "British Grenadiers"
20called on Mr Shultz
acting for Dr Seward
I did not accept his

0067
mediation as political
agent because he is a
foreigner =


He says Baron van
5der Decken
is murdered
His bloody clothes were seen
by some Mahometans
who were allowed to
escape - Dr Link ran into
10the water and tried to escape
but was slain - They
spared one light coloured
man on his repeating
part of the Koran - (Dr
15Seward
is at Seyschelles)
The Baron was said not
to be cautious and rather
liked to drive all before
him - Poor fellow an
20untimely end - the river
is said to wind so much
at times as scarcely to
allow a long steamer to
go up - He went 300 miles about


0068

19th February 1866 -
Captain Brebner left in
the Nadir Shah at noon
Sultan offered a money
5present through Sheikh
Sulieman
which was
decidedly declined -


20th This morning
the Sultan goes out
10to buy the Thule =


22d He sent some one
else - He seems too feeble
& irresolute to do anything
He is like all Easterns
15profuse of promises


8th March. Sultan
sent Thule over to
examine a new bay
nearly opposite to
20this and Sheikh
Sulieman
tells us

0069
that he intends to build
a custom House there
and get his way at
the spot = They have
5difficulties when it is
embarked elsewhere
Bought two camels
one for 20 the for 32
dollars


10[10th]

Bought another camel
and a white Donkey
of Muscat


case of a man a
Monyar who ran
15away from this &
was sold at Muscat
his Zanzibar owner
getting information
thereof sent an order
20to sell him - He was
taken to Calcutta &

0070
becoming sick was
deserted by his master
there - when he got
out of hospital sailed
5in P. & O ships for six
years - then coming
back worked to Fraeser
& co for 18 months but
was again paid sold
10to Captain Abdullah
2 months ago - Sultan
says he purchased him
from said Abdullah
& will give him over
15to Consul but will
not say he has done
wrong


[                ]

0071

19th March 1866 - sailed
from Zanzibar on
board H M -S Penguin
Lieutt Garforth - with
5a dhow having camels
mules donkies &
buffaloes on board -
Paid 180 dollars for it
Reached Rovuma
10bay
on 22d and
anchored in 5 fathoms
went up left bank &
examined gullies to
see if camels can
15cross them - very
difficult, so told the
master of the dhow
to go up along right
bank which always

0072
was deep - on 23d he
warped up some dis-
tance - We then went
to examine further up
5on left bank & foun
it utterly impracticable
from thickness of
jungle & Mangrove
swamps full of
10gullies & roots plant
in excessively stick
mud - The dhow went
up about a mile on
the right bank and
15grounded while we
were examining
the left bank and
getting a Hippopotamus
calf shot by Mr Fan[ ]

0073
in one of the small gullies
Went over to dhow
& found she had grounded
and could proceed
5no further - Went in-
land from dhow
& found mangroves
quite as bad as other
side roots sticky
10mud & gullies without
end - s{T}hought of
landing at point
where Mr May observed
and then wading the
15camels up on the
sands in river
but it occurred to
me that if that should
fail we should be
20fairly jammed

0074
and obliged to leave
camels altogether -
went to Penguin &
Lieutt Garforth agreed
5that it would be
better to go to Kilwa
Captain of Dhow
strongly recom-
-mended Mikindany
10in which bay there is
a fine harbour calle
Pemba completely
shut in by land -
on west side the
15seaface rises up at
once from the water
to about 200 feet
the slope down being
clothed in rich

0075
green foliage very
pleasant to behold -
went over to sirkar
of Synd Majid - we
5were landed on N.
point of the gap in
got out camels &
hired a house - then
Penguin left us
10the Lieutt behaved
most kindly &
liberally


Kalane name of man
to whom I am to pay
15rent
of 4 dollars a
month = the hill John
is the landmark in
making the harbour



0076

28th March 1866
The Arab who acts as
soldier here for the
Sultan came today
5with a man who is
said to know all the
Interior - and who
was offered if I shoul
pay him handsome-
10ly beforehand to be
a sort of guide - an
ill looking fellow
I replied that I wante
porters and if these
15could not be had
I would go on
with the men I
had - After a

0077
long talk we decided
nothing - They have
no cattle here nor
at Magaa{ao} which is
5said to be six hours
North of this - all
sadl{d}les finished


30 March 1866 - Plenty
of game in country
10adjacent but no
Tsetse - They have not
tried cattle - having
been here only five
or six years here
15They know the Tsetse
on Rovuma -


We have several
times been asked by
the half-caste Arabs

0078
for brandy which the
drink in secret but
may have not made it
an article of commerce
5as we have done on
the West Coast -
no carriers to be had
Sirkar will give two
men to shew road =
10refuse rent of house
for things we leave
behind


[31st]

Excercising camels
two very stubborn
15ruin was a mosque


[                ]



0079
5 bags of beads
5 boxes instruments
    books clothes -
1 bag bedding
51 box soap 1 Do Tea -
15 bales cloth #camels
1 box preserved meats
1 bag coffee -
1 box candles
107 boxes ammunition
15 small bales cloth
1 sugar - cooking utensil



Camels carry all the
15bales -




3 bags clothes -
4 instruments
1 medicine box
201 ammunition


0080
chaza = oyster
makararu another shellfish
eaten - good pia

John = {figure} the direction
5hill W N W of entrance

        Distances
Makonde
Kuaridelwi = 2 Kuaridea
[1] Jantulo
10 [3] Ligongonda
Lehuma

Mgg{a}o is said to only
six hours north
of Kindany harbour


15 [                ]

0081
{figure}
0082
Paid Antonio Rs 14 -
  soap                 Rs 4
candles & serge £5-3-8

advanced to Johanna
5men by Captain Garforth
  £29-4 & repaid by me

        15{0} R. Ghee at Kindan
advanced Wikatn{d}ani 4/
for gun mending

10 [                ]

0083
mill - 2
Big beads 500 2 50
Buffalo house 35
soap - 1 box 2.50

5

1100 = 12
1112 = 18
  138 - 63


101250      81 = 1291 = 31
26[  ]{89} = 8254 Rs

on second coffe 6
account sugar 3.50
R 2776-5 Brandy 11      
15men 20

Koroje bin
Volamadasa


0084
2 frasilah beads [  ]
  26.75
20 pieces cloth 46.25
20 Do 46.25
520 Kaniki 46.25
20 Do 28.50
samesame 5¼ 70.25
Golaleia 5¼ 5{6}1.69
unduo24.16
10Langĩo 5¼ 49.88
Powder - 4.
Balls     63
2 guns 6


15Buggalo 100
food 86.57
presents 22.50
porters   -- 200
food of Do   7

0085
{figure}
[                ]


0086
Colobus Guereza = Tippet monkey
the Polume - or Mbega of E As{f}rica



Tangoe = Honey bird
5  Sakirdornis melanota = black
backed goose

{figure}

Leave with Dr Seward
one hundred Pounds
10£100 - to send buffaloes
& other matters
12 March 1866 =




Kerje to send 300 lbs
15beads - 500 egg beads
& 80 pieces cloth
to Thani bin Suelum
at Ujiji - Then his Sepoy
to come back to Said bin
20Salem
at Unyembe



0087
{figure}
cousins are Bari
& not marrigiable



5neiche{es} not marriagi
able = Bokaru

Bariao Do Do
Nkamoane
grandneices Do D
10mbui{e}a meje{u}ala may
marry or be married
but the blood relation
ship is finished

[                ]


0088

a large peace & opposite
shore just visible in a
clear day - Salim bin
Abdullah
was his Arab
5guide thither - Mafite are
there = Kingomanga
carried him in a cot
His village is Mamemba
Roscher left goods with
10Likoomboo a chief at
Rovuma & was going
for them -


Mukokota name of
murderer


0089

Dr Roscher was killed
at a village called
Kisoongoona 3 days [      ]{to}
the North East of Lake
5Nyassa
- 19th Novr reached L.
He remained at Nussewa
on the borders of the Lake
nearly 4 months - The
chief is Makawa - to
10him Roscher's servant
returned - He gave an
escort to the district
chief Kingomanga ^ a mogace 4
days
from the Lake
15who went with 50 followers
Kingomanga & Makawa
sent all the goods &
murderers to Kilwa
Roscher lodged in
20Marvole's house at
Nussewa


0090
Amoda 10 Feby Rs 10
Suzi         Do          Rs 10
being February & ½ March

Juma & Wikatani 1 R. each
5Gave Chitko & Dungudza
12 days provisions &
1 Rupee passage to
Mosambique 11 Feby /66

Amoda         R 1 + 1
10Suzi for Dobi       R 1
Suzi 4 [ ] for        1 musket
Suzi for stealing to pay
10 Rupees -

Amoda 1 yd. - 1 Shilling
15Suzi blue jumper 6/
eight Johanna men
Jumpers                 6/

Nassick boys each 6/
Paid fine by Johanna man   2/

0091
Paid to Theodor Schulby [  ]
at Zanzibar £27-4
for keep of buffaloes
at Zanzibar

510th Feby 1866
Paid Havildar for 3 days
for grass to Do & mules R 2

for other five{six} days Rs 3
for feed of cattle   R 5

10 [                ]

{figure}


0092

Hamid bin Sulayyam
arab of the Dhow on Lake
Tanganyika




5

Khamis bin Juma another
who knew him well but
was East of Lake
Uvira
last point of Arabs N.
S. of Lake is land of Marunga


10

Ubwari island
Uvinza salt comes from
Wabembe = man eaters
Uvira - stalwart sons of
15Sultan Maruta





0093
Morofi = sawfish is said
to eat Mabande a spears
of grass growing in wet
places = saws it through

5Chinyessi = electric fish
eats Makamba or craw
fish.

Dōwe = Mchura or its
own tail which grows again -

10Colour of Dolphin fins
bright blue - body light
green - causes fascin-
-ation in flying fish
as cobra's hood does
15a fish if once it comes
in its sphere cannot
fly scarcely

zikombo other side or
country

0094

26 Decr 1865 Sent off
to ship by Dubash


10 Loads of calico
8 ---     of coloured and
5                woolen cloths

18 boxes provisions


36 in all



1010{1} bags of beads sent
3 --     shot -
6 boxes                29th



{figure}
0095
No 3 remains
2d N 1 goes - medium
box -
Revolver
essence of beef - compas

5Left with Mr Francis
3 tin boxes (clothing)
1 wooden box
(Microscope)

1 medicine box
101 box magic Lantern
11 saws
4 axes
1 wooden box - books





15{figure}
0096
No 2 to go to Zanzibar
travelling clothes
& some books - mbane
inside -

5No 1 - Hammock
of Ms Alington -
6
s{c}hecked shirts

Mosquito curtains
needles looking glasses
10coloured woolen 4
[4] roles -
knives - silver
spoons -
looking
glasses -
iron spoons
1 towel = Preseved tin kirnes
15-files
-
Lancaster gun &
powder horn -
shot belt
shells -- bullet moulds
Foolscap paper = piece of
red striped stuff =
shawl

0097
No 4 box to be left
at Ms Tracey's contains
Uniform - black dress
coat & Trowsers - New
5blue coat & checkd
trowsers -
1 pr boots

No 5 contains -
Uniform hat - paper
flannel & other shirts
10stockings - boots 1 pr
microscope box

0098

8th Paid Livery Company
for buggy hire R. 24




Psylli of Strabo whose
5bodies were supposed
to have antidote to poison
of serpents


In India = Saadi




10        Ben Habibs Journal
mentions Umarungu
R.
flowing into S. End of
Lake = He went to Peto -

Karembo = Makunga
15Karunguesi
=

    Charéka name of Cazembe
R. Ragira flows past
Katanga & joins Luapula

country Buira =
20Makololo Ujenje

0099

Speke says page 165 of
His Journal - On starting
to the rescue, my companion
complained of the shock
5his nerves recieved since
the Somali encounter,
and this appeared to
affect him during the
whole of this journey"
10he evinces an evident
dislike to Burton and
did not hesitate to call
him a coward, but this
does not justify Speke
15in stealing a march on
Burton by publication
of his Journal after
promising not so to do


                                        DL


20

Nsango Divination


0100
native measures
Gora = 15 cloths of 4 cubits each
(Kinike Indigo dyed stuff)
Sahari = Dubuani &c
5Barsate tablecloths of various
colours

cloth of 4 cubits = a Shukka
Dhote = piece of 12 fathoms{feet}
or 8 cubits = 8 + 18 = 16{4}4
10= to 12 feet or 6{4} yards
= 2 fathoms

Kitindi = brass rings

"To save repetition, I
may as well mention thatthe
15fact that neither Captain
Burton
nor myself were
able to converse in any
African language until
we were close to the coast on
20the return Journey -" foot
note page 199 Speke's Journal


0101

4{7} Novr


Paid for 800 pages
of map blanks 10 Rs 8



5Drew to self 20 Rupees


Paid for calico 259-8
Rupees - to Nicol & Co

2 Decr To Do R 260
10--         --                          5R34
To Nicol & Co calico   500 Rs
Sundries       ----             10
-                         ----           10
-                         ----           10
15self -                                   24
    watches repair         19
Paid to ColMajor Muler
for shoes 24 pai R 120

at 5 R per pair
20for Tin                    R: 5
Dec 8th Drew Currt 12100 R
Sundries         R 46-13 2

0102
{figure}
0103
{figure}
0104
1st Octr
Suzi 12 Rupees
Amoda 12 Do
Manta - 30
5

16th
Mantu 15 R.
Dungodza 10


10to self             --- 20
washing 10


Amoda 55
Monita 5 5
15

Amoda 6

0105

27 Sepr 1865


Paid Wikatani & Chuma
2 months & a half - 12-3 or
Rs 25 ---
5+




{figure}


{figure}
0106
        Fare to Paris #£ 5 3 4
£ 2 11 8
        Luggage --- £ 1 8 6
£ 4 0 2
5self         £ 0-5 = £ 3-5-0
Marseilles £ 4-
Hotel Paris - £ 2 8
& Marseilles £ 1 10
20 Aug £ 11 30
10medicine box



#26th Sept-r Paid on
my own private acct-
for painting steamer
15food for men & to the
Bombay Government
609-3 Rupees = and
wages of men
500 Rupees -/ 100 Rupees 289 Sepr


0107

May 9th 1865 / £ 121 17
Paid to Macdougall &co
clothing         £ 11 18
29 May to
5Mr Joseph Starkey
for caps & belt - £ 3 14 6
20 Aug. [ ]           £ 11 3   
                                £ 148 2 76

10Eitre Luggage
to Bombay £     9-14-9
stewards fees £ 1 10
Cairo Hotel            16
Suez Hotel               8 6
15                        £ 160 12 9
To Mr Young   105          
for clothing £ 265 12 9
Magic Lanter
watches &c


0108

9th August 1865
To P & O Company
for passage from
Marseilles to
5Bombay         £ 82-10
Stereoscope =       12
11th August
Bought of John Searle
one Leathern trunk
10for Journey         £3-5
Stationary -         £ 11-
Drew for
Journey through
France & to Bombay £ 25-



15Expenses             £ 121-17


0109
4 August 1865 Mem.
[to] Bind Obsn books
candles - Lantern
sextant stand
5watch - Bombay
Dentist =
[sell] steamer - compass &
ruler -
Beads string
Tea = coffee - sugar
10preserved meats - sardines
Tarpauling -
kettle. saucepan -
Frying pan -
Flour
0110
0111
{figure}
0112
0113


Field Diary II
David Livingstone


Date of composition: 4 April - 14 May 1866
Repository: David Livingstone Centre, Blantyre, United Kingdom
Shelfmark: 1124
Clendennen & Cunningham number(s): Field Diaries, 015
Digital edition and date: Livingstone Online, 2017
Publisher: University of Maryland Libraries, College Park, MD, USA
Project ID: liv_000002
Critical encoding: Adrian S. Wisnicki, Megan Ward, Heather F. Ball, Christopher Lawrence, Kate Simpson, Jared McDonald, Angela Aliff, Ashanka Kumari
Encoding dates: 2014-06-03, 2014-06-08, 2014-06-12, 2014-06-14, 2014-06-15, 2014-06-19, 2014-06-21, 2014-06-29, 2014-07-03, 2014-07-04, 2014-07-05, 2014-07-11, 2014-08-01, 2014-08-20, 2014-08-25, 2014-10-04, 2014-10-15, 2014-10-31, 2014-11-22, 2015-12-15, 2016-12-06




0001

II.


0002
0003

Rough notes which
are the basis of the
entries in the 'Last
Journals
' There is
5lillte verbal similarity
& there is a good deal
in the Journal that is
not here. Dates too
are, wiltin limits,
10somewhat different &
there are omissions but
not of any great
importance. These have
been pencilled where
15noticed.



0004

4th April 1866. At
Kindany - about to
start across to the
village called Pemba
5& there arrange the
burdens before
starting - a buffaloe
gored a donekey &
his bowels being
10out - shot him &
cut of points of
the buffaloe's horns
on the principle of
locking stable door
15after steed is stolen
camels sank up to
their bodies in level
level bare crusted spots



0005
1   Mtawatawe
2   Maromba
3   Janga
4   Ngomano
55   Vangindo

The above are
mentioned as stages
above Nyamatolole
or Mtawatawa
10rapids
where we
turned on Rovuma
The sirkar was
profuse in professing
but did not do
15anything - He

0006
got frightened when
we set our gaurd
& collected all his
men at night with
5matches lighted - we
explained & left our
boat & boats cargo
with him -


2 boxes Flour
101 --         Tea
1     sardines
1     boiled mutton
1     cartridges - (1200)
1     Rockets & long lights
156 bags beads -

The sardines Tea & small
cask pork to be sent
to Zanzibar = the beads
& ammunition kept


0007

5th got luggage in
order and on the
7{6}th made a short
march to a village
5at South end of the
Lakelet -


7th started at 5 AM
& got camels, buffaloes
& donkies loaded -
10a couple miles
off we came to a
village the headmen
of which pressed us
to stop but being
15informed that the
next village could
be reached in [      ]{two}
hours
we went on

0008
a pretty straight wend
in a valley from
which rose well
wooded low heights
5of some 200 or 300
feet
- The path was
in dense grass over
which the camels
alone could see - Trees
10plentiful & of good
size - We went on
6 instead of two
hours
& had to cut
down overhanging
15branches of Bamboo
which though offering
no obstruction &
rather an agreable
shade to boot pass [      ]

0009
could not be passed
by our tall animals
We got the last of
men in to a village
5called (Nyangedi)
where we spent
Sunday 8th. all
around would in
India be called
10Dense jungle - wild
Dogs and antelopes
abound & here on
the evening of the
7th April 1866
15buffaloes & camels
made acquaintance
ship with Tsetse


0010

Bōto = bale
Masudi -
Bahari -
Usene - box
5Bakari - bale
Salem       Do
Suliman     Do
Kombo - semsem
Umari - big bale
10Urindi       Do
Juma
Umari (2)
Masudi       Do
Muftaha       Do
15    Musa           Do
Bonale my bag



names of carriers hired
at Nyañgedi on Sunday
(8th)
station (to ease the
20cattle), at 2 yards to Nuri
a day & a half distant



9th ^ April the country rather
curious in being
without stones on
25surface - deep rich
soil - covered with

0011
dense vegetation and
a good deal of it
Bamboo which
entails considerable
5use of axes by us
the paths are good
for country purposes
being cleared of
all obstructions
10for foot passengers
but the height of
the camels makes
us clear higher up
than the people need
15our path today &
part of yesterday
lay along a valley

0012
with slopes on each
side of 100 or 150
feet
quite jungles
From Nyangedi on
5wards the people
are all Makonde
and seem great
cultivators for
export by the Arabs
10of Kindany - the
names of people
shew much inter
course with Arabs
large gardens of
15Mapira or dura
and Indian corn
& cassava are

0013
seen on the slopes -
The people much
more taken up
with the camels
5& buffaloes than
with me - Ali
a good looking
coast Arab guides
us to Ndonde
10for 20 dollars. He
has a friend by way
of dealing with the
people who all
speak Swaheli -


15

My own people
not well broken
in yet often skulk


0014

10th April 1866
After almost 3 hours
actual travel
we
arrived at Nuri
5a few huts among
extensive gardens
a thick crop of trees
springs up when
a garden is deserted
10and the same sort
but grown must
be cut down before
a garden can be
made - the Makonde
15have no paramount
chief - all are very
independent within

0015
bearing - foreheads
narrow & low but
compact - heads
small - alae nasi
5broad - hips ordinarily
thick - legs ^ & body well formed
hands & feet small - colour
dark & light brown


At Nuri on 10th April
101866


{figure}


0016

Ishmael fever & vomiting
R cal & qu{ar}omatic p. stopp[  ]
vomiting - Purg. Jal & cal
11 got cal. & quinine tongue fu[ ]r Pandich Rum much 10th
5got pill cal. & Res. Jal.
11 better - quinine Sakiska - fever &
purging - quinine &
morphia


G{J}ainach Gun much
10got cul & quinine
feels better Recovered - Rep. (much better
Ramnuch Lucknuch{k}
got fever at 6 P.M
cal & quinine - purges & vomits
15Quinine 12th Nahunoa - Johanna man
cal. & quinine - purges - Rx
cal & quinine Musa cough w ^ better fever
Richard Isenberg - cal &
quinine - still headache
20better but weak O --- headache had
cal & Jalap


0017

Shah Malim = headache &
fever pil cal. & jal. Recovered




Saddle with 2 bales & 2 powder
5case fra camel with sore on
thigh - [ ]2 bales 2 br

2         th Tea box on big brown
3 Friesien saddle blind eye - w
boils on Mrieut

104 - thin scraggy - crooked saddle
5        Bobery wallah - box Cane
6      Do big musty sepoy bag 4 bales
& my - [      ]{tools} shot bag

[                ]

0018
√ Somari 15 Men of Nuri on
11th April

Rupimi 13
Boamusa 10
5Monyesa 8
Salem 1
Monyamas{z}i 7
Hamesi
Monyadade 11
10Asani 9
Mohamadi 12


Masuri 1
Suluman 2
15Salem 2d 14
Katembe 3
Sah{d}ke 4
Bahari 5
Stomali 6


0019

11th April, at Tandahal{r}a.
We came only about 4
miles
- eleven of the
men had fever for which
5I gave medicine last
night & ^ today and all are better
though not quite well -
course along what seems
to be ancient river beds
10but we are still ascending
as seen where water flows
They paths are ^ in wady's in a
rich fertile country - a
good deal of sand in
15soil but very heavy
crops of maize - dura
& cassava are grown
The bamboo's are cleared
off & burned as manure
20Iron is scarce for many
appear with sharpened
sticks for spears - but

0020
in some spots where an
ooze issues from the
ground. Its red with
oxide of iron - & no
5springs have yet been
seen - people trust to
wells - not so much
cutting to clear the paths
today - grass about
10knee high. The intense
#eagerness with which
the people listen to the
accordion is very
interesting - No demands
15have been made as yet
but each of the head men
with whom we spent
the night gave a present
of fowls & maize &
20watermelons which I
returned with a fathom
of calico & pleased them


0021

The Makonde dialect is
quite different from the
Swaheli. I hire men to
c{c}arry at the rate of 2 cubits
5a day - This is not high
seeing we are so near the
coast & the carriers assist
in cutting the path clear
All have been quite civil as
10yet


{figure}

12th April 1866 on
starting this morning
we found the bush so
15dense that as the people
thought there "was no
cutting of it." We cut
half a mile & when going
forward to see the termi
20-nation I found that
the thicket stretched
some th[    ] miles


0022

The trees are not large
many might be called
s{m}ere poles with scrub-
but the crop is densely
5planted every where
save where bamboos
have starved other
ligneous plants out
Then they are intertwined
10with climbing plants
like a ship's ropes in
thickness - One species
is a flattened ribbon
of about 2 inches thick
15by ¼ to ½ an inch thick
along the middle of its
flattened sides every
few inches rises a
a brush ^ tuft of sharp
20thorns


0023

{figure} It turns
            on itself
            at sharpp
        angles and hangs
5from tree to tree and its
tangled limbs straggle
out at{on} every side like
so many tape worms -
another climber is small
10but very tough & not
to be broken with the
fingers - a third is
like a young tree but
has the straggling habit
15of its class and where
you cut through its
tough woody stem
of from one to two
inches in diameter
20you find that it

0024
has its length 20 or 40
yards still to be disposed
of - then a fourth climber
resembles a leaf of aloes
5twisted in as fantastic
an way as shavings
from the plane of a
carpenter - It is dark
{figure} green in colour and
10when the bark is
removed beautifully
striated inside - a
fifth is a thin string
with a succession
15of large knobs on it
each seems a
thorn - a sixth
is a cord covered
all over with hookd
20spines like our sweet
briar but woefully

0025
tough


Another {figure}
The woods are still - few
new birds appear - this
5is probably owing to the
want of running water
If you hear a bird in the
forest it makes you
wonder


10

When I found that it
would be a tedious
affair to cut a way
for myself & offered
2 cubits to any of
15Monyadade's men
who would act as
sappers - six jolly young
men were glad of the
job - (more offered-)
20and they made the

0026
path clear for camels
in a way that did
the heart good to see -
They use a tomahawk
5{figure} with great skill &
speed - climbers &
young trees melted like
a cloud before the
sun - a long vista of
10light soon appeared
where the vision before
was confined to 20
or 30 yards
- they worked
with a will - a slope
15took us down to a
fley as the Cape folks
call a ˄ flat hollow with or
without water - here
there was water with
20tall grass hiding it
from the eye -


0027

Resting here a little we
had another brisk spell
with our merry wood
-men - and then arrived
5at an old man's village
on the Southern slope
of the Rovuma - We
now got a glance of
the country - It is hilly
10forest all dark green
at present - & only one
or two sterculias had
changed their colour to
yellow & diversified
15the scene - grassy glades
were few & again the
grass was as tall as
when we first plunged
into it South of its
20harbour Kindany -

0028
The old man ˄ Monyinkō presented
a goat and I gave
him 2 fathoms of
calico - to the other
5headmen I gave one
fathom or 2 yards in
return for a basket
of ˄ maize & a couple fowls - they
demanded nothing
10I employed some of
the Makonde as carriers
at the rate - a large one
- of 2 cubits or 1 yard
of calico per day -
15for this we can have
as many as we
choose - the wood
cutters desired to be
employed another
20day in order to
have the 2 yards

0029
which make a dress
"Robo" - The tall ones
had exhausted their
strength by the spirits
5of yesterday - the
shorter worker briskly
still. Meat feeding
seems essential to
long continued ex-
10-ertion in all - The
chinese may be
exceptions to this -


Sepoys rice done
last night - say they
15came not to eat
but to die with me
and if they got
some maize - or
Joari they would
20be content to

0030
follow wherever I
may lead - It is said
that we can get plenty
of food in front


5

13th Saw rocks of grey
sandstone probably
of coal - & Rovuma
in distance - Reached
after a little cutting
10a village on a height
called Didi Chombokea - all
the hollows seem to
be escued - we had
11 cases of fever by
15sleeping in a low
lying place against
our will


Informed tonight that
Ndonde had been visited
20by the Mazitu and

0031
had lost everything five
months ago - we could
not get a word of this
at Zanzibar - Every one
5carefully avoided any
particulars - "I shall
give you a letter to my
friends" with this we
were got off - The
10Arabs are all very jealous
of our going into the
country


14 April 1866 found
about 2 miles of
15thicket to cut through
hired men and got
down to sleep by the
Rovuma opposite
some very red cliffs


0032

15th Spent Sunday on
banks of Rovuma - some
of Ndonde's men passed
on their way down to
5a port near Rovuma's
mouth with dried
fish & rice in their canoe
they confirm report of
the Mazitu having swept
10over the country and thus
have left no food in it -


16th along Rovuma
for some 7 miles - the
sun is very sharp
15indeed - it scorches -
All Sepoys had fever except
Pando - cured them w
calomel & quinine -
when they recovered
20the Johanna men, and
Nassick boys took it -
they complain of headach

0033
tongue is clean usually or
rather having a white
washed out appearance
the calomel & quinine acts
5on bowels and tongue
then fouls - I sometimes
add resin of jalap to
clear out but it is the
quinine which cures
10the calomel seems to
increase the power of
the quinine.


17th came on yesterday
to a village on the slope
15down to Rovuma - An
old doctor with a foot
wanting gave me two
large bags of uncleaned rice
and his wife cleaned them
20for us - The Sepoys have
too much luggage - both
buffaloes & donkeys are
distressed by t[  ] miles to

0034
Bariwara - name of vil.
Fundindumbo of old
doctor headman.


Went on about 3 hours
5cutting again in the
thickets between the
Makonde gardens - We
are led off our line a
little I believe to come
10near a village of Ali's
A fine country to the eye
the rice which seems
much cultivated among
maize and sorghum
15is pining for want
of water - sleep on a
slope of a valley about
2 or 3 miles from
Rovuma - many
20of the people much
tattooed in wavy

0035
lines - The population
seems very considerable
though really little of the
country is cultivated -
5no cattle - only goats &
fowls -


18th April 1866 After
making a camels saddle
we came on in rather
10a zigzag course cutting
a clearance for the
camels in many parts
The guide Ali misled us
to one of his numerous
15houses and being
charged with this at the
beginning of the deviation
he stoutly denied it "that
was the road to Ndonde"
20and we were led the
right way - Today we

0036
had to return back to the
path and he took upon
himself the aggrieved
tone of one injured - This
5made our actual
distance again very
small probably not
more than 6 or 7 miles
though we started at
1010-15 & continued at
it till 5 PM --
through woods &
gardens - but water
is scarce - the stumps
15in the gardens are a
trouble


19th April 1866 - We
have been plagued by
being led up one of the
20big spurs that come

0037
out of the table land as
hills and then down
into the valley beyond
the slope is usually
5covered with a dense
jungle and involves
much cutting - To
avoid this up & down
work I objected to go
10down today preferring
to send for water - We
are on the plateau now
& tasted water of a
low temperature today
15for the first time since
we left Kindany -
Where radiation goes
on as on the plateau
it is usually deliciously
20cool - We made but a

0038
short march six miles
or so but all in the right
direction - Ali seems to
think that we must be
5led from one water to
another but now we
shall get on better -


People very rude
especially the women
10and many of the men
profusely tattooed -
teeth sharpened to points
they say for beauty


Found Tsetse biting
15buffaloes again


20th April 1866 - Two
camels were allowed
to trespass on a man's
tobacco patch & spoiled
20it - We had to pay one
yard of calico for it

0039
then came on down to
level of Rovuma & cut
or rather widened the
path all the way - In
5actual distance we did
not do two miles - The
camels very tired - on
ascending the opposite height
I decided to remain as
10the air is pleasanter
than on the lower levels
we are close to the River -
the great sand banks are
in many cases bare -
15The Makonde very eager
to engage in cutting a
way for us at one yard
a day - and they work
hard & well - whittling
20down the climbers w
great dexterity - they are
accustomed to clear
their garden of them

0040
they do it merrily too
for every now & then
one bursts forth with
a cheerful shout - We
5are quite lost in the
gigantic grasses of the
lower lands - so that
to take angles & directions
is out of the question
10Elephants & hippopotami
and pigs are the chief
game & we see none
Every headman
[ ]rofesses to be a
15doctor - Komuaha to slep


21st April 1866 We
left Komuaha and
with Wrongwe hill on our
left we went on cutting
20all the way to valley
Mehambwe
to spend

0041
Sunday 22 - all glad it
has come -


Met some men from
Ndonde's who say that
5the Mazite are still in
the country eating the
cassava of the people -
they can easily cross the
Rovuma high up as it
10is a mere mountain
torrent there - The features
of these men are rounded
like the Batoka - faces
deeply tattooed - an[ ]
15all front
part of bodies
{figure}

0042
when saluting they catch
each others hands &
say Ai! Ai! I am
glad that no misunderstanding
5has yet arisen between
them and us -


In coming up the hill
Wrongwe
a camel fell
and rolled over - We
10took off his burden &
turned him round &
lifted him - He was much
hurt


The main rock of this
15part of the country from
the point where we
joined the Rovuma to
this is coarse grey
sandstone capped
20with a ferruginous
sandstone conglomer
-ate - no fossils seen


0043

22d April 1866 - In
Mehambwe valley -
A one eyed ill looking old
fellow came about us
5He was the instigator of
the attack on us in our
former visit and to
him I gave cloth to


        prevent a collision
1023d said nothing to him -
Juvi = leopard - They{e}
Makonde take off skin
and burn body in fire
We passed one this
15morning which had
been so treated - the
reason given is that
it eats men therefore
its flesh cannot be
20eaten - this shews

0044
the opposite of an inclina-
tion to cannibalism -
came along the Northern
highlands near the base
5we attempted to go on
top to camels could
not ascend a steep
space near summit -


Found fossil trees
10on surface - Leaves
beginning to shew
yellow tints of autumn


Buffaloes bitten by
Tsetse again - they
15shew no signs of
being affected like
oxen & have lost
flesh only as one
might expect from
20hard work - The

0045
camels are more
affected but whether
by Tsetse or labour
I cannot say - One
5mule seems dull &
out of spirits - I sus
-pect the work as the
cause


a carrier stole the
10shirt & powder of a
Johanna man - Ali
went off by night
caught him - made
him pay handsome
15ly for the theft and
came back early this
morning -


24th It was a pity that
anyone was hit when
20the Makonde fired on us

0046
as the friends will not
look on us as innocent
though the attack was
wholly unprovoked by
5us and we fired strictly
in self defence.


The low lands generally
are uncultivated - This
is probably from their
10unhealthiness - The
meadow land now
stretching along the
North bank about
2 miles wide is without
15an inhabitant - We
see but few marks of
game either - pigs are
the chief animals -
very few birds about
20and only near water


0047

We did not make 5
miles
in a straight
line today - 3 sepoys
fell out sick - They
5are speedily cured by
a dose of Calomel &
quinine but again
relapse - then the
Johanna men have
10a turn of it and last
of all the Nassick
boys - but we are
favoured in losing
none yet -


15

I have altered all
the saddles & made
them so that they
dont hurt the camels

0048
nearly so much as
at first - {figure} We
have showers tonight
all are under cover in
5sheds or screens --


a good deal of
Rice is cultivated
among the maize
and dura - This
10shews a moist
climate
even on
the hills for there
the gardens are
situated -


15

#     a kind of potato
first seen by me
at Nambwe & all
called Mamt{and}are


0049

25 April 1866 Had
a little rain last
night. seven sepoys
ill of a fever - day
5gloomy. We are in a
forest and all is
damp


a serpent bit "Jack"
one of the dogs above the
10left eye - Chuma alone
saw it - The upper eyelid
swell up very quickly
but next day all
inflammation was gone
15The quantity of poison
injected must have
been very small --
came along the side of
the valley as our
20course has been in dense
tall grass with ups & down

0050
to which the camels object
some stand doggedly refusing
to step into a gulley of
less than two feet depth
5and easy slope - and
their pace is distressingly
slow. arrived at a
valley near the end of
the plateau as seen from
10Rovuma called Narri
and there resolve to
wait on the .


26th April 1866 and
purchase food as there
15is much hunger in front
in consequence of the
prolonged raid of the
so called Mazite - the
people all civil and
20eager traders with their
meal, fowls, eggs, honey
women very naked


0051

Took obsns ʘ Time & alt
Mer. Lat. 10° 54' 48" S
purchase plenty of
meal - one camel
5lamed by beating with
a stick - a sepoy the
defaulter (Pando) -
Reproved him and
have to leave the
10camel with the
headman at Narri


box x Nakochindorè - 8 B. pepier
bale x Tetamwa
box x chirombwe e mwene flower
15box x Nachihumo
bale x Chitete
bale x Ntima kirenga
meal x Tuknodil
0052
Mapuru meal x Nyamwewe
        x Ma{Ba}kari Tea box & bead bag
        x Dinganya sugar
        x Navichindeke coffee & bag
5        x Kahitane
        Nambeha's men - camel
        left with him



28thApril vil. ilaha
We passed end of hills
10on North apparently
they still continue on
South - made a good
march through field
of sorghum all of it
15very high 12 to 13
feet
- many people
running to see the
camels & buffaloes

0053
which are the great
attraction - rains fall
every few hours
&
delay us as we
5cannot put our
things up wet without
mildewing them


People all listen to
the accordion with
10intense delight. They
would afford a study
to a painter when in
the attitudes of intense
eagerness they assume


15

country scattered
over with petrified
wood in fragments
& blocks - with quartz,
gravel & shimpall

0054
a gap in the Southern
table land gives passage
to a river arising in
a lakelet which may
5be three miles across
as a man cannot be
distinguished at the
distance by the keen
eyes of the natives - It
10is called Nangadi &
abounds in large fish
The people are Mabiha
a little further up is
Konayumba also
15famous for fish
Kimbembe is the chief
& further still on same
side are Matambwe
who speak a different
20dialect but under-
standable by Makon[  ]

0055
Nachuhu vil. at
which we arrived to
spend Sunday 29th is
nearly opposite - S.
5Ali draws a very
dark picture of the
Makonde - They know
nothing of God - of
future state or of
10any religion - no
Arab has ever tried
to convert them - only
when slaves are taken
to the coast they are
15circumcised so as
to be clean & some
of them pray - He
says they know
no Muavi or ordeal

0056
but blame witches
for disease & death --
remove a village if a
death occurs in it -
5An awe has come
over them all at
our approach and
those who are notorious
for fines & mulcts
10have said nothing
though our beasts
have broken a good
deal of the cornstalks
they are said to fear
15the English - They
sell each other to the
Arabs - answer to
my prayers


0057

29th April 1866. at
Nachuchu. After
worship tried to say
a few words to the
5Makonde by the
Nassick boys all
pretended that they
could not speak
their tongue though
10we are in their
own country (Ndonde)
where they were born
and they converse
on ordinary topics


15{figure}
0058
{figure}


29th the reverence
with which the
5Makonde view us
I ascribe to that
influence which
I besought The
almighty to grant
10I regret that I
cannot speak
to the heathen that
good of his name
I feel they deserve


0059

Went and saw a
specimen of the
gum copal tree -
It drops on the ground {figure}
5Leaves in pairs
glossy green with
the veins a little
      raised on face
          & back - The
10      bark light ash
          colour - tree
            large - small
      branches
        diverge from
15              same points
{figure}

0060
The gum is digged
for in vicinity of the
modern trees in
the belief that the
5ancestors of these
same dropped gum
unheeded when it
had no purchaser
In digging said one
10none may be found
on one day but
God (Mungu) may
give it the next
to this all Makonde
15asserted shewing
a belief to which
they were this morning
denied


0061

The Makonde get the
gum in large quanities
This attracts traders who
remain in the country
5a long time & marry
but do not teach
their b{r}eligion - They
despise the Makonde
but many light
10coloured persons &
the hair of others
shew that intimate
relations have sub-
-sisted - Hernia Hu-
15-moralis abounds -
no reason for lip
ring but beauty &
fashion


0062

30th April 1866 at
Kunyane to which we
made a very short
march - camels getting
5weaker & full of ulcers
possibly old dhow
bruizes now working
out. People here sent
word that they were
10cleaning rice for us
but when we came
we found it to be
false, as they sent
for some we waited
15till they pounded it
and will sleep here
We get the fish called
Pende on Zambesi
a mullet?

0063
The crops of sorghum are
very good but not
yet being ripe the people
complain of hunger-
5sepoys better Nassick
boys now take their {figure}
turn so 4 of them com-
-plain         women are
very naked - men
10have mostly the
tattoo common here -
They have no goats &
only fowls of a small
sort - but no sheep
15or other domestic animal
pigeons appear in a
few villages - Bang or
Hemp is not commonly
smoked - in this they
20are better than the
Manjaja - no

0064
iron is found in this
part consequently it is
scarce & dear - many
men have been seen
5with wooden spears
Honey is very cheap
a pot with four fowls
were given for 2 yards
of calico - The pot was
10about a gallon - No
game appear in these
parts if we accept
wild hogs & guinea fowl


The buffaloes were bitten
15by the Tsetse badly
yesterday evening
I caught many on
them - Those on the
camels were full of
20blood - Rain has
fallen
since first of Mar


0065
Kunyane carriers 1st May
                                        1866

- Marakocha coffee
- Chonkondidi sugar
5- Nahaorango box
- Baba         bale
- Mpoto         bale
- Bakari         Tea & beads
- Chirombwe e mwene bale
10- NeperiKolumba box flour
- Makoane bale
- Kantande rice &c

1st May 1866 we
came on through a rich
15country again - but
most of it was free
of wood requiring
cutting by us - It is
very beautiful to look
20out upon when one
gets a glimpse - The

0066
country seems clothed
with great masses
of umbrageous foliage
mostly of a dark green
5A great many of the
individual trees have
leaves glossy like
laurels - We passed
a gigantic specimen
10of the Kumbe or gum
copal yielding tree -
and many Malole fruits
were on the ground -


came to Ntande village
15a strong stockade was
round it for fear of
the Mabiha who come
& steal people going for
water - This is for the
20Iboe market -


0067

Before we came to N-
-tande
we passed the
ruins of two villages
deserted as the custom
5is when death occurs
The owners were the
attacking party in our
case when we ascended
the Rovuma in boats
10In the return fire by
the 2d boat one ball
struck the father on
the chin, and another
went through his son's
15head - It may have been
best that the English
were known as people
who can hit when
unjustly attacked - never
20was a murderous assa
-ult more unprovoked [      ]{than} this

0068
all look on the English
with awe, and no
impudence is shewn
by those Makonde
5who were notorious
for fines - on the most
frivolous pretexts -
Ali's brother fought
them till 2 of his men
10and five Makonde fell
They then agreed to
molest him no further.


In afternoon we had
two smart showers
15We have had no
continuous rain
as
yet - In travelling I
dont measure the
amount - It is not
20worth while as I
shall not be long

0069
in the low coast lands
We sleep in a valley
near the village of
Ntande
- another
5species of fly exactly
like the housefly only
with a sharp proboscis
annoys the cattle more
than the Tsetse - They
10fill themselves with
blood too - Tsetse bit
the buffaloes last night
evening again.


[#] Wikatani attempted
15to take once for me from
Havildar without
leave. The Havildar
seized him by the
throat and Wikatani
20struck him. This

0070
was a bad example
[#] and had the Havildar
not laid hands on
Wikatani I would have
5punished Wikatani
severly - As it is         the
Havildar sulks, and
feels his dignity in-
-jured in which I sym-
10pathize with him but
a public whipping to
Wikatani would
possibly break his spirit
and it would be
15commented on by
the Makonde as terrible
& severe beyond pre-
-cedent


2d May 1866 This
20morning all our

0071
things being wet we have
to wait an hour or two
to dry them. - The high
mountain {figure}
5noted in our first trip
up is called Liparu
and a stream comes
down from it to the
Rovuma forming
10a little lagoon - We
came to a Makoa vil
and it being surrounded
with corn fields likely
to be damaged by the
15animals we went on
& camped on the spur
of the range beyond it
in a nice clear spot
when we stopped a

0072
while in a village on the
way the poodle dog
Chitane whose fierce
looks are mainly a way
5to one not knowing
at which end his head is
rushed after the village
curs in the most frantic
manner and apparently
10in the belief that it was
his prowess they
fled from - They made
for the charpois on which
their masters sat &
15went Chitane was kept
off their chase set up
a hideous yelping
bark - The head woman
is said to be a doctor
20A woman came for
ward & offered me

0073
some meal in a gift
even when I was on the
move off - a nice
motherly looking person
5We passed a Makoa
village
and ascended the
spur of the part of the
range near to avoid
damage to peoples corn
10The Makoa have the
half moon on forehead
and many of them have
the forehead & cheeks
deeply tattooed & the skin
15raised a very much
at the cuts - {figure} It gives
rather a hideous look
or perhaps fierceness
such as was put on
20by our ancestors

0074
when having their
portraits taken -


3d May. 1866. A
man with defective
5arm bones came &
tried to make a case
against us by saying
that some of my
men had cut down
10his corn with swords
sent Ali & Abraham
to see - they found it
to consist of 2 stalks
broken off by the
15mule's burdens - the
Nassick boys are
careless & without
forethought We
paid nothing the
20damage being too small

0075
came on about 2
miles
to a village by
a stream coming
down from the
5mountains for such
the range may now
be called - It is
named Nkonga
It is embowered in
10groves of succulent
trees the spreading
roots by which form
the solo{i}d portion of
the banks - It is only
15a few yards wide
at parts only one &
it gurgles over the
roots in perpetual
shade - had to make
20bridges for camels


0076
Ungoye carriers 4 May
Chunjia coffee
Nahauraga box
Nchoma         sugar
5Ntepe         tea & beads
Ntwene bale
Narihinga box with flour &c
Nakorapia   bale
Naloe                 box
10Ntanda                 luggage
Madwana       Do#Nassi
Nando{e}nga

4th May 1866 The
buffaloes were bitten
15by Tsetse on the 2d
and again today
the cow's blood
seems to have under
gone a change for
20the bites or stings of

0077
The ordinary gadfly or
large mangrove fly
bleed freely and the
blood running down
5the skin is arterial
in colour. Today
her right eye is all
inflamed and she is
dull & listless - a
10large swelling appears
on the lumbar portion
of the pelvis ^ calf unaffected - the grey
one has been sick
but seems better - the
15black male has never
been the worse of his
bites - It is not seen
on the camels that
they feel the fly though
20they get weaker which
may be from hard work

0078
no symptoms of Tsetse
in mules or donkeys


Passed a vil. and
came on to Nyamba
5Another on a spur
all rolled gravel of
reddish quartz - At
the end N.         many
Makoa live. Their
10vil. a very large one
is called Nyuthe


The head woman of
our village is a
great doctor and
15rain making is
one of her accom
plishments - She
gave us a good
present of a small
20green round pea

0079
common in India =
^ = Mung and a fowl - she is
profusely ornamented
all over and over
5hips & buttocks so is
not ashamed to
shew these parts -
(they have doves and
Muscovy ducks) she
10is tall - well formed -
and with finely shaped
legs, hands & feet --
Sesamum - Tobacco -
beans - ground nuts -
15a good deal of salt is made


{figure}

5 May 1866 a tame
Khangatore or

0080
tufted guinea fowl here
As we marched we
came to sandstone
hardened by fire &
5then granitic masses
from which the sand
-stone had been left
so as to leave a
dip to the East -
10With the geological
structure the trees
& vegetation changes
acacias - and
thorny mimosas
15ebony and the
vegetation is more
sparse allowing
us now to go
along without
20cutting


0081

We are now opposite S.
a hill named Simba -
Livu
from its shape
Mabiha are around it
5in great numbers &
they make raids over
to the Makonde side
for slaves - The men
wear the lip ring as
10well as the women
and Rovuma being very
shoal at certain times
it is easily forded -


[#] Tsetse again all day
15the blood of the bitten
seems all of the colour
of arterial blood for
when stung the points
bleed bright scarlet
20the buffaloes seem

0082
ill - drowsy looking
& eyes bleared - one
eye of cow dimmed


6th May 1866 our
5course has been ex-
-cessively crooked
in fact from vil.
to vil. though these
have not been on
10a straight line - This
prolongs our march
& all the animals
feel it - [ ]{N}umbers of
people come to see
15us - seem intelligent
& respectful - no
drunkeness seen
This is not the beer time


0083

At service a man
began to talk & when I
told him we were
"soma Mungu" praying
5to God ^ he understood it & was
silent 7 May 1866


7th Camel & buffalo died
this morning -


carriers -
10Itonga luggage begin again
on 10th

Karihenge food powder
Lekakwe box tool
Liyoyo powder box #
15Kamide ^ sail & carpet bag box & rice
PdNankodaonje bale 3
Pd Chombokela coffee 3
Komota luggage powder
Limila luggage pans

20

Tsetse again


0084

On getting up this
morning I found one
camel dead and
the grey buffalo ex
5-pired soon afterwards
got carriers and in
coming on two
camels gave in
from weakness &
10had to be unloaded,
Sepoys reported to
sit down & eat letting
camels stand in the
hot sun - The whole
15country of Ndonde
we find dried up

0085
and no corn will be
op{b}tained this year
mules shew fatigue
We dont go so far but
5we dawdle - got up
at 4 A.M. but did
not get off till 8 -
We are now opposite
a mountain on S-
10side called Nabungala
looks like an elephant
lying on its belly
another camel
died on the way
15a very good one


8th May 1866
arrived at Iponde
opposite granitic hill sketched
in my notebook from



0086
Rive 8th is their first day Iponde
one day
on 8th

x Chande   beads bale & mat
5x Nahida   2 bales & bag
x Nherema baggage^ bale powder box
x Mandike   powder & tools{bags}
x Kovenga   box & B pepper
x Kanyindwa box red beads
10x Miniñgene   bale big
x Chinkawene   Tea box beads
o{x} Omyanga - box{bale} & bag
x Hamadi   sugar & saddle
    Mandik Likeka bale
15x Likunga 11 bales & mat
o{x} Moholoa     bags of
x Mahanyoka box & bag cer[  ]
x Liphepo   bale big
x Pandamoka bale big
20x Tiwanga         box & horn
x Mpoto


0087

  named Nakapuri - I
leave Havildar & men
at Iponde while I go
on to Machumora
5at Ngomano with the
baggage - the object is
to rest camels - buffaloes
& mules


{figure}
10

Lat 11°     9         00
of Iponde 8th May


0088

9th May 1866 I left the
animals in charge of the
Havildar and Nassick
boys at Iponde
5the camels are so
weak and so are the
mules & buffaloes
that this seems to
be a measure of
10necessity - left 24
yards of calico with
them and took on by
24 carriers all the goods
It was impossible to
15prevent the Nassick
boys from putting
their things on the
heavily laden beasts
As soon as my back
20was turned on they
went again & they
evidently thought this

0089
clever - told them
repeatedly that they
would kill the buffaloes
and mules but in
5vain - sneaking deception
seemed dear to them
one Baraka took
high ground and un
-less I let him put on
10a[   ] filled with
maiz[ ] on a mule
already lying down
with over weight "he
would do nothing"
15You may take your
gun & shoot me
I wont lead a mule
or do anything - I
applied a stick so
20briskly to his bottom
that he soon changed
his mind, but it
was continual vexation

0090
and I gave up annoying
myself by seein ing
matters - The buffalo
was killed by over
5work - and a mule
seems likely to follow
it from same cause
Today we came at
least eight miles
10in three hours &
tomorrow we shall
do more


at Moeda we had a
valley with large
15thorny Mimosae -
- rocks still granitic
or syenite - passed a
Euphorbraceous tree
with seed vessels as
20large as mandarin
oranges & three seeds
inside - collected some

0091
for Sir Bartle Frere - the
country is burned up
by one of these strange
droughts - rust which
5plagued us nearer the
coast ceases here -
The grass crisp & yellow
is burned off in places
Passed spot where
10Birkall, an Arab,
resisted payment of
chiefs demand for
leave to pass & after
two days parley killed
152 Makonde & woundded
chief mortally which
settled the matter -
no more demands
have been made
20since


0092

Engaged on 10th


P Kanjoje big bale
P Likakwe tool box & bag
P Chimasera powder box
5P Mwhipa
P Kovinga 2 bags one beads
                                        coffee



10th May 1866 came
10on about six miles
and then the carriers
having had no food
the day before could
not proceed furth[  ]{er}
15All is hunger in front
to Ndonde but
food is to be had on
the South Side among
the Matambwe
20The hunger is
caused by the

0093
inroad of the Mazitu
who devoured all
before them like a
flight of locusts -
5and partly by the
drought -


#The clouds have been
coming steadily from
the South West for
10many days - today
they come from East
with small showers
a good shower in
evening


15

chronometer 5158
stopped during the
night - It has been
stopping in the winding
up for some days


0094

11th May 1866. A
quarrel between Ali
and Musa evoked
a great deal of abuse
5and this morning
Ali sulks & is off at
one of the villages -
we got a little rice
for the carriers but
10they had served them
three days & are off
We got others and
marched 3 ₑ⁄₄ hours
part of it up a
15sand stream the
Nyedi - maize &
beans will soon
supply the want
caused by Mazitu
20met a run away



0095
Engaged on morning of
11th May

P Dihiala - box flour
P Kangkwangye Tea & beads
5P Nikala bag & bale
P Komota     bale & mat
P Pandamoka powder box & carpet ba
P Chande     big powder box
P Nkatwe bale
10P Kipeta     bale
P Likao     bale
P Chikungu bale
P Kihota box
P Matoke bag & beads
15P Zionga     sugar
P Dowa - big powder box
P Nchika box - red beads
    Sikako tool & beads
P Nyope big bale
0096
P P Nyangan[  ]{ya} big bale a second
    Lipondo big bale
P Mandike bale & mat
P Nangaladia my bag
5P Nkanaide powder box
P Pangola -     tin box
P Nkoaia       pots & pans
P Kangkoje     big bale



10

She was caught by
Ali and he seemed
confident that
he would get a reward
and would not
15yield to my entreaty
to let her go - we
soon came to her
village and she had
to be given up -
20met a perfect figur
of a woman in the
sand stream



0097
{figure}
P Galola big bale 12th
P Makwenya coffee & beads
P Ngomīre big bale
5    Kayimola my bag & bag beads

{figure}
{figure}


0098
P Chirenga 13th box mutton &
P Chitete bale
P Likako working things



5{figure}

Kanañgone at -
Matanatawa a
pleasant looking
lady came forward
10while we rested in
her village as our
turning point &
put a bunch of
sweet reed at my

0099
feet. Saying "I met
you here, pointing to
the spot at the river,
before - Her face
5was profusely tattooed
and I remember her
coming and asking
us to wait while
she brought us some
10food - gave her a
looking glass and
she went & brought
me her only fowl -
and a dish of cuc-
15-cumber
seeds and
said it was hunger
with them now
gave her a cloth
20& parted to come on

0100
four miles above
the cataracts - through
a dried up country
full of dwarfish
5thorn - acacias &
mimosae - carriers
very useless from
hunger




10P Chikungu bale 14th May
P Komota -       bale
P Namoantu       bale
P Bungani         box
P Akarimona wawa powder box
15P Chiwema beads & coffee
P Nkopike       box flour
P Ngomanya sugar
P Ntanamarire big bale
P Ntarika bale & beads
20P Karihonge box P & carpet bag
P Kamkwanye tea box & beads
P Suliman box & sail
P Nkoba big powder box
P Nahang kaladia my bag
25P Chipangola 2 bales one ½
P Nkoana 2 bales one ½

P Lipondwe cooking pot P Ntungata Powder
P Katemwa                                                  [            ]


0101

Matambwe country
abounds in elephants
and the tusks are very
large shewing a
5moist climate
The people very black
but beautiful accg
to Ali - have liprings
Plenty of gum copal
10also which the Ibo
people purchase




Pephela
millet a grass
15seed collected now
and made into
porridge - very
good -


0102

The claims of the few
who were born to govern
the Makonde therefore
are not wholly bad in
5the mass though individually
before God desperately
wicked -


an attention to man's
happiness & comfort
10and intellectual advance
ment in this life is
essential for the promotion
of his religious life
This has been learned by
15slow & unwelcome
experience - We now
try to improve the condition
of those on whom society
presses severely as the
20indispensible pre-
liminary to improving
the condition of the sufferers

0103
which is not wholly
bad - with noble aspirations
for what is good - if light
were permitted to beam on
5their darkness & a place
of repentance were given to
the erring - wa{Ca}tholicism
attempted to bind men
as the Bible does to
10indi[   ]{vid}uals &{in} their
devotional moments -
that grew oppressive -
and in process of time
it was thrown off -
15no one now believes in
the doctrine of the worth
lessness of man in the
presence of God as
applicable to the
20worthlessness of the
mass of mankind
in compassion with

0104
Makonde as he (& we)
must appear to himself
in the presence of God
then there is no truth
5but the one truth that he
is desperately wicked -
Every heart capable of
comprehending the
nature of holiness will
10pass this sentence on
itself - The Bible thus
applies the doctrine of inborn
sin, not to man in society
but to the individual in the
15presence of his Maker -
Possibly the confounding
what is true of individuals
and to all individually
has been the great stumbling
20block to men of intellect for
in relation to other men
& the world they are
conscious of a nature


0105

26 April 1866 Take these
Makonde in their relations
to each other and to the
place they occupy on
5the earth there is much
good in them - It was
their natural sense of
justice that permitted
Ali to go back - seize the
10thief in his own village
and fine him eight
cubits of calico for
a shirt & some cartridges
not worth half that
15amount - He was
accompanied by
two Makonde alone
and they spent most
of the night in pursuit
20unpaid. It is a
different matter if
we look to the individual


0106
{figure}
0107
{figure}


0108
1 - Mesuri Route - 2 Moessii -
    3 Mosinjeive = 4 Nchessi -
5 Rovingu - 6 Miembe
7 Chipande - 8 Mangodji
59 Nyassa = = -by an
Ndonde man




{figure}


10

Fruit like small orange
but with large brown
seeds - eatable = dark
berries - Do       milole - Do




15

Euphorbia {figure} fruit
with three seeds


{figure}

Mandare = potato


0109
{figure}
{figure}


De[      ]
5af[      ]
I he[      ]
has [      ]




Ma[      ]
10tree [      ]
bon[      ]
frui[      ]
pupls eaten by maggots
colour of fruit green
15with red on sides

0110

II.



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