Three Versions of the 1870 Field Diary

This page allows users to engage in comparative study of three versions of the 1870 Field Diary: the original 1870 Field Diary (1870-71), the revised version in the Unyanyembe Journal (1866-72), and the posthumously edited and published version in the Last Journals (1874). Users can scroll through each of the versions or guide their search using dates found in the texts. For each manuscript, we have selected colors that match the corresponding colors of the original documents.

1870 Field Diary (Fragments Integrated)
David Livingstone, Agnes Livingstone


Date of composition: 17 August 1870-22 March 1871
Place of composition: Bambarre; Manyema
Clendennen & Cunningham number(s): Field Diaries, 035, 037
Digital edition and date: Livingstone Online, 2016
Publisher: University of Maryland Libraries, College Park, MD, USA
Project id: liv_015001
TEI encoding: Adrian S. Wisnicki, Megan Ward, Heather F. Ball, Ashanka Kumari, Erin Cheatham, Alexander Munson



0001

for the isolation in which they live
The head of Moenekuss is said to be
preserved in a pot in his house
and all public # matters are gravely 0002
communicated to it as if his spirit
dwelt therein - His body was eaten
The flesh removed from the head
and eaten too - His fathers head is
5said to be kept also

0003

The foregoing refers to Bambarre
alone - In other districts graves shew
that sepulture is customary - Here no
grave appears - Some admit the 0004
existence of the practice here - others
deny it - In the Metamba country
and adjac[   ]{ent} to Lualaba - a quarrel with
a wife often ends in the husband killing
5her and eating her heart mixed up 0005
in a huge mess of goats flesh -
This has the charm character - fingers
are taken as charms in other parts
In Bambarre alone is the depraved 0006
taste the motive for cannibalism

0007

On 17th August 1870 Monamyembo
the chief who was punished by M Bogharib
lately came # bring two goats - One
he gave to Muhamad the other to
5Moenekus' son acknowledging
that he had killed his elder brother 0008
He had killed eleven persons over
                in our                         absence
at Luamo - in addition to those
killed in villages on our SE when
5we were away - It transpired
that T{K}andahara brother of old
Moenekuss whose village is 0009
near this - killed 3 women & a child and
that a ^ trading man came over from Kasangangazi
and was murdered too for no reason but
to eat his body - Muhamad ordered old
5Tanda{h}ara to [      ]{bring} ten goats and take 0010
them over to Kasangangazi to pay
for the murdered [      ]{man} - When they
tell of each other's deeds they disclose
a horrid state of bloodthirsty callousness 0011
People over hill NNE of this killed a
person out hoeing - if a cultivator is alone
he is almost sure of being slain.


Some said that people in the vicinity
5or hyaenas stole the buried dead, but
Posho's wife died and in Wanyamesi 0012
fashion was thrown out of camp un
buried - Muhamad threatened an attack if
Manyema did not cease exhuming the
dead - it was effectual - neither men nor
5hyaenas touched her though exposed now
for seven days 24th August 1870

0013

        When the rains ceased in June
I wished to go Northwards along the
Lualaba & buy a canoe but my
attendants professed fear of the water


5

I then promised not to buy a canoe

0014
but this elicited that they were determined
not to go at all - the head Arabs told
me that they were in the habit of going
to the women whose husbands were
5away and getting food and spending
the night with them         - They then 0015
refused rations - not understanding
why I enquired the reason = they replied
that the beads were not enough - the
Arabs said "they are about to desert" &
5'that is a slave custom -

0016

I spo[  ]ke long to them advising them
earnestly not to desert & lose all their
arrears of pay - - But on going out
from me one called out         "Who
5will he get to carry his 0017
things" - then a loud Ha ha ha to make
me hear it. On telling them that Seyed
Majid
had punished those who deserted
Speke & the consul would certainly be
5angry to hear that I had been thrown
away by them in the middle of the cannibal 0018
country where I could get no carriers
as the Manyema will not go to the next
village - Simon said "give me a bit
of paper to tell that I am a very bad
5boy" - This was supposed to be witty
& he added let Seyed Majid chain 0019
me - beat me - shoot me' I want to go to Lualaba
Abram said the others intended to throw down my
bundles & run away in the forest - "He was tired
with seven years work" These two are the bring [      ]
5Katomba at whose voice they trembled spel[            ] 0020
in [  ]ly & they said they would go but seeing
[   ]t he did nothing again refused - The knowledge
that I wont punish as the Arabs do is the
[ ]eason on their desertion - the murders
5they committed at Kabuire dest[  ]yed what 0021
little of moral nature they possessed - I would
not have brought them from Ujiji as the deterioration
was then visible in stealing from me to pay their
prostitutes but Thani behaved so strangely to
5my packet of letters, refusing it - than send 0022
it back "because he did not know the contents"
I feared its destruction and then I should be
waiting for other men from Zanzibar in vain
I therefore strained my utmost to finish up
5up my work with what I had 0023
But now these worthless slaves had me
at their mercy & wished to be masters - to take
what beads they chose and go or remain just
as it suited their fancy - they thought that 0024
I did not know where they got food and when
declaring their rations of beads too small they
bought grass cloth clothing, knives spears
and dainties - With three Susi - Chuma 0025
and Gardner I set off - intending to join M-
Bogharib
or Josuf on Lualaba - We went
with three deputies from the head Arabs &
their slaves - but they hated me & tried to get 0026
away from me - I however kept up and
on the fourth day passed through nine villages
destroyed by the worthies who did not wish
me to see more of their work - Then 0027
met with Mohamad Bogharib & Josuph coming
back from Kasongo's - I slept at a village
a little way from them & was met in morning
with the news that a man of the party which 0028
eschewed any company had been stabbed by
night in revenge for the slaughter of relatives
& burning of nine villages - Mohamad
refused to engage in a wholesale manner 0029
to revenge the dead one and seeing that I had no
friend & only three people I turned back - the
mud was grievous & as I waded it all
my feet were torn to pieces and irritable 0030
eating ulcers begun which have dis-
abled me ever since - I now spoke with my
friend Muhamad and he offered to go with
me to see Lualaba from Luamo - but 0031
I explained that merely to see & measure
its depth would not do - I must see whither
it went - This would require a number of his
people in lieu of my deserters & to take 0032
them away from his ivory trade which
at present is like gold digging - To{^} I must make
amends & I offered him two thousands
Rupees & a gun worth seven hundred 0033
Rs. 2700 in all on £270. He agreed & should
he enable me to finish up my work in one
trip down Lualaba & round to Lualaba West
it would be a great favour - The severe 0034
Pneumonia in Marungu - the choleraic
complaint in Manyema & now irritable
ulcers warn me to retire while life lasts -
Muhamads people went North & East & West 0035
from Kasongo's - 16 Marches North = - 10 Do
West
- and 4 Do E. & SE. - The average march
was 6½ hours say 12' about 200' North & W
Lat. of Kasongo say 4° South
- they may 0036
have reached 1°-2°S. They were now in the
Balegga country & turned - It was all
dense forest - never saw ^ the sun except when
at a village & then the villages were [      ] 0037
apart People very fond of sheep which
they call Ngombe or ox - tusks never used -
They went off to where an elephant had formerly
been killed & brought the tusks rotted and eaten 0038
or gnawed by "Dezi" a Rodent probably the
aulo candatus swindermanus -     Three ^ large rivers
were crossed breast & chin deep - In one
they were five hours and a man in a 0039
small canoe went ahead sounding for water
capable of being waded - much water & mud
in the forest = # This report makes me thankful
I did not go for I should have seen nothing -
5and been worn out by fatigue & mud

0040

The river of the Metunda had black water
and 2 hours to cross it - breast deep
R Mohungu = breast deep -
R of Mbite also large
5 [#
crossed about
40 smaller rivers]
0041
All along Lualaba & Metambe the sheep
ar[ ]e hairy dewlaps = no wool = Tartar
breed?         small thin tails -

0042

a broad belt of meadowland with no
trees lies along Lualaba - Beyond that it
is all dense forest. and trees so large
one lying across path is breast high
5clearances exist only around villages 0043
People very expert smiths and
weavers of the "Lamba" - make fine large
spears knives and needles = Market-
places called "Soko" - numerous all
5along Lualaba - To these the Barua 0044
of the other bank come daily in large
canoes bringing grass cloth, salt, flour,
cassava, fowls - goats - pigs & slaves =
Women beautiful with straight noses
5and well clothed     When the men 0045
of districts are at war the women take
their goods to market as if at peace and
are never molested - all are very keen
traders buying one thing with another &
5changing back again and any gain
made is one of the enjoyments of life -

0046

I knew that my people hoped to be
fed by Muhamad Bogharib when
we left the camp at Mamohela
but he told them that he would not
5have them - This took them aback -
but they went & lifted his ivory 0047
for him and when a parley was thus
brought about talked him over saying
that they would go to me & do all I
desired - never came - but as no
5one else would take them I gave
them three loads to go to Bambarre 0048
There they told Muhamad that I would
not give them their beads & They did not like
to steal # - They were now trying to get
his food by lies - I invited them 3
5times to come & take beads but having
supplies of food from the camp 0049
women they hoped to get the upper
hand with me and take what they
liked by refusing to carry or work
Mohamad spoke long to them but speaking
5mildly makes them images that the
spokesman is afraid fo them - They 0050
they kept away from my work &
would fain join Muhamad's but he
wont have them - I gave beads to
all but the two ringleaders - their
5conduct looks as if a quarrel had
taken place between us but no such 0051
excuse have they - on leaving Nassick
African Asylum
where they had been
clothed fed & taught for years they
sent an anonymous note to me abusing
5all the teachers & complaining of 0052
bad treatment - They were sent to their own
people but had all been slaves and
remained with me only to escape being
made to work again - If the freed men
5in America turn out well it
will be because they were taught 0053
to work - These might either work play
or do nothing at Nassick & not one of
them could handle a tool = they hoped
for long to get back to a life of idleness
5and such as they described would have 0054
any English boys - the teacher feared
that if punished for idleness they
would run away & bring discredit
on the Asylum They were of the lowest
5or criminal class in Africa 0055
and boasted in my hearing that
when fed to the full they stole pigs - kept
     & fattened them with their                         extra food
them ^ at the school & killed & eat them
5When returning to Bambarre the
people of Moenemokia came to fight as 0056
they were drunk & fled as soon as they
saw resistance - no danger of being
turned up ^ on made my good boys rush
off unbidden & capture women &
5goats - another case occurred & 0057
off they ran but captured only fowls
and tobacco - two of them have captives
now bound in their possession
I am powerless as they have left
5me and think that they may do as
they like and the Manyema are 0058
bad is the song - their badness consists
in being dreadfully afraid of guns
and the Arabs can do just as they
like with them and their goods - If
5spears alone were used the Manyema 0059
would be considered brave for they fear
no one though he has many spears
They tell us truly "that were it not for
our guns not one of us would return"
5to our own country". Moenemokia
killed 2 Arab agents & took their guns 0060
This success led to their asserting
in answer to the remonstrances of the
women "We shall take their goats guns
and women from them" The chief in
5reporting the matter to Moenemgor at
Luamo said the Englishman told 0061
my people to go away as he did not
like fighting but my men were filled
with "malofu" or palm toddy & refused
to their hurt" Elsewhere they
5made regular preparation to have a 0062
fight with Dugumbe's people just to
see who was strongest. They with their
spears & wooden shields or the Arabs
with what in derision they called tobacco
5pipes (guns) They killed eight or nine Arabs. 0063
The Manyema villages are situated on
slopes - often on the spurs of mountains
for the sake of quick drainage - The
streets run nearly East & West to catch
5the full influence of the Sun - The huts 0064
are of a square form = the walls being of
well beaten clay - they are well supplied
with firewood piled up on shelves along
the walls inside - This is the women's work
5thatch of leaves or grass - low in the
roof and still lower by each housewife 0065
having form 20 to 30 neatly made bas-
kets and as many earthen pots hung
to the ceiling - A raised platform of
clay is the sleeping place - a fire at its
5side gives light & heat - while a wall 0066
screens it from the middle compartment
another wall divides off a private room
for stores - the villages are very numerous
a clump of them forms a district with
5its headman - It is usually isolated from 0067
every other - nothing would induce men
to go into next district - they came 5 or 6
miles
through the intervening forest
then after civilly inviting us to come
5back by the same route on our return 0068
went back - fear of being killed & eaten
was the reason assigned or simply
they were at war with their next neighbours
no traders seem ever to have come in
5before this - Barua brought copper 0069
and skins for tusks and the Babira
& Baguha coarse beads - The Bavira
are now enraged at seeing Ujijians
pass into their ivory field - and
5no wonder - They     took the tusks 0070
which cost them a few strings of beads
and recieved weight for weight in beads
thick brass wire & loads of calico


To be copied into Journal


5David         Livingstone

[I]

Bambarre 18 August 1870        I learn from Josuf & Moenepembe
who have been to Katanga and beyond that there is a Lake N N W
of the copper mine and 12 days distant – It is called Chibungo and is
said to be large – seven days West of Katanga flows another Lualaba
5the dividing line between Rua and Lunda or Londa - It is very large
and as the Lufira flows into Chibungo it is probable that the Lualaba
West
and Lufira form the Lake = Lualaba West and Lufira rise by
fountains South of Katanga 3 or 4 days. Liambai and Lunga ftns
are only about 10 miles distant from Lualaba West & Lufira fountains.
10a mound rises between them the most remarkable in Africa
Were this spot in Armenia it would serve exactly the description
of the garden of Eden in Genesis with its four rivers – the
GihonPison Hiddekel and Euphrates – As it is it possibly
gave occasion to the story told Herodotus by the secretary of
15Minerva
in the city of Sais about two hills with conical tops
Crophi and Mophi – midway between them ^ said he are the fountains of the
Nile
– fountains which it is impossible to fathom - Half the
water runs Northward into Egypt - half to the South towards Ethiopia.
Four fountains rising so near to each other would readily be supposed to
20have one source and half the water flowing into the Nile – the other
have{lf} to the Zambesi required but little imagination to originate, seeing
the actual visitor would not feel bound to say how the division
was effected       He could only know the fact of waters rising at one
spot and separating to flow North and South – The conical
25tops to the mound looks like invention as also do the names.


A slave bought on Lualaba East came from Lualaba
West
in about twelve days – These two Lualabas may form
the loop depicted by Ptolemy and upper and lower Tanganyika
be a third arm of the Nile – Patience is all I can exercise – these
30irritable ulcers hedge me in now as did my attendants in June
but all will be for the best for it is in Providence & not in me

II

II. The watershed is between 700 and 800 miles long from West to East
or say from ^ 22°- 23° –- to 34° ^ -35 East longitude – Parts of it are enormous
sponges - In other parts innumerable rills unite into rivulets which ^ again
form rivers – Lufira for instance has nine rivulets and Lekulwe other
5nine – The Rose of a garden watering can is a not very apt similitude as
the rills do not spring off the face of it, and it is 700 miles across the circle
but in the numbers of rills coming out at different heights on the slope
there is a faint resemblance, and I cant at present think of no other – I am
a little thankful to old Nile for so hiding his head that all "theoretical dis-
10-coverers" are left out in the cold                 With all real explorers I have
a hearty sympathy, and I have some regret at being in a manner compelled obliged to speak
somewhat disparagingly of the opinions formed by my predecessors
The work of Speke and Grant is part of the history of this region and since
the discovery of the sources of the Nile was asserted so positively
15in making a somewhat similar claim it seems necessary to
explain –, not offensively I hope, wherein their mistake lay – My
opinions may yet be shewn to be mistaken too – but at present I cannot
concieve how - When Speke discovered Victoria Nyanza in 1858
he at once concluded that therein lay the sources of the Nile His
20work after that was simply following a foregone conclusion and
subsequently as soon as he and Grant looked towards the
Victoria Nyanza they turned their backs on the Nile fountains
and so every step of their splendid achievement of following
the river down took them further & further away from the Caput
25Nili
As soon as When it was percieved that the little river that leaves
the Nyanza though called they called it the White Nile would not account
for that great river they might have gone West and found
Head waters as the Lualaba to which it can bear no comparison
Taking ^ their White Nile 80 or 90 yds or say 100 yds as its breadth the Lualaba
30far south of the North end Latitude of its point of departure
shews and average breadth of ^ from 4000 to 6000 yards and always deep.
Baker discovered the lower portion of Tanganyika – He
came farther up the Nile than any traveller in modern times
but turned when about 700 miles short of the sources

III

III. a Dutch lady explorer deserves our sympathy more than any
other for after the loss of he severest domestic afflictions, the loss of her
two aunts by fever she nobly persevered until after she was assured
by Speke and Grant that they had already discovered in Victoria
5Nyanza
the sources she sought – that they not, honestly enough no
doubt, given their own mistaken views - She had shewn so much
wise foresight in providing not only a steamer but means of
further progress by land and water she must inevitably have
reached the true head waters – I cannot concieve of her stopping
10short of Lake BangweoloWe great He donkeys say exploration
was not becoming her sex – considering that more ^ than sixteen hundred
years have elapsed since Ptolemy put down the results ^ of early
explorers, and Emperors, Kings, Philosophers – all the great
men of antiquity longed to know the fountains whence flowed
15the famous river – and long in vain – exploration does not
seem to have been very becoming the other sex either – she came
further up the river than the centurions sent by Nero Caesar
and shewed such indomitable pluck as to reflect honour on her race
I know nothing about her save by what has appeared in the public
20papers but taking her exploration along with what was done
                        no long time could have elapsed before the laurels
by Lady Baker I am proud to think that [            ] a
worthy part
for ^ the modern rediscovery of the sources of the
Nile
                                should have been plucked by the ladies -


25

In 1841 the ^ 2nd Egyptian ^ 2nd expedition ^ [      ] under D'Arnauld & Sabatier
reached North Lat. 4° 42' - This was a great advance into the
the Interior as compared with Linant in ^ 1827 13° 30' N. and even on
the explorations of Jomard but it turned when nearly a thousand miles from the sources

IV

IV. #57B 24 August 1870 = Four gorillas or soko's were killed 169
yesterday an extensive grass burning forced them out of
their usual haunt and coming on the plain they were soon
speared – they often go erect but place the hands on the head
5as if to steady the body - When seen thus he is an ungainly
beast - The most sentimental young lady would not call him
a "dear" but a bandy legged – pot-bellied – low looking villain
without a particle of the gentleman in him – other animals
especially the antelopes are graceful and it is pleasant to
10see them either at rest or moving in motion – the natives
also are well made, lithe and comely to behold – Soko
if large would do well to stand for a picture of the Devil.
He takes away my appetite by his disgusting bestiality
of appearance - His light yellow face shews off his ugly
15whiskers and faint apology for a beard – The forehead
villainously low with high ears is well in the background
by the great dog mouth – teeth slightly human but the
canines shew the beast by their large development – the
hands or rather the fingers are like those of the natives
20The fat of the flesh is yellow and the eagerness with
which the Manyuema devour it leaves the impression
that eating Sokos was one sta[ ]ge by which they arrived
at being cannibals – they say the flesh is delicious –



{18}
[                ]

Bambarre, 25th August, 1870.


One of my waking dreams is that the legendary
tales about Moses coming up into Inner
5Ethiopia
with Merr his foster-mother, and
founding a city which he called in her honour
"Meroe," may have a substratum of fact.
He was evidently a man of transcendent
genius and we learn from the speech of
10St. Stephen
that "he was learned in all
the wisdom of the Egyptians, and was mighty
in words & in deeds.
" The deeds must have
been well known in Egypt for "he supposed
that his brethern would have understood
15how that God by his hand would deliver
them, but they understood not.
" His supposition
could not be founded on his success in
smiting a single Egyptian. He was too great
a man to be elated by #a single act of prowess
20but his success on a large scale in Ethiopia
afforded reasonable grounds for believing
that his brethern would be proud of their
countryman, and disposed to follow his
leadership, but they were slaves. The notice
25taken of the matter by Pharaoh shewed
that he was eyed by the great as a dangerous
#304 {19}
if not powerful man. He "dwelt" in
Midian for some time before his gallant
bearing towards the shepherds by the well,
commended him to the Priest or Prince
5of the country. An uninteresting wife and
the want of intercourse with kindred spirits
during the long forty years' solitude of a
herdsman's life, seems to have acted injuriously
on his spirits, and it was not till he had
10with Aaron struck terror into the Egyptian
mind, that the "man Moses" again became
"very great in the eyes of Pharaoh and
his servants.
" - The Ethiopian woman whom
he married could scarcely be the daughter
15of Reuel or Jethro for Midian was descended
from Keturah, Abraham's concubine, and
they were never considered Cushite or
Ethiopian. If he left his wife in Egypt
she would now be some 50 or 60 years old,
20and all the more likely to be despised by
the proud prophetess Miriam as a daughter
of Ham. I dream of discovering some
monumental relics of Meroe and if anything
of confirmatory of sacred history does remain
25I pray to be guided thereunto. If the sacred
chronology
would thereby be confirmed, I would
not grudge the toil & hardships, hunger
& pain, I have endured - the
irritable ulcers would only be discipline. -


30

This Manyema country is unhealthy not
so much from fever as from debility of the
whole system, induced by damp, cold, and
indigestion. This general weakness is ascribed
by some to maize being the common food. It {20}
shows itself in weakness of bowels & choleraic
purging. This may be owing to bad water,
there is no scarcity, but it is so impregnated
with dead vegetable matter, as to have the
5colour of tea. Irritable ulcers fasten on any
part attached (?) by any accident, and
it seems to be a spreading fungus for the
matter settling on any part near becomes a
fresh centre of propagation. The vicinity
10of the ulcer is very tender, and it eats in
frightfully if not allowed rest. Many slaves
die of it, and its periodical discharges
of bloody ichor makes me suspect it to be a
development of fever. Support seems to be
15essential, but the ichor forcing its way out is
so painful the supporting bandages have to
be loosed. I have found lunar caustic useful.
A plaister of wax, and a little finely ground
sulphate of copper is used by the Arabs, and
20so is cocoa-nut oil and butter. These ulcers
are excessively intractable. There is no healing
of them before they eat into the bone, especially
on the shins. The pain causes slaves to cry
the whole night long.


25

Rheumatism is also common and it cuts
the natives off. The traders fear these diseases
and come to a stand if attacked, in order
to use rest in the cure. "Taema," or Tape-
worm is frequently met with - No remedy
30is known among the Arabs & natives for it.
Syphilitic [  ] skin diseases are common among
Manyema - large scabs on face & body,
even among children. The Arabs increase
them by impure intercourse. Filthy takers all. {21}
6 #11
White leprosy is also common. Malachite
ground on a stone with water is good for
irritable ulcers.


5

When Speke saw that his little river out of
the Victoria Nyanza would not account for
the Nile, the more philosophic course would
have been instead of conjecturing a backwater,
to strike ^ west across the great valley, and there
10not to mention Baker's water which he too
might have called a Lake, he would have
come to the central Lualaba, not 90 or 100
yards
but from 2000 to 6000 yards and
always deep
- this near the bottom of the
15trough, and then further West another
Lualaba
, a worthy companion to that in
the centre. The central Lualaba I would
fain call the Lake River Webb, - the Western
the Lake River Young. The Lufira and
20Lualaba West form a Lake the native name
of which, "Chibungo" must give way to Lake
Lincoln
. I wish to name the fountain of
the Liambai or Upper Zambesi
, Palmerston
fountain
, using these two names by way
25of placing my poor little garland on their
tombs, and adding that of Sir Bartle
Frere
to the fountain of Lufira. Three
names of men who have done more to
abolish slavery & the slave-trade than
30any of their contemporaries.


4th October 1870. A trading party came from
Ujiji, arrived on 23d Sept, left for N.W. four
days afterwards. Report an epidemic raging
between coast & Ujiji & very fatal. Syde bin
35Habib
and Dugumbe coming - they have letters {22}
and perhaps people for me, so I remain, though
the irritable ulcers are well-nigh healed.
I fear that my packet for the coast may
have fared badly, for the Lewale has kept
5Musa Kamaal by him so that no evidence
against himself or dishonest man Musa
bin Saloom
should be given. My box and
guns with Despatches I fear will never be sent.
Zahor, to whom I gave calico to pay carriers
10has been sent off to Lobemba. Muhamad
sowed rice yesterday. Has to send his
people who were unsuccessful among Balegga
away to the Metambe, where they got ivory
before. - I cannot understand very well
15what a "Theoretical Discoverer" is. If anyone
got up and declared in a public meeting
that he was the theoretical discoverer of
the "philosopher's stone", of perpetual motion
for watches, should we not mark him as
20a little wrong in the head? So of the Nile
sources
. The Portuguese crossed the Chambeze
some seventy years before I did, but to them
it was a branch of the Zambesi & nothing
more. Cooley put it down as the New Zambesi
25and made it run backwards, uphill
between 3000 & 4000 feet! I was misled by
the similarity of names and a map to think
it the Eastern branch of the Zambesi. I was
told that it formed a large water in the
30South West. This I readily believed to be
the Liambai, in the Barotse Valley, and
it took me eighteen months of toil to work
back again to the Chambeze in Lake
Bangweolo
, and work out the error into {23}
12
which I was led. Twenty-two months elapsed
ere I got back to the point whence I set
out to explore Chambeze, Bangweolo,
5Luapula, Moero, and Lualaba. I spent
two full years at this work, and the Chief
Cazembe
was the first to throw light on
the subject. - "It is the same water here
as in the Chambeze, the same in Moero
10& Lualaba and one piece of water is just
like another. Will you draw out calico
from it that you wish to see it? As your
chief desired you to see Bangweolo, go to
it, and if in going north you see a travelling
15party, join it - if not come back to me
and I will send you safely by my path along
Moero." #fox


8th Octr 1870. - Mbarawa & party came yesterday
from Katomba at Mamohela. Reports that
20Jangeonge (?) with Moeneokela's men had been
killing people of Metamba or forest, and
four of his people slain. He intended
fighting, hence his desire to get rid of me
when I went north. Got one and a half
25tusks, but little ivory, but Katomba's party
got fifty tusks. Abdullah had got two tusks
also been fighting, and Katomba had sent
a fighting party down to Lolinde. Plunder &
murder is Ujijian trading. Mbarawa got
30his ivory on the Lindi or as he says "Urindi"
which has black water, and is very large -
An arrow could not be shot across; its
400 or 500 yards had to be crossed by canoes,
goes into Lualaba. - It is curious that all
35think it necessary to say to me, "The Manye {24}
Manyema are bad - very bad." The Balegga
will be let alone, because they can fight, and
we shall hear nothing of their badness. My
slavelings join in the chorus of the Manyema
5being bad. The Babemba were good said
Simon, and he killed two because he was
safe. - -


X

X to be copied into Journal = 10th Octr 1870 came out of hut today 1
after being confined to it since 22nd July or 80 days – by irritable
ulcers on the feet - The last 20 days I suffered from fever
which reduced my strength, taking away my voice and
5purging me = appetite good but the third mouthful of any
food caused [ ]{n}ausea & vomiting – purging took place of
profuse sweating – I am thankful to feel myself well –
only one ulcer open the size of a split pea – Malachite was
the remedy most useful but the beginning of the rains may
10have helped the cure as it does to others = copper rubbed down
is used when malachite cannot be had – We expect
Syde Bin Habib soon - He will take to the river and I
hope so shall I – The native traders reached people who
had horns of oxen got from left bank of LualabaKa-
15tomba
’s people got most ivory namely 50 tusks – the others
only four – the Metamba or forest is of immense extent
and there is room for much ivory to be picked up
at 5 or 7 bracelets of copper per tusk if the slaves sent
will only be merciful – The nine villages and a 100 men
20killed by Katomba’s slaves at Nasangwa were
all about a string of beads fastened to a powder horn
which a manyema man tried in vain to steal – – Ka
gets 25 of the 50 tusks brought by his people

XI

XI. we expect letters & perhaps men by Syde Bin Habib.


No news from the coast had come to Ujiji save a rumour
that some one was building a large house at Bagamoio
but whether French or English no one can say – possibly
5the Mission urged on by Colonel Playfair & Dr Kirk
Tozer curiously enough follows the policy of Bp Mackenzie
which he so formally repudiated – Rearing boys got from
captives of men of war and writing to India that to teach
the young thus obtained is the great secret of mission work
10He does not know                 that         the especial instruction
of the young has been advocated & acted on for the last
30 years in Africa India South Seas & elsewhere – Possibly
the erection of a huge establishment on the mainland
may be a way of laboriously proving that it is more healthy
15than the island to which he was driven by fear of death
It will take a long time to prove by stone & lime that the higher
lands 200 miles inland ar better still both for longevity
and work –         I am in agony for news from home
All I feel sure of now is that my friends will all wish
20me to complete my task – I join in the wis now     as
better than doing it in vain afterwards

XII

XII. The Manyema hoeing is little better than scraping the 2
soil & cutting through the roots of grass & weeds by a horizontal
motion of the hoe or knife –     They leave the roots of maize
groundnuts – sweet potatoes & dura to find their way into
5the rich soft soil, and well they succeed so there is no need
for deep ploughing - The groundnuts & cassave hold their
own against grass for years Bananas if cleared of
weeds yield abundantly –         Muhamad sowed rice
just outside the camp without any advantage being secured
10by the vicinity of a rivulet and it yielded for one measure
of seed one hundred & twenty measures of increase – This
season he plants                         and on the damp soil
along a rivulet called     bonde     The rainwater does not
percolate far – The clay retains it about 2 feet beneath the
15surface
– this is a cause of unhealthiness to man – Fowls
and goats have been cut off this year in large numbers
by an epidemic -




Sentence to be inserted after ""there may only be a thread"
20of water at the bottom but the mud is grievous" Some 20
or 40 yards
of the path on each bank is mixed up by the feet
of passengers into a deep stickey mass – [      ]{You} may put one
foot on each side and{of} the walk and waddle onwards but soon
that fails you for                 the rank vegetation often usurps the few
25foot holds you have and down
inches                                                         you come into the mire

XIII

XIII. Often too the path takes the bed of the rill for 50 or 60 yds
as if the first passenger had gone that distance seeking a space
of forest less dense for his path = Near a village the road run-
-ning along a rivulet may have been to make it difficult for an
5enemy to find a path by night =       The approaches to hamlets on the
side of a hill are certainly made with a view to confuse marauders
for they come near the dwellings and then ascend to a point
above the highest point of the village, and they go winding up
and down the steepest parts of the slope The rank vegetation
10being left so that it is impossible to take a straight course –


The visit of the Ujijian traders must be felt by the Man-
-yema
to be a severe infliction - The huts are appropriated and
no leave asked – Firewood - pots – baskets food used without
scruple and anything that pleases is taken away – Usually the
15women flee into the forest and return to find the whole place a
litter of broken food – I tried to pay the owners of the huts in
which I slept but often in vain for they were hidden in the forest
and feared to come near – It was common for old men
to come forward to me with a present of bananas as I passed
20uttering with trembling accents "Bolongo "Bolongo" friendship
friendship. If I stopped to make a little return present others
ran for plantains or palm toddy = The slaves eat up what
they demanded without one word of thanks - "but they are
bad" dont give them anything" Why what badness is there in
25giving food - "O they like you" but hate us" - one man gave
me an iron ring and seemed inclined to be friendly –
yet they are undoubtedly bloodthirsty       to other Manyema
                                                                                                & kill each other


XIV [v.1]

XIV 13th Octr 1870Lions fat is asserted to be a certain [1]
preventative to the bite of the Tsetse – Lions are very numerous
in Urori and many are killed and the fat sold – the Garaganza
use it to protect their cattle and when smeared on the animals
5the Tsetse     comes not near them on accout of the smell –


                        on coming inland the safe way is to go to 1 Mdonye
                                2         Makinde   3   Zungomero 4 Masapi 5 Irundu
then turn         ^         North to the Nyamnyams and thence to the Nyembe
                                6 Nyamgore & then South to Merere’s
10and so                 on South to Merere’s – A woman chief lies in
the straight                 way to Merere but no cattle live in her land –
another insect lights on the animals & when licked off bites the tongue
or breeds & is       fatal as well – as tsetse – It is large in size –


                                Tipotipo & Syde bin Ali come to Nyembe – thence
15to Nsamas                 cross Lualaba at Mpwetos – follow left bank
of that                 river till they cross the next Lualaba & so into
Lunda of                 Matiamvo – much ivory may be obtained
by this                 course & it shews enterprise –-


                                Syde bin Habib & Dugumbe will open up the
20Lualaba                 this year and I am hoping to enter the West
Lualaba
                or Youngs river, and if possible go up to
Katanga – The Lord be my guide & helper – I feel the [3]
want of medicine strongly as much almost as of men

[XIV v.2]


Turn over = safe way to avoid the #
[2] Tsetse in going to Merere's ^ North to 1 Mdonye
2 Makinde 3 Zungomero 4 Masapè
55 Irundu 6 Nyamgore = then South
to Merere's


Msene 6 days from Unyembe North
        market & many Arabs live there




10

all these ten Rivers go into Uerere


Mokunge three eyes or fountains all
very hot.



{figure}
15

# Travelled 199
hours
but so
mountainous
say 200 miles


20

# Rivers crossed
by Ramadan &
Hassani August
and Septr 1870
25in Balegga -
They fall into U-
-irere
-? Baker's
or what a
        "large water" -


{29}
[                ]

                                16th Octr 1870 - Moenemgoi
the chief came to tell me that Monamyembo
had sent five goats to Lohombo to get a charm
5to kill him. "Would the English and Kolokolo
(Muhamad) allow him to be killed while
they were here?" I said that it was a false
report but he believes it firmly. Monamyembo
sent his son to assure us that he was
10slandered, but thus quarrels and bloodshed
feuds arise. The great want of the Manyema
is national life. Of this they have none.
Each headman is independent of every other.
Of industry they have no lack, and the villagers
15are orderly towards each other, but they go
no further. If a man of another district ventures
among them it is at his peril. He is not
regarded with more favour as a Manyema
than one of a herd of buffaloes is by the
20rest. He is almost sure to be killed.
Moenekus had more wisdom than his
countrymen. His eldest son went over to
Monamyembo's who was subject to the father
was killed by five spear wounds. The old
25chief went and asked "Who had kllled slain
his son"? "None knew, perhaps the Bahombo.
he went thither - They denied it - Then they
said "Perhaps Monamdenda" - he denied.
question repeated, received same answer -
30"didn't know." The old man ^ then died - This, {30}
8. 15
though he was heartbroken was called witch-
craft by Monamyembo. Eleven people were
murdered, and after this cruel man was
5punished he sent a goat with the confession
that he had killed Moenekus' son. This
son had some of the father's [      ] wisdom.
The others he never could get to act like men
of sense.


10

The sites chosen for some of the most signal
Grecian oracles were marked by the rushing
forth of a living spring from the recesses of
the native rocks of Greece, the Castalian
springs
at Delphi, the rushing stream of
15the Hercynia at Lebadea. It was felt that
nothing could so well express the Divine voice
speaking from the hidden abysses of the
unseen world as those inarticulate but lively
ebullitions of the life giving element from its
20unknown mysterious sources. The prophetic
utterances in the remoter East were the
bubbling, teeming springs of life in those hard
primitive rocks, in those dry parched levels.
"My heart is inditing" - is bursting, bubbling
25over with a good matter. This image would be
drawn from the abundant crystal fountains
which all along the valley of the Jordan pour
forth their full grown streams, - scattering
fertility and verdure as they flow over the
30rough ground, - "boiling or bubbling over" of
the "Divine fountain of Inspiration within
the Soul
."


"The words of Judgment bursting out one by
one, slowly, heavily, condensed, abrupt from
35the prophet's heavy and shrinking soul; each {31}
sentence wrung forth with a groan, as though
he had anew to take breath before he uttered a
renewed woe; each word forming a whole for
itself, like one heavy toll of a funeral knell.
"
5(Pusey) - - (Jowett) "At the time when our
Saviour came into the world the Greek language
was in a state of degeneracy & decay. But that
degeneracy may be ranked among the causes
that fanned the growth of Christianity. It was
10a preparation for the Gospel, the decaying soil
in which the new elements of life were to come
forth, the one common speech of the then
civilized nations of the world. The definiteness
of earlier forms of human speech would have
15imposed a limit on the freedom of the Gospel.
A religion which was to be universal required
that the division of languages, no less than
of nations should be broken down. It pleased
God through broken and hestitating forms of
20speech to reveal the universal truth for which
the Greek of Plato would have been no fitting temple
". -


[                ]

XVII

XVII to be copied - 19th Octr Bambarre = The Ringleading
Nassick deserters
sent Chuma to say that they were going with the
people of Muhamad what{ich} left today to the Metamba = I said
that I had naught to say to them – They would go now to the
5Metamba which on deserting they said they so much feared & left
me to go with only three attendants and get my feet torn to
pieces in mud & sand = They probably meant to go back to the
women at Mamohela who fed them in the absence of their husbands
They were told by Muhamad - that they must not follow his
10people and he gave orders to bind them & send them back if
they did – They think that no punishment will reach them
whatever they do – They are freemen & need not work or do any
thing but beg. "English" they call themselves & the Arabs fear
them though the eagerness with which they engaged in slave
15hunting shewed them to be genuine niggers –     To lie without
compunction seems to be one of their Indian acquisitions – Ibram
said "that I told him to beg"!         and Simon said that I had spoken
to him only once & he would [  ]{ha}ve gone on intended to go till I took
the gun from him – Derrides any entreaties Katumba spoke
20persuasively several times & he refused to go – The gun would
have been used to steal from the Manyema as it was when we
came back here to bully them for four fowls.


20th first heavy rain of this season fell yesterday afternoon
It is observable that the permanent halt to which the Manyema
25have come is not affected by the appearance of superior men among
them - They are stationary & improvement unknown - Moenekus paid
smiths to teach his sons     and they learned to work in copper & iron
but he never could get them to imitate his own generous and
obliging deportment to others – He had to reprove them perpetually for
30mean short sight ways and when he died he virtually left no
successor for his sons are both narrow minded, mean,
short sighted creatures, without dignity or honour –




    #Lonzua Luaze Luanzo
35


All they can say of
[   ]ir forefathers is that
they came from Lualaba up Luamo then to Luelo and
thence here – The name seems to mean forest people –
40Manyuema =

p72 into Last Journal p72


The party under Hassani crossed the Logumba at Kanying
gere
’s
– and went N. & N.N.E. – They found the country
becoming more & more mountainous till at last when
one day from Uerere it was perpetually up & down


45

They slept at a village on the top They could send for
water to the bottom only once. It took so much time to
descend & ascend –                 Rivers all flowed into Uerere or
Lower Tanganyika         Hot fountain – water could not
be touched nor stones         stood upon Balegga   very un-
50friendly – collected     in thousands – we
came to buy ivory -
said Hassani &         if
there is none we
go away


55{figure}

"Nay" shouted they, "you
came to die here" then
shot with arrows - when
shot was returned they
60fled & would not come
to receive the captives

XVIII

XVIII. 25th Octr 1870- Last Jour f II 72 Bambarre = to be copied #
In this Journey I have endeavoured to follow with
unswerving fidelity the line of duty – my course has
been an even one turning neither to the right hand
5nor the left though my route has been tortuous
enough =     All the     hardship hunger & toil were met
with the full conviction that I was right in persever
ing to make a complete work of the exploration of the
sources of the Nile – Mine has been a calm —
10hopeful endeavour to do the work that has been given
me to do whether I succeed or whether I fail – The prospect
of death in following pursuing what I knew to be
right did not make me veer to one side or the other
I had a strong presentiment during the first three
15years that I should never live through the work enterprise
but that weakened as I came near to the end of the
journey – and a strong desire to discover any
evidence of the great Moses having visited these
parts bound me – spellbound me – I may say
20for if I could bring to light anything to confirm
the sacred oracles I should not grudge one whit all
the labour expended – I have to go down the central
Lualaba
or Webb’s lake river – Then up the Western
or Youngs lake river to Katanga head waters & then
25retire –     I pray that it may be to my native home
Syde bin HabibDugumbeJuma Merikano
Abdullah Masudi are coming in with 700 muskets
and immense store of beads copper &c They will
cross Lualaba & trade West of it – I wait for them
30because they may have letters for me – I have had no
letter from th Foreign Office – The last I had was a
piece of the most exhuberant impertinence that
ever left the Foreign or any other office – I was to
have no claim for any services rendered = no
35position when my work was done – Lord Russells
name had been obtained to it though a statesman
like him might bind future Governments to
to give h{H}e never would enjoin them not to give
This bore internal evidence of being the effusion
40of the supernumerary undersecretary Murray
I expect only the same treatment that Murray would
claim for himself – The offer of other work or
of being provided with another office – The slave
trade on the West Coast having ceased he ought
45to have resigned but he thought to earn his salary
by unjustly stopping mine – The only annoyances
I have suffered were from this as Lord Clarendon
called it "ungracious & unjust" letter - and from a
letter of busybody instructions from the R.G.S. (Sheet 9)

XIX
 
Syde bin Salem Burashid
    family Lumke 
              
Mengongo soga – Guke a fish
        sangardo – Do  




5

XIX. 28 Octr Moenemokaia who has travelled further
than most Arabs said to me "If goes with a good
natured civil tongue, he may pass through the worst
people in Africa unharmed" This true – time
also is required – one must not run ^ through a country, but
10give the people time to become acquainted with
you and let their first fears subside —


29th The Manyema buy their wives from each other
a pretty girl brings ten goats – saw one brought
home today – she came jauntily with but one
15attendant     and her husband walking behind -
They stop five days – then go back and remain other
five days at home – The husband fetches her again
Many are pretty – and have perfect forms and
limbs – They hoe large spaces for maize – It is
20merely scraping the surface The soil is so rich
no more is needed


31st OctMonangoi of Luamo – married to the
sister of Moenekuss came some time ago to beg that
Kanyingere be attacked by Muhamad's people –
25no fault has he "but he is bad" – Monangoi the
chief here offered two tusks to effect the same thing
on refusal he sends the tusks to Katomba & may get
his countryman spoiled by him – "He is bad" is all they
can alledge as a reason – Meantime this chief here
30caught a slave who escaped = a prisoner from
Moenemokia's and sold him or her to Moenemokia
for 30 spears & some knives – When asked about this
captive he said "she died" – It was simply theft - but
he does not consider himself bad


35

2nd November 1870 – The plain without trees
that flanks the Lualaba on the right bank
called Mbuga is densely peopled and the
inhabitants are all civil and friendly – From
50 to 60 large canoes come over from the left
40bank daily to hold markets – These people too are
good but the dwellers in the Metamba or
dense forest are treacherous and murder a single
person without scruple – The dead is easily concealed
while on the plain all would become aware of it


45

I long with intense desire to move on & finish
my work – I have also an excessive wish to find
any thing that may exist proving the visit of the
great Moses & the ancient Kingdom of Tirhaka
but I pray give me just what pleases Thee my
50Lord – and make submissive to Thy will in all things


XX

XX. I recieved information about Mr Young's search
trip up Shire and Nyassa only in February 1871 and
now take the first opportunity of offering hearty thanks
to H M Government and all concerned in kindly enquiring
5after my fate – Musa and his companions are fair average
specimens for heartlessness and falsehood of the lower
classes of Muhamadans in East Africa - When on the
Shire we swung the ship into midstream every night in order
to let the air put in motion by the water pass from end to end
10Musa's brother in law stepped into the water one morning
in order to swim off for a boat – and was seized by a crocodile
The poor fellow held up his hand imploringly but Musa and
the rest allowed him to perish – on my denouncing his
heartlessness, Musa replied “Well – no one tell him = go in there
15When at Senna a slave woman was seized by a crocodile,
four Makololo rushed in unbidden and rescued her –
though they knew nothing about her. From long inter-
course with both I take these incidents as typical of the
two races. Those of mixed blood possess the vices of both
20races and the virtues of neither – A gentleman of superior
abilities has devoted life and fortune to elevate the Johanna
men
but fears that they are "an unimprovable race"
The Sultan of Zanzibar who knows his people better than
any stranger cannot entrust any branch of his revenue
25to even the better class of his subjects but places
his customs income and money affairs in the hands
of Banians from India, and his father did the same
before him – When the Muhamadan gentlemen         of
Zanzibar are asked Why their sovereign places all his
30pecuniary affairs and fortune in the hands of aliens they
frankly avow that if he allowed any Arab to farm his
customs he would receive nothing but a crop of lies - Burton
had to dismiss most of his people at Ujiji for dishonesty –
Spekes followers deserted at the first approach of danger
35Musa fled in terror on hearing a false report from a half
caste Arab about the Mazitu 150 miles distant though
I promised to go due West and not turn to the North till far
past the beat of that tribe – The few liberated slaves with
whom I went on had the misfortune to be Muhamadan
40slaves in boyhood but did fairly till we came into close
contact with moslems again. A black Arab ^ was released
from a 12 years bondage by Cazembe through my own
influence and that of the Sultan's letter =     We travelled
together for a time and he sold the favours of his female
45slaves to my people for goods which he perfectly well knew
were stolen from me –     He recieved my four deserters
and when I had gone off to L Bangweolo with only four
attendants the rest wished to follow but he dissuaded
them by saying that “I had gone into a country where there
50was war” – He was the direct cause of all my difficulties
with these liberated slaves but judged by the East African
Moslem standard as he ought to be and not by ours - He is
a very good man, and I did not think it prudent to come
to a rupture with the old blackguard –

[map] [map] [map] [map]
{figure}

Last Journals Vol p 71


XXI

XXI Laba means in the Manyema dialect medicine - 3
a charm - "boganga" This would make Lualaba mean the
river of medicine or charms - but we do not hear of
its being famed among them as the Ganges is in
5India - and possibly this is not the proper meaning
of the word - Muhamad and others found its banks
very healthy and it yields abundant food both
in its waters and on its banks.       The sacred River
does not accord with the fact of Lualaba being
10applied to the Lufira when it becomes large
and also to the third Lualaba or Young's river
still further West dividing Rua from Lōnda -
Hassani thought that it meant great because
it seemed to mean flowing greatly or grandly -


15

      Cazembe caught all the slaves that escaped
from Muhamad and placed them in charge of Funga
-funga
so there is little hope for fugitive slaves so long as
Cazembe lives = This act is to the Arab's very good -
He is very sensible and upright besides -       XXI

XXII

XXII 3d Novr 1870 got a Kondo hondoas the large
double billed Hornbill The ^ Buceros cristata Kangomira of the Shire and
the Sassassa of Bambarre - It is good eating = The
fat of an orangetinge like that of the zebra I keep
5the hide to make a spoon of it -     An Ambassador
at Stanboul or Constantinople was shewn a
hornbill spoon and asked if it were really the bill
of the Phoenix - He replied that he did not
know but he had a friend in London who knew
10all these sort of things - The Turkish Ambassador
in London brought the spoon to Professor Owen
He observed something in the divergence of the
fibres of the horn which he knew before and
went off into the Museum of the college of Surgeons
15and brought a preserved specimen of this very
bird - "God is great - God is great" said the Turk
This is the Phoenix of which we have heard so often =
I heard the professor tell this at a dinner of the
London Hunterian Society in 1857.

XXIII

XXIII There is no great chief in Manyema or Balegga 4
all are petty headmen each of whom considers himself a
chief - It is the Ethnic State with no cohesion between
the different portions of the tribe - Murder cannot
5be punished except by a war in which many
fall and the feud is made worse and trans-
mitted to their descendants.                 cor                copied


+ The Soko is represented by some to be extremely
cunning stalking succesfully men & women
10while at their work - kidnapping children -
and running up trees with them - He seems
to be amused by the sight of the young native
in his arms - but comes down when tempted
by a bunch of bananas and as he lifts that
15drops the child - The young Soko in that case would
cling closely to the armpit of the older - One man
was cutting out honey from a tree and naked a
Soko suddenly appeared & caught by by the privates XXIV
XXIV then let him go         Another man was hunting
and missed in his attempt to stab a Soko - Soko seized
the spear & broke it then grappled with the man who
called to his companions "#Soko has caught me" he bit off
5the ends of his fingers #and escaped       unharmed -
both men are now alive at Bambarre Soko
is so cunning and has such sharp eyes that no
one can stalk him in front with^out being seen by
his small sharp eyes, hence when shot it is
10always in the back - When surrounded by men
and nets he is generally speared in the back too
otherwise he is not a very formidable beast -
He is nothing as compared in power of damaging
his assailant to a leopard or lion - He is
15more like a man unarmed - It does not occur
to him to use his canine teeth which are long
and formidable - Sokos come down in the
forest within a hundred yards of our camp & would be
unknown but for giving tongue     Like fox hounds
20This is his nearest approach to                 speech -

XXV

XXV A man hoeing having his privates uncovered 5
behind was stalked by a Soko and seized thereby -     He
roared out but Soko giggled & grinned & left him
as if he had done it in play - a child caught up
5by Soko is often abused by being pinched & scratched
and let fall     He is said sometimes to use a
spear drawn out of his own body but this is denied
by some - Soko kills the Leopard occasionally by
seizing both paws & biting them so as to disable
10them - Soko goes up a tree groans over his
wounds & sometimes recovers - while Leopard
dies - At other times both Soko & Leopard die -
Lion kills him at once and sometimes tears his
limbs off but does not eat him - Soko eats
15no flesh - #small bananas #are his dainties but
not maize - his food consist of wild       fruits
which abound - one Stafene or Manyema mamwa is
like large sweet sop but indifferent in taste & flesh
Soko brings forth at times twins - never catches women

XXVI

XXVI A very large Soko was seen by Muhamads
hunter sitting picking his nails - tried to stalk him but
he vanished -     Some Manyema think that their buried
rise as Sokos - one was killed with holes in his ears
5as if he had been a man -     # He is very strong - fears guns
but not spears -




The Heathen Philosophers were content with mere
guesses at the future of the Soul - The elder prophets
10were content with the Divine support in life and in
death - The later prophets advance further as
Isaiah - Thy dead men shall live together with my
dead body shall they arise - awake and sing ye that
dwell in the dust for thy dew is as the dew of herbs
15the earth also shall cast out her dead"     This taken
with the sublime spectacle of Hades in the XIV chap
seems a forecast of the future but Jesus instructed
Mary and her sister and Lazarus & Martha without
hesitation spoke of the resurrection at the last
20day      as a familiar doctrine far in advance of its
                                Mosaic law in which she h{she had} been reared

XXVII

XXVII 6


Ikwenu alumwa = Lualaba salutation
a ko sema iamwu Manyema Do to men
Doshanga kakaka Do      to women



5

Monyungo chief was sent for five years among the
Watuta to learn their language and ways - He sent
his two sons and a daughter to Zanzibar to school
Kills many of his people says they are so bad if
not killed they would murder strangers - Unruly
10ordered some of them to give their huts to Muhamad
refusing he put fire to them & they soon called
out let them alone we will retire -     He dresses
like Arabs     has ten loaded guns at his sitting place
four pistols - two swords several spears and
15a two bundles of the Batuta spears - laments
that his # father filed his # teeth when # he was young


The names of his very numerous people is Bawungu
country Wungu = his other names are Iranga - Mohamu

XXVIII

XXVIII The Basango on the other hand consider their chief
as a deity and fear to say aught wrong lest he should hear
them = They fear both before him & when out of sight = The
Father of #Merere never drank pombe or beer and
5assigned as a reason that a great man who had
charge of people's lives should never become
intoxicated so as to do evil = Bange he never
smoked but in council smelled at a bunch of it
in order to make his people believe it     had
10great effect on him - -     Merere drinks pombe
freely but never uses Bange - He alone kills
sheep - He is a lover of mutton - and beef
but neither goats nor fowls are touched by him


9 th Novr 1870 sent to Lohombo for dura
15and planted some Nyumbo - I long excessively
to be away and finish any work by the two Lacustr
Lacustrine rivers
Lualaba of Young and Webb
but wait only for Syde & Dugumbe who may
    have letters and as     I do not intend to return XXIX
XXIX hither but go through Karagwe homewards 7
I should miss them altogether - I groan and am
in bitterness at the delay but     thus it is - I pray
for help to do what is right but sorely am I
5perplexed and grieved and mourn -     I
cannot give up making a complete work of
the exploration




10th November 1870 a party of Katombas men
10arrived on their way to Ujiji for carriers - they
report that a foray was met S W of Mamohela
to recover four guns which were captured
from Katomba and his people killed when
last here - Three were recovered and ten
15of the Arab party slain       The people of Manyema
fought very fiercly with arrows and not till
many were killed and others mutilated would
they give up the guns - They probably expected
this foray and intended to fight to the last XXX
XXX - They had not gone in search of ivory while
this was enacting consequently Muhamads men
have got the start of them completely by going along
Lualaba to Kasongo's and then along the western verge
5of the Metamba or forest to Loinde or Rindi R -
The last men sent took to fighting instead of trading
and returned empty - The experience gained
thus and at the South West will probably
lead them to conclude that the Manyema are
10not to be shot down without reasonable cause
They have sown rice and maize at Mamo-
hela
but cannot trade now where       they got
so much ivory before - Free men were
killed at Rindi or Loinde and one escaped
15The reason of this outbreak by men who have
been so peaceable is not divulged but anyone
seeing the wholesale plunder to which the houses
& gardens were subject can easily guess the         rest

XXXI

XXXI Mamohela camp had several times been [8]
set on fire at night by the tribes which suffered assault
but did not effect all that was intended - The Arabs
say that the Manyema now understand that
5every gunshot does not kill - The next thing they
will learn will be to grapple in close quarters
in the forest where their spears will outmatch
the guns in the hands of slaves - It will follow
too that no one will be able to pass through this
10country - this is the usual course of Suaheli
trading - It is murder and plunder and each
slave as he rises in his owners favour is
eager to shew himself a mighty man of valour
by cold blooded killing of their country men
15If they can kill a fellow nigger their pride boils up
The conscience is not enlightened enough to cause un-
-easiness and Moslemism gives less than the light of
nature - I am grievously tired of living here. XXXII
XXXII Muhamad is as kind as he can be but to
sit idle or give up before I finish my work are
both intolerable I cannot bear either yet am forced
to remain by want of people - Merciful Father Help me


5

11th Novr Wrote to Muhamad bin Saleh at Ujiji
for letters and medicines to be sent in a box of
china tea which is half empty - If he cannot
get carriers for the long box itself - then he is
10to send these the articles of which I stand in
greatest need -


        Friends of a boy captured at Monanyembe
brought three goats to redeem him - He is sick
and emaciated - one goat was rejected - The boy
15cried tears when he saw his grandmother
and the father too when his goat was rejected
"So I returned and considered all the oppressions
that are done under the Sun - and behold the tears
of     such as were were oppressed and they had

XXXIII

XXXIII no comforter, and on the side of their oppression 9
there was power but they had no comforter" Ecc IV-I
the relations were told either to bring the goat or let the
boy die - This was hard hearted - at Mamohela
5ten goats are demanded for a captive & given too
Here three are demanded "He that is higher than the
"highest regardeth, and there be higher than they"
"marvel not at the matter
"


I did not write to the coast for I suspect that the
10Lewale Syde bin Salem Buraschad destroys my
letters
in order to quash the affair of robbery by his
man Saloom he kept the other thief Kamaals by
him for the same purpose - Muhamad writes
to Bin Saleh to say that I am here & well - that I
15sent a large packet of letters in June/69 - with money
received no answer - nor my box from Unyembe
and this is to be communicated to the consul by a friend
at Zanzibar - If I wrote it would only be to be burned
This is as far as I can see at present

XXXIV

XXXIV. The friend who will communicate with
the consul is Muhamad bin Abdullah the Wuzeer
Seyd Suleiman is the lewale of Governor of Zanzibar
Suleiman bin Ali or Sheikh Suleiman the Secretary


5

The Mamohela horde is becoming terrified
Every party going to trade has lost three or four
men and the last foray lost ten and saw
that the Manyema can fight - They will soon
10refuse to go among those whom they have forced
to be enemies - one of the Bazula invited a
man to with him to buy ivory - when well
in among Zulas he asked if his gun
killed men and how - He was shewn a bale
15 and powder and stabbed his informant dead
no one knows the reason of this but the
man probably lost some of his relations else
where - This     is called murder without cause

XXXV

XXXV. When Syde and Dugumbe come I hope to 10
get men and a canoe to finish my work among
those who have not been abused by Ujijians
and still retain their natural kindliness of
5disposition     None of the people are ferocious
without cause, and the sore experience which
they gain from slaves with guns in their hands
usually ends in sullen hatred of all strangers
the education of the world is a terrible one
10and it has come down with relentless rigour
on Africa from the most remote times - What
the African will become after the awfully hard
lesson is learned is among the future devel
opments of Providence - When He who is
15higher than the highest accomplishes his purposes
This will be a wonderful country and again
something like what it was of old - When Zerah
and Tirhaka flourished & were great

XXXVI

The soil of Manyema is clayey and XXXVI remarkably
fertile - The maize sown for it rushes up to seed
and everything is in rank profusion if only it
be kept clear of weeds - Bambarre people
5are indifferent cultivators planting maize
Bananas & plantains and groundnuts only
No dura a little cassava - no perisetum
or meleda - pumpkins melons Nyumbo
though they all flourish in other districts
10a few sweet potatoes appear but elsewhere
all these nature grains and roots are abundant
and cheap -       No one would choose this as a
residence except for the sake of Moenekuss &
The people are honest never steal though
15stolen from by our people as Simon and
Amoda of my party and others of Muhamad's

XXXVII

XXXVII                 Oil is very dear while at Lualaba a 11
gallon may be got for a single string of beads and beans
ground nuts - cassava maize plantains in rank
profusion The Balegga like the Bambarre people
5trust chiefly to Plantains and ground nuts -
To play with parrots is their great amusement -


13th Novr 1870 - The men sent over to Lohombo
about 30 miles off got two and a half loads of
dura for a small goat - but the people were
10unwilling to trade - "If we encourage Arabs
to trade they will come and kill us with their guns"
so they said and it is true - The slaves are overbearing
and when this is resented then slaughter ensues.
Got some sweet plaintains and a little oil
15which is useful in cooking and with salt as butter
on bread - but all were unwilling to trade -


Monangoi was over near Lohombo     and heard of a
large trading party coming and not far off, This may be
Syde & Dugumbe but reports are often false

XXXVIII

XXXVIII When Katomba's men were on the late foray
they were completely overpowered & compelled by the Man
-yema
to lay down their guns and powder horns on
pain of being instantly despatched by bowshot - they were
5mostly slaves who could only draw the trigger & make
a noise       Katomba had to rouse and all the Arabs
who could shoot and when they came they killed many
and gained the lost day - The Manyema did not
kill anyone who laid down his gun & powder horn
10This is the beginning of an end which was easily
percieved when it became not a trading but a
murdering horde of savages and when wherever
invited     by old feuds in order to get goats
and then sell the captives back for ten goats each
15Buceros cristata - screams & picks at his
tail till he discharges the contents of his bowel Then
leaves him - It is called "play" by the natives and
in the Suaheli "Utane" or XXXIX
XXXIX Msaha - fun or wit. He follows other birds in the same 12
merciless way - screaming & pecking to produce purging
Manyema call it "Mambambwa" - The Buffalo bird
warns its big friend of danger - calling Chāchāchā
5Rhinocers birds calls out Tyetyetye       tye for
same purpose - Manyema call Buffalo bird
"Mojela"     Suahel "Chassa"


a climbing plant is known in Africa as ntulung--ope
which mixed with flour of dura kills mice -
10They swarm in our camp and destroy everything
but Ntulungope is not near this




The foray above mentioned was undertaken by
Katomba for twenty goats from Kassessa!
15Ten men lost for twenty goats but they will think
twice before they try another foray




one dollar a day is ample for provisions for a
large family at Zanzibar - What nice flesh of
20goats or ox fowls - bananas milk butter - sugar eggs
bazarre mangoes - potatoes

XL

XL. Ambergris is boiled in milk and sugar
and used by the Hindoos as a means of increasing
blood in their systems - a small quantity is a dose
Ambergris is found along the shore of the sea at
5Barawa or Brava and at Madagascar
as if the sperm whate Changoi got rid of it
while alive - Lamos or Amu is wealthy
and well supplied with everything as grapes
peaches wheat cattle camels &c - The trade
10is chiefly with Madagascar - The houses are
richly furnished with furniture dishes from
India -       At Garaganza there are hundreds of
Arab traders there too all fruits abound
and the climate is healthy - from its elevation
15Why cannot we missionaries imitate these
        Arabs in living on heights?


XLI

XLI Copy


Manyuema country 180 miles say 13
                        West of Ujiji
15 Nov
                                                        1870


5

The   Right Honourable Lord Stanley


My Lord As soon as I recovered suffi
-ciently to be able to march from Ujiji I went
up Tanganyika about 60 miles and thence
struck away N W into the country of the Manyuema
10or Manyema
- the reputed cannibals - My object
was to follow down the central line of drainage
of the great Nile valley
which I had seen passing
through the great Lake Bangweolo and changing
its name from Chambeze to Luapula - then on
15passing through Lake Moero assuming the name
Lualaba and becoming itself a great Riverein
Lake
at first eight to ten miles broad with several
inhabited islands in it, and then holding a breadth
of from two to six miles
as far as it is     known
20I soon found myself in the large bend which this
great Lacustrine River makes by going West and XLII
XLII then turning away to the North - Two hours were the
utmost I could accomplish in a day, but by persever
ing I gained strength and came up with the trading party
of Muhamad Bogharib who by native medicines and
5carrying me saved my life in my late severe illness
in Marungu         Two days before we arrived at
Bambarre the residence of the most influential
Manyema chief called Moenekuss we met a
band of Ujijian traders carrying         18000 lbs
10weight of ivory bought in this new field for a
mere trifle in t{h}hick copper bracelets and beads
The traders had been obliged to employ their slaves
to collect the ivory and slaves with guns in their
hands are often no better than Demons - We
15heard but one side of the story - The slave version
and such as would have appeared in the Newspaper
if they     had one - "The Manyema were bad
- they were always in the wrong - wanted to eat the
slaves and always gave them just occasion to capture
20people                 goats sheep fowls and grain -

XLIII

XLIII The masters did not quite approve of this but the 14
deeds were done and then masters and men joined in
one chorus "The Manyema are bad bad bad very
bad" - In going West of Bambarre I followed the
5Luamo a river of from 100 to 250 yards broad
which rises in the mountains opposite Ujiji and
flows across the great bend when near its
confluence I was among people who had been
maltreated by the slaves     and they naturally looked
10on one as if of the same tribe with their persecutors
Africans are not unreasonable though though
smarting under wrongs if you can fairly make
them understand your claim to innocence and
do not appear as having your "back up" The
15women here were particularly outspoken in asserting
our identity with the cr{ue}uel strangers - on calling to
one vociferous lady who gave me the head traders
name, just to look if he and I were of the same
colour she refused with a bitter little laugh "Then you
20must be his brother" The worst the men did XLIV
to XLIV to us was to turn out in force armed
with their large spears & wooden shields and shew
us out of their districts - Glad that no collision
took place we {returned}returned to Bambarre and then
5with our {friend}friend Muhamad struck away due
North       he to buy ivory and I to reach
another part of the Lualaba and buy a canoe -


The country is extremely beautiful but difficult
to travel over         The mountains of light grey
10granite stand like islands in Now Red
sandstone and mountain and valley are all
clad in a mantle of different shades of green
The     vegetation is indescribably rank         through
the grass if grass it can be called which is over
15half an inch in diameter in the stalk and from
ten to twelve feet high nothing but elephants
can walk The leaves of this Megatherium
grass are armed with minute spikes which as
we worm our way along elephants walks rub
20disagreably                 on the side of the face where     the XLV
XLV the gun is         held and the hand is made sore by 15
fending it off for hours the other side for hours - The Rains
were fairly set in by November and in the morning
or after a shower these leaves were loaded with
5moisture
which wet us {to}to {the}the bone - The valleys are
deeply undulating and in each innumerable
dells have to be crossed There may be only a
thread of     water on the bottom but the mud mire
or Scotticé "glaur" is grievous - thirty or
10forty yards
    of the path on each side of the
stream are worked by the feet of passengers
into an adhesive {compound}compound - By placing
a foot on each side of the narrow footway one
may waddle a little way along but the rank
15crop of grass gingers & bushes cannot spare
the few inches required for the side of the foot and
{down}down he comes into the mire - The path often runs
along the {bed}bed of the rivulet for 60 or more yards XLVI
XLVI as if he who first cut it out went that distance
seek{ing}ing a part of the {forest}forest less dense than the rest
for his axe         In other cases the "Muale palm"
from which here as in Madagascar grass cloth is
5woven and called by the same name "Lamba"
has taken possession of a valley - the leaf stalks
as thick as a {s}strong mans arm fall off
and block up all passage save by a path
made and mixed up by the feet of elephants
10and buffaloes The slough therein is groan
compelling and deep     Every now & then the
traders with rueful {faces}faces stand panting
The sweat trickles down my face, and I
suppose I look as grim as they though I
15express a hope that good prices will reward
them for as the coast for ivory obtained with
so much toil - In some cases the subsoil
has given way beneath the elephants enormous
weight - The hole is filled with mud and one
20taking it                         all to be about calf         deep XLVII
XLVII steps in to the top of the thigh and {flaps}flaps on to a 16
seat, soft enough, but not luxurious - a merry laugh
relaxes the facial muscles and I conjecture that this
gruesome fun is all I shall ever get for the explorations
5Some of the {numerous}numerous {rivers}rivers which in this
region flow into Lualaba are covered with
living vegetable bridges - a species of dark
{glossy}glossy grass with its roots and leaves is
the chief agent in felting into a mat that covers
10the {whole}whole stream          When stepped upon it yields
twelve or fifteen inches and that amount of
water {rises}rises on the leg - At every step the foot
has to be lifted high enough to place it on the
unbent mass in front and this fatigues
15like walking on deep snow - Here & there
holes appear which we could not sound with
a stick six feet long - They gave the impression
that any where one might plump through
and finish the chapter - Where the water is XLVIII
XVLVIII     is {sha}shallow The Lotus or sacred Lilly
sends it roots to the bottom and spreads it broad
leaves over the floating bridge so as to make believe
that the mat is its crown but the grass referred to
5is the real supporting agent -


Between each district of Manyema broad
belts of the primeval forest still stand - Into
these the sun though vertical cannot pene-
trate except by sending down ^ at         Midday thin pencils
10of rays into the gloom - The rain water
stands for months in stagnant pools
made by elephants feet and the dead leaves
decay on the damp soil and make the
water of the numerous rills & rivulets of the
15colour of strong tea -     The climbing plants
from the size of {whip}whipcord to that of a man
of wars haw{sers}sers are so many the ancient
path is the only passage         When one of the giant
trees falls across the road it {makes}makes a {wall}wall XLIX
XLIX breast high to be climbed over - and the mass 17
of tangled climbers brought down makes cutting a
path round it a work of time which travellers never
undertake       The shelter from the sun of the Forest
5makes it pleasant but the roots of trees high out
of the soil across     the path keep the eyes constantly
looking down and a good shot gun does no
harm to parrots or quince fowls on their
tops - I have heard gorillahs here called Sokos
10prowling within fifty yards without getting a
glimpse of them - Their call to each other resem
bles that of a Tom cat not so loud or far
reaching as that of the peacocks - When in flight
they give tongue not unlike fox hounds - His
15nest is a poor contrivance resembling that
of our cushat dove Here he sits in pelting rain
with his hands on his head - The natives call it
his house and laugh at him for being such a
fool as after building it not to go beneath it
20for shelter - Bad water and frequent wettings L
L. told on us all by choleraic symptoms & loss
of flesh - Meanwhile the news of cheap ivory
caused a sort Californian gold fever at Ujiji
It prevented me from getting any carriers save
5the worthless liberated slaves who by thieving
lying and fornicationcowardice have been a perpetual
annoyance during all this Journey - The
traders eager to secure all the Pagazi or
carriers spread the report that I would go
10away to my own country and leave them as
Speke did his as Suez - We were now
overtaken by a horde ^ from       Ujiji numbering 600 muskets
all eager for ivory The elephant tusks had
been left to rot with the other bones in the
15interminable forests where the animals were
killed - The natives knew where they had been
left and if treated civilly readily brought the
precious teeth many half rotten or gnawed LI
LI by the teeth of a rodent animal to sharpen his 18
teeth as London rats do on leaden pipes - I had already
in this Journey two severe lessons that travelling
in an unhealthy climate in the rainy season
5was killing work and besides being unwilling
to bear company with the new comers I feared
that any present weakness ^ by further exposure might result in
something worse went back seven days
and on the 7th February last went into winter
10quarters at a camp formed by the heads of
men as civil and kind as I could wish - a
letter obtained from the Sultan of Zanzibar
through the kind offices of Sir Bartle Frere
has been of immense service to me with most
15of his subjects - I had no medicine - some though
sent for twice had been unaccountably detained
at Unyembe by the Arab Lewale or governor


Two English guns in the box are surely not    LII
LII. not too much for his virtue - Rest - boiling
all the water {figure} I used and a new species of potato
famed among the natives as a restorative soon
put me to rights again     The rains continued
5into July and 58 inches fell
    The mud from
the clayey soil was awful and laid up some
of the strongest in spite of their intense eagerness
for ivory     I lost no time after it was feasible
to travel in preparing to go North but my
10attendants were fed and lodged by the slave
women whose husbands were away from
the camp on trade and pretended to fear going
into a canoe I consented to refrain from
buying one - They then feared the people though
15the inhabitants were reported by the slaves
to be remarkably frienvly     elsewhere I could
get the country people to carry from village
to       village and was comparatively independent LIII
LIII. when as happened with some they deserted 19
into the arms of prostitutes six times over - But in
Manyema no one can be induced to go into the
next district for fear they say of being killed &
5eaten - I was at their mercy and entreaty was
answered by calling when out of sight "who
will carry his things" and a loud laugh to make
me hear - The head Arabs remonstrated
and they literally trembled and consented to go
10anywhere but on find that no compulsion
was to be used refused again - When I had
gone with my only three attendants I could not
regret the absence of the rest for three of them
had previously gone unknown to me to
15a slave war and came back boasting that
they had killed four of the people whose kindness
to us had touched my heart and nothing could
exceed the eagerness with which uninvited
they ran off to help to enslave their countrymen LIV
LIV nothing but danger would have
        deterred      them from slavehunting and
here there is none for the report of gun makes
the Manyema flee in terror On no account
5would I have brought them here but I suspected
that my letters to the coast for other men
had been destroyed and I had a sore longing
to finish my work and retire - The country
to the North is even more difficult than that
10I have described for except a broad belt of
Buga or Prairies along the right bank of
the Lualaba it is all forest saving the clearing
round each village - and these are ten miles
apart
- The rivers and rivulets are innumer
15able I crossed fourteen in one day from
knee to thigh deep
- Muhamads party was
five hours in crossing one in flood - a man
in a small canoe went     sounding among LV [v.1]
    LV. 20 the trees to find where it was     breast
deep
In another case they were two hours in a river
from breast to neck deep and they saw
nothing but gloomy forest - though they went
5near to what the Balegga call uerere or lower
Tanganyika
named by its discoverer Albert
Nyanza
For the first time in my life my
feet failed - When torn by rough travel
instead of healing kindly as heretofore an
10irritable eating ulcer fastened on each foot
and laid me up for five months - these are
common here and slaves whose wailing
may be heard the whol[ ] night long are
often killed by them - I have been minute
15even to triviality that your Lordship may have
some idea of the obstacles to progress in this
region exploration is only possible by canoes
and as soon as I get men who have been
taught to work four or five months will [LV v.2]
[LV] finish all I have to do - What remains
to be accomplished may be understood
by the     following -


[                ]
LVI

LVI continuation of a Despatch to Lord Stanley 21


This great Lacustrine river which I call
Webb's Lualaba is only one of {three}three each of
which {having}having th{e}e {same}same native {name}name {requires}requires
5 [#] an {English}English {epithet}epithet to dis{ting}tinguish it The
{river}river Lufira {rises}rises in a fount{ain}ain South
West of this which {I}I would fain {call}call Bartle
Frere
's fountain
and {th}th[   ] When it becomes
very large it is called Lualaba West of this one
10{again}again another great {river}river beg{ins}ins {in}in {a}a fountain
and from {its}its {source}source down {its}its {only}only native
name is Lualaba - I wish to add Young's
Youngs Lualaba
and Bartle Frere's Lualaba
unite and form a Lake the native name of
15which is Chibungo but I am fain to call it
Lake Lincoln - Looking back from this to the
full {grown}grown gushing fountains not more LVII
LVII {more}more than {ten}ten miles apart The
largest of these fountains at which a man
cannot be seen on the other side is the source
of the Liambai or upper Zambesi this
5I name after good Lord Palmerston
Near it rises the Lunga which further
down is called Luenge and still further
off Kafue or Kafuge - I would name it
Oswell Fountain         These four fountains
10gushing forth so near to each other
and forming great rivers are probably the
unfathomable springs of the Nile men
-tioned to Herodotus by the secretaryretary of
Minerva
in the citycity of SaisSais fromfrom which LVIII
LVIII [ ] half the water flowed" = from Youngs and 22
Bartle Frere's fountains
= "Northward into
Egypt" - and the other half = "from Palmerstons
and Oswell fountains
= "into Inner Ethiopia"
5I heard of this remarkable mound & fountains
some 200 miles distant on the South West - again
on the South East 150 miles off - again on
the North East 180 miles distant and
now on the N.N.E. many intelligent
10Arabs who have visited the spot give the
very same information as having excited
their admiration as much as it that of
the natives - I have ventured to give name by
anticipation - I shall write no [      ]{other} letter
15till I have either succeeded or fallen - The
names of Palmerston Lincoln & Frere I wish
to honour as of men who have done more LIX
LIX for the abolition of the slave trade & slavery
than any of their cotemporaries - The great and
good man Palmerston and Lincoln are no
longer among us, and I desire to place, as it were
5my poor little garland of love on their tombs.


          By degrees the conviction has crept across
my mind that all we moderns can fairly do in
in common modesty claim is is the rediscovery
of the sources of the Nile which had sunk into
10oblivion somewhat like the circumnavigation
of Africa by the Phoenician Admiral of one
of the Pharoahs about B C 600 He
was not believed because he reported
having the sun on his right hand in
15passing round Libya This stamps the tale
of the Admiral to us as genuine By placing
the fountains of the river of Egypt between
10°-12° South Lat. Ptolemy [            ] genuine LX
LX geography from men who had visited this very 23
region     By making the water collect into two or
three large Lacustrine rivers
- Extant speci-
-mens of those which in prehistoric times
5abounded in Africa and in the south are still
called "melapo" - in the North Wady's both
words meaning the same thing = river beds
where no water ever now flows, he did
what no mere theorist would dream of doing
10Ptolemys predecessors were probably the real
collectors of the facts he made use of and the
former explorers must have travelled extensively
Had I left at the end of two years I could have
given little more light on the country than the
15Portuguese who in their three slaving visits
to Cazembe asked for slaves & ivory alone
and heard of nothing else - I enquired about the
waters till ashamed and almost afraid of being
put down as affected with Hydrocephalus - I had
20to feel my way and every step of the way, and LXI
LXI was generally groping in the dark for who cared
were the rivers ran - Many a wary foot I trod ere
I gained a clear idea of the drainage which flows
from the watershed in         10°12° South on which stand
5Ptolemys mountains of the moon - The length of
this watershed is between 700 & 800 miles from
West to East - Here the fountains of the Nile do
unquestionably arise - The mountains on it
are between 600 & 700 feet above the sea
10The idea of melting snow is if I remember
rightly is not Ptolemy's Kenia & Kilimanjaro
are said to be snow capped but no one
ever reached the snow - They send no water to
any part of the Nile and never could have
15been meant by the correct ancient explorers


          I would fain crave your Lordships approboation
of my labours but the supernumerary undersecretary
Murrays
impertinent letter
forbids any Govt
from allowing me any claim no matter what
20services I may render David Livingstone


LXII

LXII 22nd Novr 1870 copied foregoing despatch - It
will be delivered by Muhammad Bogharib into the consul's
hands at Zanzibar


24th Novr Herpes is common at the plantations
5in Zanzibar but the close crowding of the houses
in the town     they think prevents it. The lips &
mouth are affected & constipation sets in for 3
days -     cured by going over to mainland
Affections of the lungs are cured by residence at
10Bariva or Brava and also on mainland


the Safari of Halzani took my letters from
Ujiji but person employed I do not know


25th Nov wrote to Tom Agnes - Young - Webb
Oswell Dr Hamilton Sir Roderick     Sir Bartle Frere -
15Tracey - Stearns of Bombay - Maclear = Bleek
Brother John in Canada =     Letters to be delivered
by Muhammad Bogharib into Col Playfair or Dr Kirk's
own hands at Zanzibar - Lt Kinnaird & B Braithwaite

LXIII

LXIII 29th Novr 1870 Safura is the name of the
disease clay or earth eating at Zanzibar = It     often
affects slaves and the clay is said to have a pleasant
odour to the eaters, but it is not confined to slaves
5nor do slaves     eat in order to kill themselves - It is
a diseased appetite and sick men who have plenty
to eat are often subject to it - The feet swell
flesh is lost - and the face looks haggard - The
patient can scarcely walk for shortness of breath
10and weakness and he continues eating till he
dies = Here many slaves are now diseased with
safura The clay built in walls is preferred and
Manyema women when pregnant often eat it.
The cure is effected by drastic purges for seven
15days and nothing of ^ fish butter - milk or beef must
enter his mouth for three{two} years after it --     old
vinegar or cocoa trees put into a large bason &
old slag made red hot cast into it - Then "Mbuye ^ asofoetida"
1/2 a rupee in weight - . copperas sulph Do
20a small glass of this fasting morning & evening LXIV
LXIV produces vomiting & purging of black dejections -
This is continued for seven days - no meat eaten but
only old rice or dura & water - a fowl in course of time
no ^ fish butter eggs or beef for two years on pain of death
5Muhamad's father had skill in the cure and the
above is his prescription - Safura is thus a
disease per se - It is common in Manyema &
makes me in a measure content to wait for
my medicines - from the description inspiss-
10ated bile seems to be the agent of blocking up the
gall duct and duodenum and the clay [      ]{or} earth
may be nature trying to clean it away -     the
clay appears unchanged in the stools and in
large quantity a Banyamwezi carrier who
15bore an enormous load of copper is now by Safura
scarcely able to walk - He took it at Lualaba where
food is abundant & he is contented with his lot -
        squeeze a fingernail & if no blood appears beneath it
                Safura is the cause     of the bloodlessness - LXV
LXV a dread of encountering this disease without any
any medicine reconciles me partially to this detention




2 Decr 1870 Sokos collect together and make a drumming
5noise some say with hollow trees then burst forth
into loud yells well imitated by the natives - If a man
has no spear Sokos goes away satisfied - If
wounded he siezes the wrist lops off ends of the
fingers and spits them out - slaps the cheeks
10of his victim and bites without breaking the
skin - draws out a spear but never uses
it - takes some leaves and stuffs them into
his wound to stanch the blood = Does not
wish an encounter with an armed man = He
15sees women do him no harm & never molests them
a man without a spear is nearly safe from him
They beat hollow trees as drums with hands
and then scream as music to it. When men
hear them they go to Sokos but Sokos never
20goes to men     with hostility - Manyema say "Sokos
is a man" "& nothing bad in him" a Soko was killed
near this with holes in his ears - He had died a man & risen a Soko

LXVI

LXVI. opinion and facts - 2 Rhinoceroses scary
chivalry - Helmore found by Baldwin starving no
hunter - no horses no medical man - Sekeletu
blamed though he got not £8000 to place him
5on Healthy Highlands and I was accused as
morally guilty of his death though no letter was
sent to me - saying     he had come ^ or gone to Linyanti


        Bishop addressed no teaching - Makololo
followed me and I was blamed because they
10vitialed all the teaching - then being none as
2nd Bishop said to me an astounding fact
that people living with them have been taught
absolutely nothing - Idleness was the bane of
that mission and then loitering in the swamps
15killed them - I bore the accusations in
silence - I felt that so to do was chivalrous -
Loss of heat or presence of mind - Absalom
Saul -


6th Decr 1870 oh for Dugumbe or Syde. !! to come
20but this delay may all be for the best.

LXVII

LXVII. The Parrots all seize their food & hold it with the
left hand - the Lion too is left handed - He strikes with
his left - so are all animals - left handed save man.




5

I noticed a very pretty woman come on marriage     with Mona
mosimba
past this quite jauntily about a month ago
ten goats were given - Her friends came and asked
another goat which being refused she was enticed away
became sick of Rheumatic Fever two days afterward
10and died yesterday - not a syllable of regret for the
beautiful young creature but for the goats "Oh"
"our ten goats"         they cannot grieve too much - "Our"
ten goats! Oh Oh"!


      Basang wail over those who die in bed but not
15over those who die in battle = The cattle are a salve
for all sores - women even raise no wailing


        Another man killed in a village within ^ ½ miles sight
of this -       They quarrelled and there is virtually no
chief - the man was stabbed and village burned and
20people all fled - They are truly a bloody people -

LXVIII

LXVIII Sokos live in communities of about ten each having his
own female - an intruder from another camp is beaten off with
their fists and loud yells - If one tries to seize the female of another
he is [  ] caught on the ground and all unite in boxing &
5biting the offender - a male often carries a child
especially if they are passing from one patch of forest
to another over a grassy space - He then gives it to the
mother


      a man died near this Monasimba went to
10his wife and after intercourse and washing he
may appear among men -         If no widow
can be obtained he must sit naked behind
his house till some one happens to die - all the
lowest of the low - and especially in bloodiness
15the man who killed a woman without cause
goes free - He offered his grandmother to be
killed in his stead and after a great deal of talk
nothing was done to him - !

LXIX

LXIX 8 Decr 1870 - Suleiman bin Juma lived on the
mainland ^ Mosessane opposite Zanzibar - It is impossible to deny his
power of foresight except by rejecting all evidence - He
frequently foretold the deaths of great men among Arabs
5and he was preeminently a good man upright & sincere
"shirti" none like him now for goodness or
skill - He said that two middle sized white
men with straight noses & flowing hair down to
the girdle behind came at times & told him things
10to come - He died ^ 12 years ago lately & left no successors
told his own disease three days beforehand
by cholera


Heresi a ball of hair rolled in stomach of a
lion is a grand charm to the animal & to
15Arabs - Muhammad has one




10th Decr     I am sorely let and hindered in this
Manyema - Rain every day and often at night
I could not travel now even if I had men but
20I could make some progress - this is the sorest delay
I ever had - I look     above for help & mercy


LXX

LXX. Lions fat is regarded as a sure preventative of [24]
Tsetse or Bungo - This was noted before but I add now
that it is smeared on the ox tail - preserves hundreds of the
Banyamwesi cattle in safely while going to the Coast -
5It is also used to keep [  ] pigs and Hippopotami
away from gardens - - The smell is probably
the efficacious part in Heresi




12 Decr     It may all be for the best that I am so
10hindered and compelled to inactivity - advance
to Lohombo was the furthest point of traders
for many a day - slaves returning with ivory
were speared mercilessly by Manyema because
they did not know guns could kill & their
15spears could - Katomba coming to Moenekuss
was a great feat three or four years ago
Then Dugumbe went on to Lualaba and fought his
way - So I may be restrained now in mercy
till men come - those I had were not men nor
20yet slaves - Hybrids between bond & free so petted
& coddled as to think the English feared them

LXXI

LXXI The Neggeri an African animal attacks the
testicles of man and beast - cuts them off and retires
contented - Buffaloes are often castrated by him -
Men who know it squat down & kill him with knife
5or gun - Lions fear him{the} Zibu or Ratel
Zibu or Mbuidé flies at the tendo achilles =
Ratel? -        Fisi ea Baharai probably the seal
is abundant in the seas but the Ratel or badger
probably furnished the skins for the Tabernacle
10Bees die or escape from his droppings
or urine and he eats the honey in safety -
Lions & all other animals fear his attacks of the heel
                                                        about         25 to a measure
the Babemba mix a handful of castor oil seeds with
15the dura ^ and they pou{gri}nd Meleza = usages makes them like it
                                        is not                 perceptible     in porridge
The nauseous taste and the oil is needed where so
much farinaceous or starchy matter exists and
      the bowels     are                 regulated by the mixture
20experience ^ has taught them the need of a fatty ingredient




Moamba - Chassa - brother of Do Chambeze = other brother of
Chassa - Do in way - Moenewifa large country - Komanga
and 6 days to Barari thence

LXXII

LXXII. Goambari is a prisoner at Merere's guarded [25]
by a thousand or more men to prevent him intriguing with
Monyungo who is known as bloodthirsty - In the third
generation charura's descendants numbered sixty
5able bodied spearmen - Garahenga ^ or Kimamure killed many of
them -      charura had six white attendants with
him but all died before he did and on becoming
chief he got all his predecessors wives - Merere
is the son of a woman of the royal stock and of a
10common man - Hence he is a shade or two
darker than Charura's descendants who are very
light coloured and have straight noses -       They
shave the head and straight hair is all cut off -
they drink much milk warm from the teats of the
15cows and think that it is strengthening by its heat.
The descent is 1 Charura - 2 Mokasi - 3 Moenye-
gumbe
=
4 Mamerere = Merere =
Mogandira son of 3
died after one years rule - Kimamure a coward followed
2nd son of 3 made Merere         general = Goambari called
20Monyungo to first Merere - Kimamure or otherwise Garahen
ga
killed many by Merere's hand - calls himself his slave
but rules him and all besides

LXXIII

LXXIII Decr 23d 1870 - Bambarre people suffer hunger now
because they will not plant cassava - This trading party eats all
the maize and sends to a distance for more - Manyema buy from
them with malofu or Palm toddy - Rice all coming into ear
5but Manyema planted more       Maize ripening - mice a pest
a strong man among Manyema does as he pleases &
no chief inteferes - a man's wife of ten goats was
given off to a Mene man and his child now grown
is given away too - comes to Muhamad for redress
10Two Elephants killed were very large but have
small tusks - They come from South in the rains
All animals as elephants buffaloes - zebras
are very large in Basango country - tusks full
in the hollows weigh very heavy - animals fat
15& good in flesh         Eleven goats for the flesh


24th Between 25 and 30 slaves have died in the present
epidemic - also many Manyema - Two yesterday at
Kandawara -       The feet swell then the hands and
face and in a day or two they drop dead - It came
20from the East and is very fatal - few escape who take
it.

LXXIV

LXXIV. a woman was accused of stealing maize - the ch[   ] 26
here sent all his people yesterday - plundered all she had in [      ]
house and garden and brought her husband bound in
thongs till he shall pay a goat -- She is said to be inn[     ]
5Monangoi does this by fear of the traders here an[ ]
as the people tell him as soon as they are gone th[ ]
vengeance he is earning by injustice on all sides
will be taken - I told the chief that     his head would
be as also Kasessa's.


10

Three men went from Katomba to Kasongo's to
buy viramba - a man was speared belonging to
Kasongo - these three then fired into a mass of
men who collected one killed two another three & so on
So now that place is shut up from traders -
15and all this country will be so as soon as the
Manyema learn that guns are limited in their power
of killing and especially in the hands     of slaves who
cannot shoot but only make a noise - These Suaheli
are the most cruel and bloodthirsty missionaries in
20existence and withal so impure in talk & acts - spreading
syphilis Buboes & chancres - The Lord sees it.

LXXV

LXXV 28 Decr 1870 Moenembag the most intelligent of the
two sons of Moenekus in power told us that a man was
killed & eaten a few miles from this yesterday - Hunger the reason
assigned = on speaking of tainted meat he said that the Manyema
5put meat in water two days to make it putrid & smell high = The
love of high meat is the only reason I know for their cannibalism
but the practice is now hidden on account of the disgust that
the traders expressed against open man eating when they
first arrived - Lightning very near us last night - The
10Manyema say that when it is so loud fishes of large
size fall with it - an opinion shared in with them
by the Arabs =       But the large fish is the clarias capensis
of Smith and it is often seen migrating in single file
along the wet grass for miles -     It     is probably this
15that the Manyema think falls from lightning.


30th Rain     daily - a woman murdered without cause
close by the camp - murderer said she is a witch & speare[ ]
her - body exposed till affair is settled probably by fine of g[   ]
the Manyema are the most bloody callous savages I
20know - one puts a scarlet feather on ground and challeng[  ]
those near to stick it in the hair - He who does so must kill a
man or woman - and so none dare wear skin of musk ca[ ]
Ngawa unless he has murdered - guns alone prevent them
from killing us all - and for no reason either.


LXXVI [v.1]

LXXVI 16th January 1871 Ramadan ended last [4]
night and it is probable my people & others from the
cohort will begin to travel {#} after three days of feasting
It has been so rainy I could have been done little though
5I had had {#} people {#}         {#}


22nd a party reported to be in the way hither - This
is likely enough - {#}but reports are so often false doubts
arise -        Muhamad says he will give men when the
party of Hassa        ni comes or when Dugumbe
10arrives                 My                         Nassickers cooly assert
that they did       not                 desert         after         this
it will be im-       possible     to take the
ringleaders{#}                 but         some
will believe{#}         them as         for
15instance Mr     Tozer & Co

{figure}

[LXXVI v.2]

7


[                ]

{figure}

There is no desert in all the
5country said to be travelled over
It is every where fertile & covered
with rank vegetation = this is the
most unlikely part of the tale


LXXVIII

LXXVIII 24th January 1871 - Muhamad mentioned [27]
this morning that Moenemokaia & Moeneghere his
brother brought about thirty slaves from Katanga
to Ujiji affected with swelled Thyroid glands
5or Goitre and that drinking the water of Tang-
anyika
proved a perfect cure to all in a very
few days. Sometimes the swelling went
down in two days after they began to use the
water in their ordinary way of cooking washing
10and drinking - Possibly some ingredient of
the hot fountain that flows into it - for the
people on the Lofubu in Isana's country had
the swelling - Shut in bays were decidedly
brackish while the body of Tanganyika was
15quite fresh -


The odour of putrid elephant's meat in a house kills
parrots - The Manyema keep it till quite rotten
but know its fatal effects on their favorite
birds

LXXIX

LXXIX. 28th January 1871 - a safari under Hassani
and Ebed arrived with news of great mortality
by cholera (Towny) at Zanzibar - and my "brother"
who I conjecture to be Dr Kirk has fallen - The men
5I wrote for have come to Ujiji but did not know
my whereabouts - When told by Katomba's men
they will come here - and bring my much longed
for letters & goods - 70,000 thousand victims in
Zanzibar       alone! and it spread inland to the
10Masai and Ugogo - cattle shivered and fell dead
the fishes in the sea died in great numbers. Here
the fowls were first seized and died and then men -
thirty perished in our small camp made still
smaller by all the able men being off trading at the
15Metamba and how many Manyema died we
dont know - The survivors became afraid of
eating the dead - Formerly the pest kept along
the sea shore now it goes far inland and will
spread all over Africa - This we get from Mecca
20filth - nothing was done to prevent the place being
made a perfect cesspool of animals guts & ordure of men

LXXX

LXXX -- a piece of skin bound round chest of an arm & half of 28
it hanging down prevents waste of his strength and he
forgets and fattens ----


Abed's party bring 200 Frasilahs of all sorts of beads &
5They will cross Lualaba & open a new field in the
other or Young's Lualaba - all central Africa {figure}
will soon be known - The evils inflicted by
these Arabs are enormous but probably not greater
than the people inflict on each other -----


10

Merere has turned against the Arabs and killed one
robbing several others of all they had though he has
ivory sufficient to send down 7000 lbs of ivory to the
coast
and recieve loads of goods for 500 men - He
looks as if insane & probably is so - He will soon be
15killed - His insanity may be the effect of Pombe of
which he drinks largely - and his people may have
told him that the Arabs were plotting with Goambari
He restored Muhamad's ivory and slaves and sent for
the other traders who had fled - said his people had
20      spoken badly and he would repay all losses -

LXXXI

      LXXXI Two young elephants were sent by Mteza to
Seyed Majid by was of the Lewale - Watuta came stealing
Banyamwezi cattle & Mteza's men went out to them
and twenty two were killed The Lewale's people did nothing
5The Governor's sole anxiety is to obtain ivory and no
aid is rendered to the traders     Seyed Suleiman the wanzeer
is the author of the do nothing policy - Sent away all the
Sepoys as too expensive       an old man & avaricious
The [ ]Bagogo plunder traders unchecked = one of the
10young elephants died in the way to the coast - It is
reported that Egyptian turks came up & attacked
Mteza but lost many people and fled - A Moslem
mission to Mteza was a falsehood though the
details given were circumstantial - Falsehood
15is so common one can believe nothing the Arabs
say unless confirmed of other evidence - They are
followers of the Prince of lies Muhamad - His cool
appropriation of the knowledge gained at Damascus
and from the Jews is perfectly disgusting - All his
20deeds were done when unseen by any witnesses

LXXXII

LXXXII. It is worth noticing that all admit the decadence 29
of the Moslem power and they ask how it is fallen -
they seem sincere in their devotions & reading the Koran
but its meaning is comparatively hid from most of the
5Suaheli - the       Persian Arabs are said to be gross
idolators and awfully impure - Earth from a grave
at Kurbelosi's put in the turban and worshipped - some of the
sects wont say "Amen"!


Moenyegumbe never drank more than a mouthful
10of pombe - He said the wisdom of a chief is dangerous
He kills people and it ought never to be excited by beer -
When young he could make his spear pass right through
[ ]n elephant and stick in the ground on the other side -
He was a large man and all his members were largely
15developed - hands fingers all in proportion to his great
height - lived to old age with strength unimpaired --
Goambari inherits his white colour and sharp nose =
but not his wisdom or courage - Merere killed five of his
own people for exciting him "against the Arabs -" the
20half caste is the murderer of many of charura's
descendants - His father got a [      ] ^ daughter of Moenyegumbe
for courage in fighting the Babena of Ubena

LXXXIII

LXXXIII. my long detention in Manyema leads me to
believe that they are truly a bloody people - cold blooded
murders are frightfully common and they say that but for
our presence they would ^ be still more frequent - They have no
5fear of spears and shields - guns alone frighten them - they
tell us frankly and quite truly that but for our firearms not
one of us should even return to his country - some kill
in order to be allowed to wear the red tail feathers of a
parrot in their hair - and they are not ugly like the West
10coast
negroes many men have as finely formed heads as
would be found in London - We English if naked would
make but a poor figure beside the strapping forms and
finely shaped limbs of Manyema men & women - their
cannibalism is doubtful but my observations raise
15grave suspicions a Scotch jury would say "not proven"
The women are not guilty -


The cholera came along the seashore from Mecca but
this year it came inland and made great havoc - Goats
and fowls died not by the pest but by its companion
20[ ] cattle shivered and fell dead - about 30 people died in
our small camp and how many Manyema we dont know
Letters from Mecca told of its coming from that focus
of filth but ta{h}e rest of the world must do nothing for
political economy says we must not       interfere

LXXXIV

LXXXIV - 4th February 1871 - Ten of my men from 30 the
coast
have come near to Bambarre and will arrive today
I am extremely thankful to hear it for it assures me
that my packet of letters was not destroyed - they know
5at home by this time what has detained me         and the
end to which I strain


Do only one letter reached and 40 are missing -         James
was killed today by an arrow - the assassin was hid
in the forest till my men going to buy food came
10up - I propose to leave on the 12th I have
sent Dr Kirk a cheque for Rs 4000 Four thous-
-and - Great havoc was made by cholera and
in the midst of it my friend exerted himself
greatly to get men off to me with goods - First
15gang of porters all died. When they came to Ujiji
Sherreef the head man stopped wth four and
is now feasting & drinking on my goods though
he knows me to be here -


8th The ten men refusing to go North influenced
20probably be Shereef & my two ringleaders who
# try this means to compel me to take them

LXXXV

LXXXV 9th February 1871 - the man who contrived the
murder of James came here drawn by the pretence that he
was needed to lead a party against the villages which he
led to commit the outrage - His thirst for blood is awful
5He was bound & word sent to bring the actual murders within
3 days or he suffers death - He brought 5 goats think that would
smooth the matter over


11th Men struck work for higher wages - I consented
to give them 6 six dollars a month if they be-
10-haved well -     If ill, I diminish it -     so we hope
to start tomorrow - another mutiny quelled by M & me




12th the men sent are all slaves of the Banians &
came with a lie in their mouths - They were lascars
15or soldiers - they objected to going today so I wait
till tomorrow = orders given today not attended to
so I had to treat them as slaves and promised
on the word of an Englishman that I would shoot
the ringleader against my orders - Muhamad
20swore that he would kill them if they contended with
me and they gave in and but for Mabruki sick
                                                we should go [      ] tomorrow


Unyembe 6 six dotis each
to Ujiji 3 three     each of the Pagazi
25three pagasi 4 four [ ] each Ghamees Sudi Salem
                from 12th      February onw    ards

LXXXVI

LXXXVI 13th Feby 1871 -       Mabruki seized with [31]
choleraic purging detains us today - gave Muhamad
5 Pieces amerikano 5 Do Kanike & 2 frasilahs samsam
He gives me a note to Hassani for 20 thick copper bracelets
5Yesterday crowds came to eat the meat of the man who
misled James to his death spot - We want the man
who set the Mbanga men to shoot him - They were much
disappointed when the     found that no one was killed
and are undoubtedly                         cannibals
10 [                ]

1[ ]th Friday - started today Mabruki making himself
very ill as all who have been at Nassick coddling school
do         Muhamad roused him out by telling how I travelled
when much worse - chief gave me a goat & Muhamad an
15go{other} but in coming through the forest on the neck of the
mountain the men lost three & have to go back for them
and return tomorrow - Simon & Ibram were bundled
[      ] camp and imprudently followed me when they ca[  ]
up I told them to be off or I     would certainly shoot them

LXXXVII

LXXXVII. 17th waiting at a village on the Western slope
for the men to come up with their goats if       they have
gone back to the camp -     Muhamad would not allow
the deserters to remain among his people nor would
5it would only be to imbue the minds of my slav[ ]s
with their want of respect for all English and total
disregard of honesty & honour - They came after me
with inimitable effrontery believing that though I said
that I would not take them - they       were so valuable I
10was only saying what I knew to be false - I warned
them off and they went away among Manyema -


The goats were brought by a Manyema man who
found one fallen in a pitfall & dead - He ate it & brought
one of his own in lieu of it - I gave him 10 strings of
15beads & he presented a     fowl in token of good willl -


18th went on to a village on the Lulwa and on the
19th reached Moenemgoi who dissuaded me so
earnestly against going to Moenekurumbo for the
canoe of Molembalemba that I agreed not to venture


20

20th to ford only one canoe now as 2 men of
Katomba were swept away in the other & drowned
They would not sell the remaining canoe so I go
N W on foot to Moene Lualaba where five large
canoes are abundant - grass & mud grievous but
25my         men lift me over [      ] waters 21st Moenendebas


Mr andso twill be
When I am gone


LXXXVIII

LXXXVIII 21st arrived at Monandewa's vil. [32]
situated on a high ridge between two deep & difficult
gullies - People obliging & kind = chief's wife made a
fire for me in the evening unbidden - 22nd on N.W. to
5a high hill called Chibaude a yunde with a
spring of white water at the village on the top - Hunger
from some unknow cause but people cultivating
now on the plain below with a will -       23d on
to two large villages with many banana plants
10around but men said they were in fear of
the traders and shifted their villages to avoid
them - We then went on to the village Kahombogola
with a feeble old man as chief - country beautiful
and undulating - light green grass covers it all
15save at the brooks where the eye is relieved by
the dark green of lines of trees - grass tears the
hands and wets the extremities constantly - soil
formed of debris of granite rocks - rough &
stoney but everywhere fertile - one can rarely
20get a bare spot to sit down and rest


24th to a villag{villag}e near Lolinde R. then
cross Loengadze & sleep on bank of Luha R.

LXXXIX

LXXXIX to Mamohela welcomed by all the
Arabs - and got a letter from Dr Kirk and
another from the Sultan - and from Muha
mmad
bin Nassib going to Karagwe
5all anxious to be kind Katomba gave
flour - nuts fowl & goat - a new way
opened to Kasongo's much shorter than
that I followed -     I rest a few days &
then go on -


10

1st March 1871 I was to start this morning
but the Arabs asked me to take seven of their
people going to buy viramba as as they
know the new way the offer was gladly
accepted - I gave a note to Katomba
15to take my double barrelled gun at Ujiji
I pay him this for all his     services &
he gives me a young she Soko to be carried
for me there Ujiji - She is a most friendly
little beast came up to me at once making XC
XC her chirrup of welcome - smelled my clothing
& held out her hand to be shaken - I slapped her
palm without offence though she winced - She
began to untie the cord with which she was
5afterwards bound with fingers & thumbs
in quite a systematic way     and on being
interfered with by a man       looked daggers &
screaming tried to beat him with her hands
she was afraid of his stick and faced him
10putting her back to me as a friend = When
allowed to unloose herself she walked away
using the hands as crutches - treading on the
backs of the fingers on the spaces between
the first joint from the nail to the second
15the knuckles & back of the hand being held
perpendicularly - sometimes she walks
upright but the crutch movement in
which the feet are lifted forward together
is the common way of going - she holds
20out her hand for people to lift her up and

carry her quite like a spoiled child then
bursts into a passionate cry somewhat
like that of a kite wrings her hands quite
25naturally as if in despair & sometimes adds
a foot to make the appeal more tender -
she sits eighteen inches high - Her black
long hair was beautiful while she was tended
by her mother who was killed - she eats
30everything - comes and sits down on my
mat beside me as a child would do - covering
herself with a mat to sleep - makes a
nest of grass or leaves and wipes her
face with a leaf - - When wounded Soko
35stuffs leaves into the hole - is not mis
chievous as the monkeys are




MS.10703 XCI

XCI = I present[  ] my double barrelled gun to [33]
Katomba as he has been very kind called
away from Ujiji - He gave me the Soko
but will carry it to Ujiji for me - I have tried
5to refund all that the Arabs have ap-
-pended on me         I left Mamohela on
2nd March and came to Munanbunda's
seven of Moenel{o}kila's people go with
us and serve as guides - on the 3rd
10we came to Monangongo                 4th
[ ][ ]   Headman hid himself from fear as
we are near to where bin Juma killed five
men - then on 5th we came through the
same dense forest country as on 4th
15and reached villages beside some hills
called Mobasilange - the village at
which we sleep is called Bazilange
most of them are very pretty and stand
on slopes the main streets East and
20West allow the bright sun stream his

XCII
XCII his clear rays from one end to the
other and dry up the moisture of the frequent
showers
- a little verandah is often put
in front of the door - Here at dawn the
5family gathers round the fire and sit in
the enjoyment of the delicious air talking
over their little domestic affairs & waiting
till the sun warms them - the leaves of the
forest trees around and near them are
10bespangled with thousands of dew drops
the cocks crow & strut - the kids gambol &
leap - The older goats make believe fighting
the fairy scene     is no doubt one never
forgotten by the young whose infamy is
15guilded by the scene picture whose beauty is quite
indescribable - Thrifty winces often make
the heap of grass roots which bake their
clay pots ^ or make salt serve as the morning fire - In some
cases all the village is deserted as we come
20near - doors are shut & a bunch of leaves XCIII
XCIII on a handful of reeds green placed across
it to say "no entrance here" -     chickens not caught
while all the fowls and goats are carried off
we{a}il for the hens & tell like the smoking fires
5of flight from the slave traders - They have
found out that I am not a slaver and
when the people remain stand calling
as I pass - "This is the good one ^ Bolongo" - "Friend
ship Friendship" - They sell their fine iron
10rings eagerly for a few beads - The rings are
out of fashion since beads came in -
"slaves" slap grown men in sheer wanton
-ness I have threatened to thrash them if
I see them but out of sight of me they do it
15still - The owners confess that all the mischief
is done by slaves, and then when Manyema
resent and kill the nasty curs vengeance
is taken by guns - The free men behave
better than the slaves = The Manyema are
20far more beautiful than other free of XCIV
XCIV bond of Zanzibar - The men say "if we had
Manyema women we should get beautiful
children" Many women are very pretty & the men
handsome. Hands feet & limbs perfect - orifices
5of the nose widened by snufftakers - teeth not
filed except a little space between two front incisors


5th March 1871     We heard today that Muhamads
people passed us on the West with much ivory
I lose thus 20 copper rings I was to take from
10them and all the notes they were to make
for me of the rivers they crossed =


6th passed through very large villages with many
forges in active work - men followed us as if
to fight but we got them to turn peaceably
15we dont know who are enemies so many
have been maltreated & had relatives killed - The
rain of yesterday made paths so slippery that
the feet of all were sorely fatigued and on
coming to Mangara's I resolved to rest on 7th
20near mt Kimari - gave a cloth & beads in lieu
of a fine fat goat from chief a clever good man

XCV

XCV 9th March 1871. We marched about five hours 34
across a grassy plain without trees = Buga or Prairie
The torrid sun nearly vertical sent his fierce rays down
and fatigued us all - crossed two ^ Sokoye streams by bridges &
5slept at a village on a ridge of woodland overlooking
Kasonga - After two hours this morning we came
to a villages of this chief & at one were welcomed
by the safari of Salem Mokadam & I was given
a house - Kasonga is a very fine young man
10with European features and very clever and
good - Has four guns - Muhamads people
were led by his and spent all their copper for
some fifty frasilahs of good ivory          {figure}
From this party men have been sent
15over Lualaba and about fifty frasilahs obtained
All praise Kasonga - - this place is about
6 miles ^ East from Lualaba and very healthy


10th Muhamads people are said to have gone
to     Luapanga a powerful chief who told
20them they were to buy all their ivory from
XCVI
XCVI him - He had not enough and they wanted
to go on to a people who have ivory doorposts
But he said "You shall go neither forwards nor
backwards but remain here"     He called an
5immense body of archers and said you must
fight these" - they killed Luapanga and many
of his people called Bahika - crossed a very
large river the Morombya or Morombwe
and again the Pembo       river but dont seem
10to have gone very far North -


I wished to go from this in canoes but Ka-
songo
has none so I must tramp for 5 or 6
days
to Moene Lualaba to buy one if I have credit
with Abed


15

11th Had a long fierce oration from Amur in
which I was told again & again that I should be
killed and eaten - people wanted a white one
to eat = I needed 200 guns - must not go to die -
20I told him that I was thankful for advice if given by
one who had knowledge but     his vehement threats XCVII
XCVII were dreams of one who had never gone
anywhere but sent his slaves to kill people = He
was only frightening my people and doing me an
injury - Baker had only twelve people & came
5near to this. "Were the people cannibals" &c &c
I left this noisy demagogue after saying I thanked
him for this warnings but saw he knew not
what he was saying - The traders from Ujiji
are simply marauders, and their people
10worse than themselves thirst for blood more
than for ivory - Each longs to be able to tell a tale
of blood, and     Manyema are an easy prey
Abed Hassani assaulted the people at Moene Lualaba's
and now they keep to the other bank and I am
15forced to bargain with Kasongo for a canoe
and he sends to a friend for one to be seen on
the 13th. This Abed declared to me that he would
not begin hostilities but he began nothing
else. The propsect of getting slaves over -
20-powers all else &     blood blood flows
in horrid streams - The Lord look on it
He will have some tale to tell Muhamad Bogh[    ]

XCVIII

XCVIII 12th Rashid left today for Moene Lualaba
and I wait for Kasongos messengers to return
This spot is pretty -     land undulating with trees
enough to be beautiful - Rice grows well and
5food is abundant - Kasonga says that he has
but one tongue & never lies - He is a contrast
to the Arabs who are nearly all liars - Musa &
party are fair average opennness of Moslem
falsehood - The only difference between their relig
10and them is that Muhamad lied to force his
countrymen to give up idolatry - The impudence
of his lies is their chief feature - As a trader he
went to Damascus & heard of St Paul's trans-
lation to the third heaven - Muhamad at once
15concieved the idea of a translation to the seventh
heaven - He had no miracle to shew in evidence
but without shame tried to appropriate Moses
bringing water out of the rock but with the characteris
tic of all false miracles for no reason - did not
20 [figure] take water as all others did on his camel and
worked his miracle where it was not needed =

XCIX

XCIX - 13th sent my people to examine the canoe
Kasonga's men did not reach it yesterday
afraid because their Headman Kasongo
gave Hassani & Muhamad's people ivory
5to assault the people at Moene Lualaba's
the trap laid was 25 copper bracelets given as debt
They killed many and captured many more
                and hope       not     to         return here
for no reason but to get slaves ^ -        they
10were market people famed by all as
good & civil - Kasongo's goodness extends
only to the traders - I told him that they
would attack him too when they had finished
all about him and he would go yet in a
15slave yoke like other Manyema       It is
terrible this Manyema trade - It is simply
stealing people and shedding human blood
as a sort of salvo or accompaniment
to be able to say we fought Kasongo's
20enemies - Marvel not at the matter
there be higher than they.

C

C - 14th March 1871 Men did not return yesterday
I heard only lately of Youngs search for me on Nyassa
and am deeply thankful to H M Govt and all
concerned in taking trouble to ascertain my fate
5Musa and his companions are fair average speci
-mens of the lower classes of half caste Muham-
-madans - one need never expect aught from them
but heartlessness and falsehood - one like them
-selves who had been properly punished by Manganja
10came past us and reported that he had been
plundered by Mazitu or Batuta 150 miles distant ^ N.
Musa was terrified & though I offered to go due
West till far past the beat of the Batuta
as soon
as I turned my face thither ran away - they alleged
15no other reason whatever but fear of Batuta - The
Sultan who knows his people better than anyone
else entrusts all his reverence & money affairs to
Banians from India - His father did the same - He
says if he trusted his customs income in the hands of
20his own Muhammadan subjects they would steal it
35 all - purloin the whole - This being true of the better CI
CI. 15th nothing better can be expected from their inferiors
Falsehood seems ingrained in their constitutions
No wonder that in all this region they have never tried
to propagate Islamism The natives soon learn to hate
5them, and slaving as carried on by the Kilwans
and the Ujijians is so bloody as to prove an
effectual barrier against proselytism - The
Muhamadans have in all their intercourse
in East Africa propagated nothing but
10syphilis and the domestic bug - In spreading
the disease they have been distressingly successful
even in Manyema - Filthy talkers all their
speech to the natives is too disgusting to
noticed - to avoid provoking ill will
15I listened as if I heard it not -


16th The party here assaulted Kasongo's people
yesterday and killed three men capturing as
usual women & children - My men not come
back - I fear engaged in some broil


20

17th - 18th not     come yet though two men were
sent after them 19th     as I feared having killed
three men - I am clear of blood guiltiness -
no large canoe seen - people angry because Kasongo
sent traders to them killed their guide and wounded
25others - I can send no where without danger of my men
eagerly engaging in bloodshed -


20th I am heart sore and sick of human blood -

{figure}




21st Kasongo's brothers child died
30and he asked me to remain today while
he buried the dead and he would give
me a guide tomorrow - Being rainy
I stop willingly -


Dugumbe is said to purpose going
35down the river to Kanayumbe River
and build on the land Kanayumbe
which is a loop formed by the river & is large
{figure} He is believed to possess great power
of divination and even of killing
40unfaithful women


22nd I am detained another day by sickness of
one of the party - very cold rain yesterday from
Nor West - I hope to go tomorrow towards the
sokoni or great market of this region -


Unyanyembe Journal (1870 Field Diary Segment)
David Livingstone


Date of composition: 28 January 1866-5 March 1872
Place of composition: Unyanyembe
Repository: David Livingstone Centre, Blantyre, United Kingdom
Shelfmark: Cat 1115
Clendennen & Cunningham number(s): Journals, 011
Digital edition and date: Livingstone Online, 2016-2017
Publisher: University of Maryland Libraries, College Park, MD, USA
Project id: liv_015005
TEI encoding: Adrian S. Wisnicki, Christopher Lawrence, Anne Martin, Heather F. Ball, Kate Simpson, Erin Cheatham, Ashanka Kumari, E. Alexander Munson



0543
537

                            Bambarre = Manyuema country
        say, about 150 W. of Ujiji 15 November 1870


                    The Right Honourable
5                                                Lord Stanley


                                                        My Lord -


                                                                As soon as
I recovered sufficiently to be able to march from
Ujiji - I went up Tanganyika about sixty
10miles
, and thence struck away Nor West into
the country of the Manyuema or Manyema =
the reputed cannibals - My object was to follow
down the central line of drainage of the Great
Nile valley
which I had seen passing through
15the great lake Bañgweolo, and changing its
name from Chambeze to Luapula = then
again on passing through Lake Moero, assum-
ing Lualaba and after forming a third
Lake = Kamolondo becoming itself a great
20Lacustrine river or Riverein lake with
many islands in it - I soon found myself
in the large bend which this great Lacustrine
river makes by flowing West about 180
miles
then sweeping round to the North -
25Two hours were the utmost I could accomplish
in a day but by persevering I gained
strength, and came up to the trading party
of Muhamad Bogharib who by native
medicines and carriage saved my life in
30my late severe illness in Marungu = Two
days before we reached Bambarre - the residence
of the most sensible chief in Manyema
called Moenekuss, we met a band of Ujijian
traders carrying 18,000 lbs weight of ivory
35bought in this new field for a mere trifle
in thick copper bracelets and beads - the
traders had been obliged to employ their
slaves to collect the ivory, and slaves with 0544
538
with guns in their hands are often no better
than Demons - We heard but one side of
the story = the slaves version - and such as
5would have appeared in the Newspaper
if they had one - "the Manyema were very
bad = were always in the wrong = wanted
in fact to eat the slaves = and always gave
them just reason to capture women and
10children, goats, sheep, fowls and grain - "
The masters did not quite approve of this,
but the deeds had been done - and then
masters and men joined in one chorus
"the Manyema are bad, bad, bad, awfully
15bad, and cannibals" - In going West of
Bambarre
in order to embark on the
Lualaba, I went down the Luamo - a
river of from 100 yards to 200 yards
broad
which rises in the mountains
20opposite Ujiji
and flows across the
great bend of the Lualaba - When near its
confluence, I found myself among
people who had been maltreated by the
slaves, and they naturally look on me as
25of the same tribe with their cruel per-
-secutors - Africans are not generally
unreasonable though smarting under
wrongs if you can fairly make them
understand your claim to innocence
30and do not appear as having your "back"
"up" - the women were particularly out
spoken in asserting our identity with
the cruel strangers - on calling to one vocifer
-ous lady who gave me the head traders
35name to look at my colour, and see if
it were the same as his - she replied
with a bitter little laugh - "then you must
be his father"! the worst the men did was 0545
539
to turn out in force armed with their large
spears and wooden shields, and shew us out
of their districts - Glad that no collision took
5place, we returned to Bambarre = and then
with our friend Muhamad struck away due
North = He to buy ivory, and I to reach
another part of the Lualaba and buy a
canoe -


10

The country is extremely beautiful, but
difficult to travel over - the mountains
of light grey granite stand like islands in
New Red sandstone, and mountain and
valley are all clad in a mantle of different
15shades of green - The vegetation is indescri-
-bably rank - through the grass, if
grass it can be called which is over half
an inch in diameter in the stalk, and
from ten to twelve feet high, nothing but
20elephants can walk = the leaves of this
Megatherium grass are armed with -
minute spikes which as we worm our
way along elephant walks rub disagreably
on the side of the face where the gun is held
25and the hand is made sore by fending it
off the other side for hours - the rains
were fairly set in by November; and in
the mornings or after a shower
the leave's
were loaded with moisture which wet us
30to the bone - the valleys are deeply undu-
-lating, and in each innumerable dells
have to be crossed - there may be only a
thread of water at the bottom, but the mud,
mire, or scotticé "glaur" is grievous -
35thirty or forty yards of the path on each
side of the stream are worked by the feet
of passengers into an adhesive com-
-pound - By placing a foot on each 0546
540
side of the narrow way, one may waddle a
little ^
distance
along, but the rank crop of grasses, gingers
5and bushes cannot spare the few inches
of soil required for the side of the foot, and
down he comes into the slough - the path
often runs along the bed of the rivulet for
sixty or more yards, as if he who first
10cut it out went that distance along seeking
for a part of the forest less dense for his
axe - In other cases the "Muale" palm
from which here as in Madagascar grass
cloth is woven and called by the same
15name "Lamba", has taken possession
of a valley - the leaf stalks as thick as a
strong man's arm fall off and block up
all passage save by a path made and
mixed up by the feet of elephants and
20buffaloes - the slough therein is groan
compelling and deep - Every now and
then the traders with rueful faces stand
panting = the sweat trickles down my
face and I suppose that I look as grim
25as they though I try to cheer them with
the hope that good prices will reward
them as the coast for ivory obtained with
so much toil - In some cases the
subsoil has given way beneath the
30elephants enormous weight - the deep hole
is filled with mud, and one taking it
all to be about calf deep, steps in to
the top of the thigh, and flaps on to a
seat soft enough but not luxurious
35a merry laugh relaxes the facial muscles
though I have no better reason for it
than that it is better to laugh than to cry
/^ Some of the numerous rivers which in
this region flow into Lualaba - 0547
541
are covered with living vegetable bridges -
a species of dark glossy leaved grass with
its roots and leaves felts itself into a mat
5that covers the whole stream = When stepped
upon it yields twelve or fifteen inches and
that amount of water rises up on the leg -
At every step the foot has to be raised high
enough to place it on the unbent mass in
10front - This high stepping fatigues like
walking on deep snow - Here and there
holes appear which we could not sound
with a stick six feet long - they gave the
impression that anywhere one might
15plump though and finish the chapter -
There the water is shallow the Lotus or
sacred lilly sends its roots to the bottom,
and spreads its broad leaves over the
floating bridge so as to make believe that
20the mat is its own, but the grass referred to
is the real felting and supporting agent,
for it often performs duty as bridge where no
lillies grow - The bridge is called by the
Manyema - "Kintefwetefwe" as if he
25who first coined it was grasping for
breath after plunging over a mile of it


Between each district of Manyema
large belts of the primeval forest still stand
into these the sun though vertical cannot
30penetrate except by sending down at
midday thin pencils of rays into the
gloom
- The rain water stands for months
in stagnant pools made by the feet of
elephants - and the dead leaves decay
35on the damp soil and make the water
of the numerous rivulets of the colour
of strong tea - The climbing plants
from the size of whip cord to that of a
man of war's hawsers are so numerous 0548
542
The ancient path is the only passage - When
one of the giant trees falls across the
road, it forms a wall breast high to be
5climbed over - and the mass of tangled
ropes brought down makes cutting a
path round it a work of time which
travellers never undertake - the shelter of
the forest from the sun makes it
10but the roots of trees high out of the soil
across the path keep the eyes oxlike on
the ground - The trees are so high that
a good shotgun does no harm to
parrots or guinea fowls on their tops
15and they are often so closely planted
that I have heard gorillahs here called
Sokos - growling about 50 yards off
without getting a glimpse of them -
His nest is a poor contrivance
20It exhibits no more arch^ itectural skill
than the nest of our Cushat dove -
Here he sits in pelting rain with his
hands over his head - The natives give
[#] Soko a good character and from
25what I have seen he deserves it but
they call his nest his house, and
laugh at him for being such a fool as
to build a house and not go beneath it
for shelter -


30

Bad water and frequent wettings
told on us all by choleraic symptoms
and loss of flesh - Meanwhile the news
of cheap ivory caused a sort of Californi
-an
gold fever at Ujiji and we were
35soon overtaken by a herd numbering
600 muskets all eager for the precious
tusks - these had been left by the Man
yema in the interminable forests 0549
543
where the animals had been slain - the
natives knew where they lay and if
treated civilly readily brought them many
5half rotten or gnawed by a certain
Rodent to sharpen his teeth as London
rats do on leaden pipes - I had already in
this journey two severe lessons that
travelling in an unhealthy climate in the
10rainy season
is killing work - By
getting drenched to the skin once too often
in Marungu I had pneumonia = the illness
to which I have referred, and that was worse
than ten fevers - That is, fevers treated by
15our medicine, and not by the dirt sup-
-plied to Bishop Mackenzie at the Cape as
the same - Besides being unwilling to bear
the newcomers company, I feared
that by further exposure in the rains
20the weakness might result in something
or a
little
back
wards
worse - I went seven days South West
25to a camp formed by the headmen of
the ivory horde, and on the 7th February
went into winter quarters - I found these men
as civil and kind as I could wish - A letter
from the Sultan of Zanzibar
which I owe to
30the kind offices of Sir Bartle Frere has been
of immense service to me with most of his
subjects - I had no medicine but rest -
shelter, boiling all the water I used, and a
new potato farmed among the natives as
35restorative soon put me all right - the rains
continued into July and fifty eight inches
fell
- The mud from the clayey soil of
Manyema was awful, and laid up some
of the strongest men in spite of their
40intense eagerness for ivory - I lost
no time after it was feasible to travel 0550
544
in preparing to follow the river but my
attendants were fed and lodged by the
from
5the
camp
slave women whose husbands were
away ^ on trade and pretended to fear going
into a canoe - I consented to refrain from
buying one - They then pretended to fear the
10people though the inhabitants all along
the Lualaba were reported by the slaves to
be remarkably friendly - I have heard
both slaves and freemen say "No one
will every attack people so good" as they
15found them - Elsewhere I could employ
the country people as carriers but was
comparatively independent though deserted
by some four times over - but in
Manyema no one can be induced to go
20into the next district for fear they say
of being killed and eaten - I was at the
mercy of those who had been Moslem
slaves and knew that in thwarting me
they had the sympathy of all that class
25in the country, and as many others
would have done took advantage of the
situation - I went on with only three
attendants - and this time North West
in ignorance that the great river
30flowed West and by South - but no one
could tell me anything about it - a
broad belt of Buga or Prairie lies
along the right bank - Inland from
this it is all primeval forest with
35villages from eight to ten miles apart
one sees the sun only in the cleared
spaces around human dwellings
From the facilities for escaping the
forest people are wilder and more
40dangerous than those on Buga lands 0551
545
Muhamad's people went further on in the
rest than I could, and came to the mount
ainous country of the Balegga
who collected
5in large numbers and demanded of the
strangers why they came - "We came to buy
ivory" was the reply, "and if you have
none no harm is done we shall return"
"Nay" they shouted - "you came to die and
10this day is your last, you came to die, you
came to die" - When forced to fire on the
Balegga - the Terror was like their insolence -
extreme - and next day when sent for to
take away the women and children who
15were captured, no one appeared - Having
travelled with my informants I know
their accounts to be trustworthy - The rivers
crossed by them are numerous and
large - One was so tortuous they were five
20hours
in water waist and often neck
deep
with a man in a small canoe
sounding for places which they could
pass, and could see nothing in the forest
and nothing in the Balegga country but
25one mountain packed closely to the back
of another without end, and a very hot
fountain in one of the valleys - I found
continued wading in mud grievous -
For the first time in my life my feet
30failed - When torn by hard travel
instead of healing kindly as here to fore
irritable eating ulcers fastened on each
foot - The people were invariably civil
and even kind for curiously enough
35to Zanzibar slaves propagated every
where glowing of my goodness and
of the English generally because
they never made slaves - A trading 0552
546
party passed us, and one of their number
was pinned to the ground at dead of night
while I was sleeping with my three -
5attendants at a village close by - Nine
villages had been burned and as the author
of the outrage told me at least forty men
killed because a Manyema man tried
to steal a string of beads - The midnight
10assassination was revenge for the loss
of friends there - It was evident that
reaction against the bloody Ujijian
slaving had set in - The accounts
evidently truthful given by Muhamad's
15people shewed that nothing would be
gained by going further in our present
course, and now being very lame I
limped back to Bambarre and here
I was laid up by the eating ulcers for
20many months - they are common in
the Manyema country and kill many
slaves - If the foot is placed on the
ground blood flows, and every night
a discharge of bloody ichor takes place
25with pain that prevents sleep - The
wailings of poor slaves with ulcers that
eat through everything even bone
is one of the night sounds of a slave
camp - They are probably allied to Fever


30

I have been minute even to
triviality that your Lordship may
have a clear idea of the difficulties of
exploration in this region - satisfactory
progress could only be made in canoes
35with men accustomed to work - I tried
hard to get others at Ujiji, but all the
traders were eager to secure all the
carriers for themselves, and circulated 0553
547
the report that I would go away from Man-
-yema
to my own country and leave my people
to shift for themselves "like Speke"- they
5knew perfectly that Speke's men left him
first - It was like the case of certain Makololo
who left me on the Shire, and refused to
carry back the medicine to their chief for which
they had come = I was afterwards accused by
10men of similar to the Ujijians of having
abandoned them though I gave them cattle
even after they deserted me - these being the
wealth that they value most highly - Failing
to obtain other men ^ # at Ujiji, for whom I
15had written
I might have waited in comfort
there till those for whom I had written should
come from the coast, and my great weak
ness almost demanded that I should do
so, but I had then as now an intense
20desire to finish the work and retire - But
on learning some parts of the history of
of the Lewale or Arab governor of
Unyinyembe I had grave suspicions
that my letters would be destroyed = He
25conducted the first English Expedition
from Zanzibar to Ujiji and Uvira, and
back again to the coast - and was left un
-paid till the Indian Government took
the matter up and sent him a thousand
30dollars - He seems ^ to be naturally an ill conditioned
mortal = a hater of the English - When I
sent a stock of goods to be placed indepot
at Ujiji to await my arrival - The
Banyamwezi porters as usual brought
35them honestly to Unyinyembe - The
governor then gave them in charge
to his slave Saloom who stopped the
caravan ten days in the way hither
while he plundered it, and then went
40off to buy ivory for his master in
Karagwe = It was evident that he would
do what he could to prevent evidence 0554
548
of the plundering going to the coast - and his
agent at Ujiji who knew all this though
I did not - after I had paid him in full
5all he asked to send the packet with
about forty letters
, returned it back to me
with the message that "he did not know
what words these letters contained = Two
of my friends protested strongly and he
10took the packet - When I learned the
character of the governor I lost hope
of any letters going to the coast and took
back my deserters, making allowance
for their early education and for the
15fact that they did well after Musa fled
up to the time that a black Arab who had
long been a prisoner with Cazembe found
us - He encouraged them to desert
and harboured them, and when they
20relented on seeing me go off to Bañgweolo
with only four followers and proposed
to follow me he dissuaded them by the
gratuitous assertion that there was war
in the country to which I was going
25and he did many other things which we
think discreditable though he got his
liberty solely by the influence I brought
to Cazembe, yet judged by the East
African
Moslem standard as he ought
30to be and not by ours, he is a very
good man and as I have learned to
keep my own counsel among them,
I never deemed it prudent to come to
a rupture with the old "Neer do weel"-


35

Compelled to inactivity ^ here for many
months I offered a thousand dollars
to several of the traders for the loan of
ten of their people - This is more than
that number of men ever obtained but
40the imaginations were inflamed, and 0555
549
each expected to make a fortune by in ivory
now lying rotting in the forests, and
no one would consent to my propositions
5till his goods should be all expended and
no hope of more ivory remained. I
lived in what may be called the Tipperary of
of Manyema and they are certainly a bloody
people among themselves But they are very
10far from being in appearance like the ugly
negroes of the West Coast - Finely formed
heads are common, and generally men &
women are vastly superior to the Zanzibar
slaves and elsewhere = We must go deeper than phrenology
15to account for their low moral tone -
If they are cannibals they are not ostentatious
-ly - The neighboring tribes all assert
that they are men eaters and they themselves
laughingly admit the change but they like to
20impose on the credulous, and they shewed
the skull of a recent victim to horrify one
of my people - I found it to be the skull of
a gorillah or Soko the first I knew of its
existence here and this they do eat - If
25I had believed a tenth of what I heard from
traders I might never have entered the
country - Their people told tales with
shocking circumstantiality as if of eye
witnesses that could not be committed
30to paper or even spoken about beneath the
breath - Indeed one wishes them to vanish
from memory - But fortunately I was
never frightened in infancy with "Bogie"
and am not liable to attacks of what may
35almost be called "Bogiephobia" for
the patient in a paroxysm believes everything
horrible if it be ascribed to the possessor
of a -black skin- I have not yet been
able to make up my mind as to whether 0556
550
the Manyema are cannibals or not - I
have offered goods of sufficient value
to tempt any of them to call me to see
5a cannibal feast in the dark forests
where these orgies are said to be held
but hitherto in vain ^ all the real evidence
yet ^
obtained
would elicit form a Scotch Jury the
10verdict ^ only of "not proven" -


Although I have not done half I
hoped to accomplish I trust to your
Lordship kind consideration to
award me you approbation
15    and am your most obedient servant


                    David Livingstone
                            H M Consul
                                    Inner Africa

0620
614
[...]

July
23d
51870
The sores on my feet laid me up
as irritable eating ulcers - if the foot were
put to the ground a discharge of bloody ichor
flowed and the same discharge happened
every night with considerable pain that
10prevented sleep - the wailing of the slaves
is one of the night sounds of a slave camp
they eat through everything muscle tendon
bone and often lame permanently if they
do not kill the poor things - medicines
15have very little effect - their periodicity
seems to say that they are allied to Fever
The Arabs make a salve of Bees wax and
sulphate of copper and this applied hot
and held on by a bandage affords support
20but the necessity of letting the ichor
escapes renders it a painful remedy.
I had three ulcers and no medicine the
native plan of support by means of a
stiff leaf or bit of calabash was too irritating
25they continued to eat in and enlarge
in spite of everything - the vicinity was
Septr
6th
hot and the pain increased with the size
I was at last advised to try Malachite
30rubbed down with water on a stone and
applied with a feather - this was the
only thing that had any beneficial effect
Copper rubbed down in the same way is
a remedy of good repute but malachite
35alone proved beneficial in my case
26th I have been able now to report the
ulcers healing - For eighty days I was
completely laid up by them and it was
long ere the lost substance was replaced
40they kill many slaves - and an
epidemic came to us which carried
October off thirty in our small camp - it was
Choleraic and how many Manyema 0621
615
Nov.
1870
died of it we could not ascertain - While this
epidemic raged here we heard of cholera terribly
5severe on the way to the coast


Another disease called Safura or earth eating
attacks great numbers of both slaves & freemen
on seeing it on the West coast I imagined that
it was a mode of suicide adopted by the slaves
10and their Portuguese masters shared the opinion
and punished any one guilty of clay eating
but here I found it to be a disease per se
and it attacks even rich men at Zanzibar
who have none of the reasons that might
15make slaves desire to quit life - the earth
of old walls is preferred and to the sufferer
it smells and tastes pleasantly - Muhamad's
brother was attacked and his wife told him
of it on enquiry his brother was ashamed &
20denied it but his wife repeated - It is false
he is constantly picking out earth out of the
garden wall or little clods on the surface
and eating them - the symptoms are swelling
of the face hands and feet - If the fingernail
25is squeezed it is bloodless - the patient is
oppressed with breathlessness and easily
fatigued - though he is supplied with plenty
of food he constantly picks up dirt and
it appears in his dejections unchanged -
30the swelled face feet & hands & bloodlessness
continue to the end and many slaves die of
Safura - A remedy got from Muhamads
father - iron scales from smithy - sulphate
of copper and the strongest vinegar was
35allowed to stand a few days and a wine
glassful given morning and evening
It produced profuse vomiting & purging
and eggs milk fish had to be abstained
from for years afterward

0622
616

Decr
1870.
But the strangest disease I have seen in
this country seems really to be broken hearted
5 [-] ness, and it attacks freemen who have
been captured and made slaves - My
attention was drawn to it when the elder
brother of Syde bin Habib was killed in Rua
by a night attack when a spear was pitched
10through his tent into his side - Syde then
vowed vengeance for the blood of his
brother and assaulted all he could find
killing the elders and making the young
men captives - He had secured a very large
15number and they endured the chains
untill they saw the broad river Lualaba
roll between them and their free homes
they then lost heart - twenty one were
unchained as being now safe but all ran
20away at once while eight with many others still in chains
died in three days after crossing - they
ascribed their only pain to the heart, and
placed the hand correctly on the spot though
many think that the organ stands high
25up under the breast bone - some expressed
surprise to me that they should die seeing
they had plenty to eat and no work - one
fine boy of about 12 years was carried
and when about to expire was kindly
30laid down on the side of the path and
a hole dug to deposit the body - he too
said he had nothing the matter with
him except pain in his heart - as it
attacks only the free who are captured
35and never slaves it seems to be really a
broken hearts

0623
617

Dec r
1870.
Rice sown on 19th October was in ear in 70 days
a leopard killed my goat and a gun set for
5him went off at 10 PM - the ball broke both
hind legs and one foreleg yet he had power to
spring up and bite a man badly afterwards
He was a male 2 ft. 4 in. - at whithers and 6 ft.
8 in. from tip of nose to end of tail -


10

                        1st January 1871 - Oh Father help
me to finish this work to thy honour - still
detained at Bambarre - but a caravan of
500 muskets is reported from the coast -
Jany
1527th
1871
It may bring me other men and goods
Safari or caravan reported to be near and
my men and goods at Ujiji


February 4th 7 slaves come to me from
20the coast and three Pagazi - I was overjoyed
but did not then know that I had recieved
slaves instead of men - they called them
selves Laskars and came without loads -
of eight pieces of calico & 7 of Kanike I
25clothed them all gratuitously - on the day of
their arrival one of my worthless lot from
Nassik who refused to go North for fear
of death was killed by the Manuy{yu}ema as he
went to buy food - the murderer was caught
3010 the slaves mutiny and refuse to go North
swore that the consul had told them not to go
forward but to force me back and they
had spread this tale all over the country and
that a certain letter had been sent to me
35with orders to return forthwith - they
swore so positively that I actually looked
again at to Kirk's letter to see his orders
had been rightly understood by me -
But for Muhamad Bogharib and fear
40of pistol shot they would have gained
their own and their Banian masters
end to baffle me - completely - they 0624
618
Feby
11th
1871.
demanded an advance of one dollar
5or six dollars a month though this was double
freeman's pay at Zanzibar - their two
headmen Shereef and Awathe had refused
to come past Ujiji - and were revelling on
my goods there - I might have returned
10at once and deposed these worthless leaders
but I had a sore longing to finish my work
and retire and going back to Ujiji would
probably have occupied five or six months
in which time, I hope my work would be
15finished if I went North and got a canoe -
I hoped to gain influence over these slaves
in the way, and do all I required but I
never had experience with Banian slaves
before, nor did I concieve it possible for
20British subjects to do all they could to
baffle me by lies and low cunning
so that their slave trading should not be
injured by my disclosures -


Went North to Luamo and across
25it - I was very anxious to embark on it
but was also disinclined to force - the
slaves who are excessively afraid of
Manyuema and everything in their
country - so we went on to Mamohela
3025th and found that it was now known
that Lualaba flowed West South West
and that our course was to be West
across this other great bend of the
mighty river - I had to suspend my
35judgment so as to be prepared to
find it after all perhaps the Congo -
No one knew anything about it
except that when at Kasongo's nine
days West
and by South it came
40sweeping round and flowed North
and North and by East -

0625
619

Feby
1871
Katomba presented a young Soko or gorillah
that had been caught while its mother was
5killed - she sat 18 inches high had fine
long black hair all over which was pretty
so long as it was kept in order by her dam -
she was the least mischievous of all the
monkey tribe I have seen - seemed to know
10that in me she had a friend and came &
sat quietly on the mat beside me - In
walking the first thing observed is that
she does not tread on the palms of her hands
but on the backs of the second line of
15bones of the hands - In doing this the
nails do not touch the ground nor do the
knuckles - she uses the arms thus supported
crutch fashion and hitches herself along
between them - occasionally one hand
20is put down before the other and alter-
nates with the feet - or she walks upright
and holds up a hand to any one to carry
her - if refused she turns her face down
and makes grimaces of the most bitter
25human weeping - wringing her hands &
sometimes adding a fourth hand or foot
to make the appeal more touching - with
grass or leaves she draws them around
her to make a nest - and resents anyone
30meddling with her property - she began in
a very business like way to unloose her
string using the thumbs not fingers in
the usual monkey fashion and when
one interfered with the operation she
35struck out with her hand in a way
that shewed that an adult could give a
very severe slap - they apportion parts
of the forests to certain companies
as street dogs do in Cairo & Istanbul 0626
620
Feby
1871
and intruders from other societies are very
promptly expelled with well slapped checks -
5and sometimes bitten - When seen in the
forests they sometimes walk erect with the
hands on the head as if to steady the loins
but when they see man they take to all fours
and rarely attack except when molested they
10resent spears but do not touch women
who have none - When stabbed he pulls the
spear out yet never uses it against his
enemy - stuffs leaves into a wound to
staunch the flow of blood - to me he seems
15very ugly - a baudy legged - pot bellied - low
browed villain without a particle of the
gentlemen in him - one newly killed is
perfectly appalling - He would do to sit at
the Royal Academy in a portrait of Satan
20a statue intended for the Lord of all evil in
the Nineveh marbles is not half so ugly
as Soko yet he has a good character
from the natives "Soko is a man" they
say "We trouble Soko but he never resents
25it" - We hear him drumming on hollow
trees and at once go to try & kill him -
he hears our drumming and never comes
to injure man - "he does not steal from
our gardens but is content with his own
30wild fruits" - when drum is beaten by
Soko his yelping as music is like that
of spaniels when whipped or giving tong
His nest is a poor contrivance with no
more skill shewn in contrivance than
35the nest of our Cushat dove - here he sits
in pelting rain with his arms over his
head - the natives call it his house and
laugh at him for being such a fool and
after building it not to go beneath
40for shelter - !


[...]

0646
646
[...]

It has been somewhat difficult to
ascertain the cannibalism of the Manyuema
5by reasonable evidence - If I had believed
all tenth part of the tales of native traders
and even of the adjacent tribes I might
never have entered the country - but having
come and being anxious to give a true
10report
on the matter any mind has veered
from scepticism to faith and back again
to doubt of all but a modified use of human
flesh as charms - and then to the opinion
that in some districts of Bambarre human
15flesh is devoured in horrible nocturnal
ogres in the dark forests - I gave a large
sum to be privately invited to witness
one of these feasts, and though sufficient
to be a strong temptation to Manyuema,
20it lay in a village for many months
in rain - there being no lack of food in
the country the only reason for the horrible
custom I could discover was a
depraved taste for meat in the state which
25we call high - the body is said to be kept
for three days slightly covered over with
soil in the forest - in this climate this
causes putridity and then cooked in
large pots with bananas and plantains
30the men gorge themselves with the disgusting
mess - Human flesh they say requires but
little salt as it is saltish - the hands
and feet are tidbits - the first traders
three of four years ago, say that dead
35slaves were openly purchased from
them - now they are ashamed of a
practice which all strangers denounce
but it is still common to devour
the dead in Bambarre - Women are
40debarred from partaking of human flesh -

0647
647

Three slaves belonging to our camp were exhumed
by night - the foot marks shewed that the body
stealers were men and not beasts - When the
5matter was complained of to the chief he said
that hyaenas had done it but neither hyaenas
nor leopards came near us - all the goats
stand unbound in the midst of out huts and no
animal comes near them - some said that
10people in the vicinity were guilty of stealing our
dead - but they were innocent - they were
threatened with reprisals of their living children
if they stole our dead - Posho's wife died, and
in Banyamwezi fashion she was thrown
15away about 200 yards from the camp un-
-buried - the threat was effectual neither men
nor hyaenas touched her body though we
watched for seven or eight days - A very
fine fair woman far gone in pregnancy
20was killed close to our camp by the sons of
Moenekuss because she belonged to a chief
who killed their elder brother - Her blood
stained all the path - and her body was
hid in the forest for a feast - Another slave
25was killed and dismembered for the same
purpose - it is this custom that prevents
the people of one district going into other districts
they say that they will be killed and eaten - a man
came from Kasangañgazi to trade and was killed
30by Kandawara the old brother of the late Moenekuss
and no one will ever punish except by war -
A woman was killed near to us, and the
young man who did the deed went home and
boasted of what he had done - her relatives came
35in great numbers to demand justice and a fight
would have ensued in which the guilty one
would probably escape - we advised them to
demand the culprit alone - His father & he 0648
648
offered the grandmother, and said if we
wished to kill anyone she would do as well
as any other! The murderer escaped - He
5said that he thought the woman killed meant
to bewitch - The foregoing refers to Bambarre
alone, in other districts graves appear -
here none are seen. A chief about a day
distant
killed eleven persons when we
10were away - Monanyembo as he was called
became a nuisance and Muhamad sent
a party to punish him - He soon afterwards
came and brought two goats - one he gave
to Muhamad - The other to Moenekuss' sons
15acknowledging that he had killed their
elder brother - on these occasions they reveal
each other's deeds and it transpired from
Monanyembo's statements that old Kanda-
-wara
in addition to the trader from Kasang-
20-añgazi
^ killed three women and a child for no
other reason than to eat the bodies = They
disclose a horrid state of bloodthirsty
callousness - the people over the hill
Kanyima on our N.N.E - killed a person
25when hoeing his field - If a cultivator
is alone he is almost sure of being
slain - the Soko is not so bad as man -
women often lay down their babies to
sleep under a shady tree while they con-
30-tinual hoeing - Soko stalks the child &
runs up a tree with it evidently amused
with its screaming - a wise woman
runs off at once and brings a bunch
of small bananas which he is very
35fond off - lays it on the ground
in his sight and retires a little way
off. Soko comes down and in lifting
up the bait which is heavy drops the child 0649
649
Men are worse than brutes - This which have
often heard on native testimony seems to be true.


18711st March 1871. I was to start today
5from Mamohela but the Arabs begged me
to take seven of their men going to buy
"Viramba" or grass cloths and they had to
grind flour. The offer was gladly accepted
for they know a new route West which
10has lately been opened - Gave Katomba a
note
empowering him to take a double barrelled
gun out of my long detained long box for
all his kindness which has been very
great - supplying me on every occasion
15with the finest maize flour which I
could obtain nowhere else - nuts - bananas
meat and never begging any return -
He promised to carry the young Soko he
gave me to Ujiji but the poor thing had
20no mothers call and soon died - I have
invariably tried to refund handsomely
all the Arab kindness but Katomba's
good will exceeds my ability - one of
his sayings is worthy of being recorded
25for he has travelled further than most
Arabs - "If you have a civil friendly
tongue and smiling face you may go
anywhere in Africa in safety - Do not
be in too great a hurry but tell the
30people your objects frankly and give
them time to understand them and no
harm will ever befall you"

0650
650

1871
2 March
Left Mamohela and travelled over fine
grassy plains crossing in six hours
5fourteen running rills from three
to ten or fifteen feet broad
and from
calf to thigh deep
- Tree covered mountains
on both sides - the natives know the
rills by names and readily tell their
10courses and which falls into which
before all go into the great Lualaba
but without one as a guide no one
can put them in a map. We came to
Monanbunda's villages & spent the
153th night - our next stage was at Monangongo
a small present of a few strings of
beads satisfies but is not asked -
I give it invariably as acknowledge
ment for lodgings - the Arabs never
20do but use the clean houses - pots
baskets and leave only a litter of
broken food & filth behind them in
4th the morning = the headman of our
next stage hid himself in fear as we
25were near to the scene of bin Juma's
unprovoked slaughter of five men
for tusks that were not stolen but
thrown down - Path lay through dense
5 th forest and again on 5th our march
30was in the same dense jungle of lofty
trees and vegetation that touch our
arms on each side - We came to
some villages among beautiful
tree covered hills called Basilañge
35or Mobasilange - villages very
pretty and standing on slopes - the
main street generally lies East &
West to allow the bright sun to
stream his clear hot rays from 0651
651
1871
5th
March
one end to the other and lick up quickly
5the moisture from the frequent showers
which is not drained off by the slopes -
A little verandah is often made in front
of the door - Here at dawn the family
gathers round a fire and while enjoying
10the heat needed in the cold that always
accompanies the first darting of the
light of Sun's rays across the atmos-
-phere inhale the delicious air and talk
over their little domestic affairs - the
15carriers shaped leaves of the forest all
around their village & near their nestlings
are bespangled with myriads of dew-
drops - the cocks crow vigorously &
strut and ogle - the kids gambol and
20leap on the backs of their dams quietly
chewing the cud - other goats make believe
fighting - thrifty wives often make the
heap of grass roots which bake new
clay pots and the ashes of which give -
25solid? serve as the morning fire - Two
birds are killed with one stone - the beauty
of this morning scene of peaceful enjoyment
is indescribable - Infancy guilds the
fairy picture with its own hives and it
30is probably never forgotten for the young
taken up from Slavers and treated
with all the philanthropic missionary -
care and kindness still revert to the
period of infancy as the finest and
35fairest they have known - they would
go back to freedom and enjoyment
as fast as would our own sons of
the soil and be heedless to the charms
of hard work and no play which
40we think so much better for them
(if not for us)

0652
652

1871
March
In some cases we found all the villages
deserted - the people had fled at our
5approach in dread of repetitions of the
outrages of Arab slaves - the doors were
all shut and a bunch of the leaves of
reeds or of green reeds placed across
them, mean "no entrance here" - A few
10stray chickens wander about ^ wailing having
hid themselves while the rest were caught
and carried off into the deep forest -
the still smoking fires tell the same tale
of recent flight from the slave traders
15Many have found out that I am not
one of their number so in various
cases they stand up and call out
loudly "Boloñgo - Bolongo"! Friend-
"ship, Friendship" They sell their fine
20iron bracelets eagerly for a few
beads - They seem out of fashion since
beads came in but are of the finest
quality of iron and were they nearer
Europe would be as eagerly sought
25and bought as horse shoe nails
are for the best gun barrels - I over
hear the Manyema telling each
other that I am the "good one" I have
no slaves and I owe this character
30to the propagation of a good name by
the slaves of Zanzibar who are
anything but good themselves -
I have seen slaves belonging to the
seven men now with us slap the
35cheeks of grown men who had offered
food for sale - It was done in sheer
wantoness till I threatened to thrash
them if I saw it again - but out
of my sight they did it still and 0653
653
1871
March
5th
and when I complained to the masters
5they confessed that all the mischief was
done by slaves - for the Manyuema on
being insulted lose temper and use their
spears on the nasty curs and their vengeance
is taken with guns - Free men behave
10better than slaves - the bondmen are not
responsible - The Manyuema are far
more beautiful than either the bond or
free of Zanzibar - I over hear the
remark often - "If we had Manyuema
15wives what beautiful children we
should beget." The men are usually hand-
-some and many of the women are very
pretty - Hands feet limbs and forms
perfect in shape - The colour light brown
20the orifices of the nose are widened by
snuff takers who ram it up as far as
they can with the finger & thumb - The teeth
are not filed except a small space
between the two upper front teeth -


25

5th Our course was mainly West but we
heard today that Muhamad Bogharib's
people passed us still further to the West
with much worry and an immense
number of captive Manyuema - The
30ivory did not satiate their greed but
they seized women & children and
slaughtered men because it could be
done without danger - The best men
have often the very worst attendants
35but they take their share of the spoil
and remark "The Manyuema are
bad bad bad" - By the passage West
I miss some things promised as
notes of all the rivers crossed &c

0654
654

1871
March
6th
Passed through large villages with many
5forges at active work - the forest
country beautifully undulating and
well watered everywhere. The men
followed us in large numbers and my
Banian slaves were in terror believing
10that the men meant to fight - I pointed
out that they were without spears "but
their spears are hid in the grass said
they" We got them to turn peaceably
but so many have been maltreated
15we never know who are friends or
who have lost friends relatives and
children by the slavers -


7th The rain of yesterday made the clayey
paths in the forests so slippery that the
20feet of all were sorely fatigued and on
coming to Mangara an influential
and friendly chief I resolved to rest
a day. We were near to a remarkable
Mountain with its top bent over and
25called "Kimazi" - It has a large cave
in its side with a pillar apparently
stalagmite in its mouth but we did not
climb up to it - Gave a cloth and
beads to Mangara a good sensible
30man and he presented a fine fat goat
The house wife whose hut I occupied
was overflowing in her kind wishes
to serve me when she recieved a
small present and was told that I
35always paid for my lodging - Wood
water fire carefully provided and
some bananas presented in return
She was pretty but a woman whose
house was nearly opposite was a
40perfect queen for stateliness and
beauty - she fondled a child 0655
655
1871
March
9th
belonging to a neighbour though covered
5with a loathsome skin disease in entire
ignorance that she was thereby risking
the spoiling of her own beautiful skin


On leaving Mangara's we marched
about five hours across Buga or
10Prairie covered with grass but without
bushes or trees - The torrid sun from
which we had often been sheltered in the
forests was now nearly vertical and sent
down his fierce rays without a cloud
15and sorely fatigued us all
- crossed two
streams - one called Sokoye by bridges &
slept at a village on a ridge of woodland
overlooking Kasonga's - and after two
[10th] hours
this morning came among the
20numerous villages of this chief - We here
found a caravan of Arabs under Salem
Mokadam
who lent a house - Kasongo is
a good looking young man with nearly
European features but rather small eyes
25He is clever asand is pronounced good because
he eagerly joins the Arabs in marauding
seeing the advantage of fire arms he has
bought four muskets - We were now only
six miles from Lualaba and yet south of
30Mamohela
- This great river in fact
makes a second great sweep to the
West of some 130 miles and there at
least 30' of Southing - but now it comes
rolling majestically to the North and again
35makes even Easting - It is a mighty stream
with many islands in it, and is never
wadeable at any point or at any
time of the year - I now wanted to
buy a canoe and explore by means
40of it but my Banian slave drag
was against every effort I made

0656
656

1871
March
11th
Kasongo had no canoes but said that
5he knew a man who had one for sale
He pretended that it was one of his people
and when I proposed to send men to
examine it he gave a guide = When
they went the slaves shewed that they
10were as eager for bloodshed as other
slaves where no danger has to be en-
-countered for after staying away ten
days they came back and reported
that they had killed three Manyuema
15and the guide given by Kasonga had
bullet hole through his shoulder -
they seem to have been firing at random
among the Manyuema and hit their
best friend - Kasonga said little
20about it save that it was an accident
and I would never trust them out
of my sight again - The canoe was not
for sale so I resolved to go further
down the river -


25

This caravan at Kasonga's had but
little success because they sent
slaves to trade and they themselves
lay and feasted here - They were the
agents of Banians at Zanzibar
30without whose money they could
neither trade nor share - and towards
the Banians they acted exactly as
their slaves did to them - When they
sent slaves with five frasilahs
35of beads to trade two & a half
Frasilahs disappeared on the
on the road and very little ivory
returned to the lazy masters -
one of the traders a Muscat Arab
40entertained me with a long fierce
oration in which I was told again 0657
657
1871
March
and again that I should certainly be
killed and eaten - The Manyuema
5now wanted a white man to eat -
I needed 200 guns for so perilous a
journey - I must not go to die - &c - I told
him that I was always thankful for
advice if given by one who had knowledge
10but his vehement threats were the mere
dreams of one who had never gone any-
where but sent his slaves instead of going
himself like a man - He was only trying
to frighten my people who were cowardly
15enough already and thereby doing me an
injury - said that Baker had come near
to this with but twelve people - "Were these
cannibals? shouted the blatant Amur - I left
him after thanking him for warnings
20in which it was plain he knew not
what he was saying - He never launched
forth again but tried to be extra civil -
these traders are simply marauders and
their slaves become worse than them-
25-selves in thirst for blood. Each longs to
be able to sit at home and tell how
much blood he has shed the Manyuema
as an easy prey - they are so terrified
by the loud reports of guns they dash at
30once into the forest & the women and
children are caught -


Muhamad's chief man Hassani
advanced 25 copper rings to the people
near Moene Lualaba to be paid for
35they say in ivory which all knew
they had not to give - On returning
the ivory was demanded and not
forthcoming Hassani assaulted them
for three days and took off a very 0658
658
March
1871
12th
large number of captives - the same
5Hassani promised to me not to begin
hostilities but he began little else - the
prospect of securing slaves overpowers
everything else and blood blood blood
flows in horrid streams. The Lord look
10on it. All flee from this bank of the
Lualaba
now and I am prevented from
getting a canoe.


This spot is pretty - much of the undu-
-lating land is cultivated and there are
15trees enough near the hills & on the ridges
to give the scene a beautiful park like
appearance - Rice grows well and
food of all kinds is brought to the
markets at different points in abundance
20Kasonga says that "he has but one
tongue and never lies" He is contrast
to these Arabs who are very untruthful
the only difference between their so
called prophet and them is that he
25lied and forced his countrymen to give
up idolatry - they lie because it is
ingrained in their constitutions
and they prefer falsehood to truth - the
impudence of Muhamad's lies is their
30chief feature. Proceeding to Damascus
as a trader he heard of St. Pauls
translation the like of which had never
before it happened entered into the
human mind - He at once concieved
35the idea of a pretended visit to not the
third but the seventh heaven - but
many Moslems disbelieve this and say
it is not in the Koran of the prophet
having no miracle to attest his pro-
40phetic mission without shame he 0659
659
1871
March
tried to appropriate that of Moses bringing
water out of the rock but unconsciously
5gave it the stamp of all false miracles
by pretending performance where it was
not needed - no multitude was athirst - He
alone had neglected to follow the example
of his company in providing supplies in
10their skin bottles - His followers are all
faithful liars - religion & morality are quite
disjoined. Kasonga declared that he did
not lie like Moslems but his goodness
consists in helping them against all
15other Manyuema who have ivory - By his
guidance Hassani's party slew many of the
people of Luapanga called Bahika -
The Bahika blame Kasonga only as the cause
of their losses - I told Kasonga that he was
20safe only so long as many other Manyuema
were with reach of the slavers, They would
yet turn round on him and I would see
him in the slave stick going to the coast
He laughed - in scepticism - Now they
25say we are fighting Kasonga's enemies
Marvel not at the matter - There be higher
than they -


15th In conformation of what I write some
of the party here assaulted a village of
30Kasongo killed three men & captured women
and children - pretended that they did not
know them to be his people - but did not
return the captives


21st Kasonga's brothers child died & he asked
35me to wait over the funeral & then he
would give a guide to go North to the
great market place of this region -
Nyangwe - cold rain from Sou
West detained us again


Loading...
1870 Field Diary (Fragments Integrated)
David Livingstone, Agnes Livingstone


Date of composition: 17 August 1870-22 March 1871
Place of composition: Bambarre; Manyema
Clendennen & Cunningham number(s): Field Diaries, 035, 037
Digital edition and date: Livingstone Online, 2016
Publisher: University of Maryland Libraries, College Park, MD, USA
Project id: liv_015001
TEI encoding: Adrian S. Wisnicki, Megan Ward, Heather F. Ball, Ashanka Kumari, Erin Cheatham, Alexander Munson



0001

for the isolation in which they live
The head of Moenekuss is said to be
preserved in a pot in his house
and all public # matters are gravely 0002
communicated to it as if his spirit
dwelt therein - His body was eaten
The flesh removed from the head
and eaten too - His fathers head is
5said to be kept also

0003

The foregoing refers to Bambarre
alone - In other districts graves shew
that sepulture is customary - Here no
grave appears - Some admit the 0004
existence of the practice here - others
deny it - In the Metamba country
and adjac[   ]{ent} to Lualaba - a quarrel with
a wife often ends in the husband killing
5her and eating her heart mixed up 0005
in a huge mess of goats flesh -
This has the charm character - fingers
are taken as charms in other parts
In Bambarre alone is the depraved 0006
taste the motive for cannibalism

0007

On 17th August 1870 Monamyembo
the chief who was punished by M Bogharib
lately came # bring two goats - One
he gave to Muhamad the other to
5Moenekus' son acknowledging
that he had killed his elder brother 0008
He had killed eleven persons over
                in our                         absence
at Luamo - in addition to those
killed in villages on our SE when
5we were away - It transpired
that T{K}andahara brother of old
Moenekuss whose village is 0009
near this - killed 3 women & a child and
that a ^ trading man came over from Kasangangazi
and was murdered too for no reason but
to eat his body - Muhamad ordered old
5Tanda{h}ara to [      ]{bring} ten goats and take 0010
them over to Kasangangazi to pay
for the murdered [      ]{man} - When they
tell of each other's deeds they disclose
a horrid state of bloodthirsty callousness 0011
People over hill NNE of this killed a
person out hoeing - if a cultivator is alone
he is almost sure of being slain.


Some said that people in the vicinity
5or hyaenas stole the buried dead, but
Posho's wife died and in Wanyamesi 0012
fashion was thrown out of camp un
buried - Muhamad threatened an attack if
Manyema did not cease exhuming the
dead - it was effectual - neither men nor
5hyaenas touched her though exposed now
for seven days 24th August 1870

0013

        When the rains ceased in June
I wished to go Northwards along the
Lualaba & buy a canoe but my
attendants professed fear of the water


5

I then promised not to buy a canoe

0014
but this elicited that they were determined
not to go at all - the head Arabs told
me that they were in the habit of going
to the women whose husbands were
5away and getting food and spending
the night with them         - They then 0015
refused rations - not understanding
why I enquired the reason = they replied
that the beads were not enough - the
Arabs said "they are about to desert" &
5'that is a slave custom -

0016

I spo[  ]ke long to them advising them
earnestly not to desert & lose all their
arrears of pay - - But on going out
from me one called out         "Who
5will he get to carry his 0017
things" - then a loud Ha ha ha to make
me hear it. On telling them that Seyed
Majid
had punished those who deserted
Speke & the consul would certainly be
5angry to hear that I had been thrown
away by them in the middle of the cannibal 0018
country where I could get no carriers
as the Manyema will not go to the next
village - Simon said "give me a bit
of paper to tell that I am a very bad
5boy" - This was supposed to be witty
& he added let Seyed Majid chain 0019
me - beat me - shoot me' I want to go to Lualaba
Abram said the others intended to throw down my
bundles & run away in the forest - "He was tired
with seven years work" These two are the bring [      ]
5Katomba at whose voice they trembled spel[            ] 0020
in [  ]ly & they said they would go but seeing
[   ]t he did nothing again refused - The knowledge
that I wont punish as the Arabs do is the
[ ]eason on their desertion - the murders
5they committed at Kabuire dest[  ]yed what 0021
little of moral nature they possessed - I would
not have brought them from Ujiji as the deterioration
was then visible in stealing from me to pay their
prostitutes but Thani behaved so strangely to
5my packet of letters, refusing it - than send 0022
it back "because he did not know the contents"
I feared its destruction and then I should be
waiting for other men from Zanzibar in vain
I therefore strained my utmost to finish up
5up my work with what I had 0023
But now these worthless slaves had me
at their mercy & wished to be masters - to take
what beads they chose and go or remain just
as it suited their fancy - they thought that 0024
I did not know where they got food and when
declaring their rations of beads too small they
bought grass cloth clothing, knives spears
and dainties - With three Susi - Chuma 0025
and Gardner I set off - intending to join M-
Bogharib
or Josuf on Lualaba - We went
with three deputies from the head Arabs &
their slaves - but they hated me & tried to get 0026
away from me - I however kept up and
on the fourth day passed through nine villages
destroyed by the worthies who did not wish
me to see more of their work - Then 0027
met with Mohamad Bogharib & Josuph coming
back from Kasongo's - I slept at a village
a little way from them & was met in morning
with the news that a man of the party which 0028
eschewed any company had been stabbed by
night in revenge for the slaughter of relatives
& burning of nine villages - Mohamad
refused to engage in a wholesale manner 0029
to revenge the dead one and seeing that I had no
friend & only three people I turned back - the
mud was grievous & as I waded it all
my feet were torn to pieces and irritable 0030
eating ulcers begun which have dis-
abled me ever since - I now spoke with my
friend Muhamad and he offered to go with
me to see Lualaba from Luamo - but 0031
I explained that merely to see & measure
its depth would not do - I must see whither
it went - This would require a number of his
people in lieu of my deserters & to take 0032
them away from his ivory trade which
at present is like gold digging - To{^} I must make
amends & I offered him two thousands
Rupees & a gun worth seven hundred 0033
Rs. 2700 in all on £270. He agreed & should
he enable me to finish up my work in one
trip down Lualaba & round to Lualaba West
it would be a great favour - The severe 0034
Pneumonia in Marungu - the choleraic
complaint in Manyema & now irritable
ulcers warn me to retire while life lasts -
Muhamads people went North & East & West 0035
from Kasongo's - 16 Marches North = - 10 Do
West
- and 4 Do E. & SE. - The average march
was 6½ hours say 12' about 200' North & W
Lat. of Kasongo say 4° South
- they may 0036
have reached 1°-2°S. They were now in the
Balegga country & turned - It was all
dense forest - never saw ^ the sun except when
at a village & then the villages were [      ] 0037
apart People very fond of sheep which
they call Ngombe or ox - tusks never used -
They went off to where an elephant had formerly
been killed & brought the tusks rotted and eaten 0038
or gnawed by "Dezi" a Rodent probably the
aulo candatus swindermanus -     Three ^ large rivers
were crossed breast & chin deep - In one
they were five hours and a man in a 0039
small canoe went ahead sounding for water
capable of being waded - much water & mud
in the forest = # This report makes me thankful
I did not go for I should have seen nothing -
5and been worn out by fatigue & mud

0040

The river of the Metunda had black water
and 2 hours to cross it - breast deep
R Mohungu = breast deep -
R of Mbite also large
5 [#
crossed about
40 smaller rivers]
0041
All along Lualaba & Metambe the sheep
ar[ ]e hairy dewlaps = no wool = Tartar
breed?         small thin tails -

0042

a broad belt of meadowland with no
trees lies along Lualaba - Beyond that it
is all dense forest. and trees so large
one lying across path is breast high
5clearances exist only around villages 0043
People very expert smiths and
weavers of the "Lamba" - make fine large
spears knives and needles = Market-
places called "Soko" - numerous all
5along Lualaba - To these the Barua 0044
of the other bank come daily in large
canoes bringing grass cloth, salt, flour,
cassava, fowls - goats - pigs & slaves =
Women beautiful with straight noses
5and well clothed     When the men 0045
of districts are at war the women take
their goods to market as if at peace and
are never molested - all are very keen
traders buying one thing with another &
5changing back again and any gain
made is one of the enjoyments of life -

0046

I knew that my people hoped to be
fed by Muhamad Bogharib when
we left the camp at Mamohela
but he told them that he would not
5have them - This took them aback -
but they went & lifted his ivory 0047
for him and when a parley was thus
brought about talked him over saying
that they would go to me & do all I
desired - never came - but as no
5one else would take them I gave
them three loads to go to Bambarre 0048
There they told Muhamad that I would
not give them their beads & They did not like
to steal # - They were now trying to get
his food by lies - I invited them 3
5times to come & take beads but having
supplies of food from the camp 0049
women they hoped to get the upper
hand with me and take what they
liked by refusing to carry or work
Mohamad spoke long to them but speaking
5mildly makes them images that the
spokesman is afraid fo them - They 0050
they kept away from my work &
would fain join Muhamad's but he
wont have them - I gave beads to
all but the two ringleaders - their
5conduct looks as if a quarrel had
taken place between us but no such 0051
excuse have they - on leaving Nassick
African Asylum
where they had been
clothed fed & taught for years they
sent an anonymous note to me abusing
5all the teachers & complaining of 0052
bad treatment - They were sent to their own
people but had all been slaves and
remained with me only to escape being
made to work again - If the freed men
5in America turn out well it
will be because they were taught 0053
to work - These might either work play
or do nothing at Nassick & not one of
them could handle a tool = they hoped
for long to get back to a life of idleness
5and such as they described would have 0054
any English boys - the teacher feared
that if punished for idleness they
would run away & bring discredit
on the Asylum They were of the lowest
5or criminal class in Africa 0055
and boasted in my hearing that
when fed to the full they stole pigs - kept
     & fattened them with their                         extra food
them ^ at the school & killed & eat them
5When returning to Bambarre the
people of Moenemokia came to fight as 0056
they were drunk & fled as soon as they
saw resistance - no danger of being
turned up ^ on made my good boys rush
off unbidden & capture women &
5goats - another case occurred & 0057
off they ran but captured only fowls
and tobacco - two of them have captives
now bound in their possession
I am powerless as they have left
5me and think that they may do as
they like and the Manyema are 0058
bad is the song - their badness consists
in being dreadfully afraid of guns
and the Arabs can do just as they
like with them and their goods - If
5spears alone were used the Manyema 0059
would be considered brave for they fear
no one though he has many spears
They tell us truly "that were it not for
our guns not one of us would return"
5to our own country". Moenemokia
killed 2 Arab agents & took their guns 0060
This success led to their asserting
in answer to the remonstrances of the
women "We shall take their goats guns
and women from them" The chief in
5reporting the matter to Moenemgor at
Luamo said the Englishman told 0061
my people to go away as he did not
like fighting but my men were filled
with "malofu" or palm toddy & refused
to their hurt" Elsewhere they
5made regular preparation to have a 0062
fight with Dugumbe's people just to
see who was strongest. They with their
spears & wooden shields or the Arabs
with what in derision they called tobacco
5pipes (guns) They killed eight or nine Arabs. 0063
The Manyema villages are situated on
slopes - often on the spurs of mountains
for the sake of quick drainage - The
streets run nearly East & West to catch
5the full influence of the Sun - The huts 0064
are of a square form = the walls being of
well beaten clay - they are well supplied
with firewood piled up on shelves along
the walls inside - This is the women's work
5thatch of leaves or grass - low in the
roof and still lower by each housewife 0065
having form 20 to 30 neatly made bas-
kets and as many earthen pots hung
to the ceiling - A raised platform of
clay is the sleeping place - a fire at its
5side gives light & heat - while a wall 0066
screens it from the middle compartment
another wall divides off a private room
for stores - the villages are very numerous
a clump of them forms a district with
5its headman - It is usually isolated from 0067
every other - nothing would induce men
to go into next district - they came 5 or 6
miles
through the intervening forest
then after civilly inviting us to come
5back by the same route on our return 0068
went back - fear of being killed & eaten
was the reason assigned or simply
they were at war with their next neighbours
no traders seem ever to have come in
5before this - Barua brought copper 0069
and skins for tusks and the Babira
& Baguha coarse beads - The Bavira
are now enraged at seeing Ujijians
pass into their ivory field - and
5no wonder - They     took the tusks 0070
which cost them a few strings of beads
and recieved weight for weight in beads
thick brass wire & loads of calico


To be copied into Journal


5David         Livingstone

[I]

Bambarre 18 August 1870        I learn from Josuf & Moenepembe
who have been to Katanga and beyond that there is a Lake N N W
of the copper mine and 12 days distant – It is called Chibungo and is
said to be large – seven days West of Katanga flows another Lualaba
5the dividing line between Rua and Lunda or Londa - It is very large
and as the Lufira flows into Chibungo it is probable that the Lualaba
West
and Lufira form the Lake = Lualaba West and Lufira rise by
fountains South of Katanga 3 or 4 days. Liambai and Lunga ftns
are only about 10 miles distant from Lualaba West & Lufira fountains.
10a mound rises between them the most remarkable in Africa
Were this spot in Armenia it would serve exactly the description
of the garden of Eden in Genesis with its four rivers – the
GihonPison Hiddekel and Euphrates – As it is it possibly
gave occasion to the story told Herodotus by the secretary of
15Minerva
in the city of Sais about two hills with conical tops
Crophi and Mophi – midway between them ^ said he are the fountains of the
Nile
– fountains which it is impossible to fathom - Half the
water runs Northward into Egypt - half to the South towards Ethiopia.
Four fountains rising so near to each other would readily be supposed to
20have one source and half the water flowing into the Nile – the other
have{lf} to the Zambesi required but little imagination to originate, seeing
the actual visitor would not feel bound to say how the division
was effected       He could only know the fact of waters rising at one
spot and separating to flow North and South – The conical
25tops to the mound looks like invention as also do the names.


A slave bought on Lualaba East came from Lualaba
West
in about twelve days – These two Lualabas may form
the loop depicted by Ptolemy and upper and lower Tanganyika
be a third arm of the Nile – Patience is all I can exercise – these
30irritable ulcers hedge me in now as did my attendants in June
but all will be for the best for it is in Providence & not in me

II

II. The watershed is between 700 and 800 miles long from West to East
or say from ^ 22°- 23° –- to 34° ^ -35 East longitude – Parts of it are enormous
sponges - In other parts innumerable rills unite into rivulets which ^ again
form rivers – Lufira for instance has nine rivulets and Lekulwe other
5nine – The Rose of a garden watering can is a not very apt similitude as
the rills do not spring off the face of it, and it is 700 miles across the circle
but in the numbers of rills coming out at different heights on the slope
there is a faint resemblance, and I cant at present think of no other – I am
a little thankful to old Nile for so hiding his head that all "theoretical dis-
10-coverers" are left out in the cold                 With all real explorers I have
a hearty sympathy, and I have some regret at being in a manner compelled obliged to speak
somewhat disparagingly of the opinions formed by my predecessors
The work of Speke and Grant is part of the history of this region and since
the discovery of the sources of the Nile was asserted so positively
15in making a somewhat similar claim it seems necessary to
explain –, not offensively I hope, wherein their mistake lay – My
opinions may yet be shewn to be mistaken too – but at present I cannot
concieve how - When Speke discovered Victoria Nyanza in 1858
he at once concluded that therein lay the sources of the Nile His
20work after that was simply following a foregone conclusion and
subsequently as soon as he and Grant looked towards the
Victoria Nyanza they turned their backs on the Nile fountains
and so every step of their splendid achievement of following
the river down took them further & further away from the Caput
25Nili
As soon as When it was percieved that the little river that leaves
the Nyanza though called they called it the White Nile would not account
for that great river they might have gone West and found
Head waters as the Lualaba to which it can bear no comparison
Taking ^ their White Nile 80 or 90 yds or say 100 yds as its breadth the Lualaba
30far south of the North end Latitude of its point of departure
shews and average breadth of ^ from 4000 to 6000 yards and always deep.
Baker discovered the lower portion of Tanganyika – He
came farther up the Nile than any traveller in modern times
but turned when about 700 miles short of the sources

III

III. a Dutch lady explorer deserves our sympathy more than any
other for after the loss of he severest domestic afflictions, the loss of her
two aunts by fever she nobly persevered until after she was assured
by Speke and Grant that they had already discovered in Victoria
5Nyanza
the sources she sought – that they not, honestly enough no
doubt, given their own mistaken views - She had shewn so much
wise foresight in providing not only a steamer but means of
further progress by land and water she must inevitably have
reached the true head waters – I cannot concieve of her stopping
10short of Lake BangweoloWe great He donkeys say exploration
was not becoming her sex – considering that more ^ than sixteen hundred
years have elapsed since Ptolemy put down the results ^ of early
explorers, and Emperors, Kings, Philosophers – all the great
men of antiquity longed to know the fountains whence flowed
15the famous river – and long in vain – exploration does not
seem to have been very becoming the other sex either – she came
further up the river than the centurions sent by Nero Caesar
and shewed such indomitable pluck as to reflect honour on her race
I know nothing about her save by what has appeared in the public
20papers but taking her exploration along with what was done
                        no long time could have elapsed before the laurels
by Lady Baker I am proud to think that [            ] a
worthy part
for ^ the modern rediscovery of the sources of the
Nile
                                should have been plucked by the ladies -


25

In 1841 the ^ 2nd Egyptian ^ 2nd expedition ^ [      ] under D'Arnauld & Sabatier
reached North Lat. 4° 42' - This was a great advance into the
the Interior as compared with Linant in ^ 1827 13° 30' N. and even on
the explorations of Jomard but it turned when nearly a thousand miles from the sources

IV

IV. #57B 24 August 1870 = Four gorillas or soko's were killed 169
yesterday an extensive grass burning forced them out of
their usual haunt and coming on the plain they were soon
speared – they often go erect but place the hands on the head
5as if to steady the body - When seen thus he is an ungainly
beast - The most sentimental young lady would not call him
a "dear" but a bandy legged – pot-bellied – low looking villain
without a particle of the gentleman in him – other animals
especially the antelopes are graceful and it is pleasant to
10see them either at rest or moving in motion – the natives
also are well made, lithe and comely to behold – Soko
if large would do well to stand for a picture of the Devil.
He takes away my appetite by his disgusting bestiality
of appearance - His light yellow face shews off his ugly
15whiskers and faint apology for a beard – The forehead
villainously low with high ears is well in the background
by the great dog mouth – teeth slightly human but the
canines shew the beast by their large development – the
hands or rather the fingers are like those of the natives
20The fat of the flesh is yellow and the eagerness with
which the Manyuema devour it leaves the impression
that eating Sokos was one sta[ ]ge by which they arrived
at being cannibals – they say the flesh is delicious –



{18}
[                ]

Bambarre, 25th August, 1870.


One of my waking dreams is that the legendary
tales about Moses coming up into Inner
5Ethiopia
with Merr his foster-mother, and
founding a city which he called in her honour
"Meroe," may have a substratum of fact.
He was evidently a man of transcendent
genius and we learn from the speech of
10St. Stephen
that "he was learned in all
the wisdom of the Egyptians, and was mighty
in words & in deeds.
" The deeds must have
been well known in Egypt for "he supposed
that his brethern would have understood
15how that God by his hand would deliver
them, but they understood not.
" His supposition
could not be founded on his success in
smiting a single Egyptian. He was too great
a man to be elated by #a single act of prowess
20but his success on a large scale in Ethiopia
afforded reasonable grounds for believing
that his brethern would be proud of their
countryman, and disposed to follow his
leadership, but they were slaves. The notice
25taken of the matter by Pharaoh shewed
that he was eyed by the great as a dangerous
#304 {19}
if not powerful man. He "dwelt" in
Midian for some time before his gallant
bearing towards the shepherds by the well,
commended him to the Priest or Prince
5of the country. An uninteresting wife and
the want of intercourse with kindred spirits
during the long forty years' solitude of a
herdsman's life, seems to have acted injuriously
on his spirits, and it was not till he had
10with Aaron struck terror into the Egyptian
mind, that the "man Moses" again became
"very great in the eyes of Pharaoh and
his servants.
" - The Ethiopian woman whom
he married could scarcely be the daughter
15of Reuel or Jethro for Midian was descended
from Keturah, Abraham's concubine, and
they were never considered Cushite or
Ethiopian. If he left his wife in Egypt
she would now be some 50 or 60 years old,
20and all the more likely to be despised by
the proud prophetess Miriam as a daughter
of Ham. I dream of discovering some
monumental relics of Meroe and if anything
of confirmatory of sacred history does remain
25I pray to be guided thereunto. If the sacred
chronology
would thereby be confirmed, I would
not grudge the toil & hardships, hunger
& pain, I have endured - the
irritable ulcers would only be discipline. -


30

This Manyema country is unhealthy not
so much from fever as from debility of the
whole system, induced by damp, cold, and
indigestion. This general weakness is ascribed
by some to maize being the common food. It {20}
shows itself in weakness of bowels & choleraic
purging. This may be owing to bad water,
there is no scarcity, but it is so impregnated
with dead vegetable matter, as to have the
5colour of tea. Irritable ulcers fasten on any
part attached (?) by any accident, and
it seems to be a spreading fungus for the
matter settling on any part near becomes a
fresh centre of propagation. The vicinity
10of the ulcer is very tender, and it eats in
frightfully if not allowed rest. Many slaves
die of it, and its periodical discharges
of bloody ichor makes me suspect it to be a
development of fever. Support seems to be
15essential, but the ichor forcing its way out is
so painful the supporting bandages have to
be loosed. I have found lunar caustic useful.
A plaister of wax, and a little finely ground
sulphate of copper is used by the Arabs, and
20so is cocoa-nut oil and butter. These ulcers
are excessively intractable. There is no healing
of them before they eat into the bone, especially
on the shins. The pain causes slaves to cry
the whole night long.


25

Rheumatism is also common and it cuts
the natives off. The traders fear these diseases
and come to a stand if attacked, in order
to use rest in the cure. "Taema," or Tape-
worm is frequently met with - No remedy
30is known among the Arabs & natives for it.
Syphilitic [  ] skin diseases are common among
Manyema - large scabs on face & body,
even among children. The Arabs increase
them by impure intercourse. Filthy takers all. {21}
6 #11
White leprosy is also common. Malachite
ground on a stone with water is good for
irritable ulcers.


5

When Speke saw that his little river out of
the Victoria Nyanza would not account for
the Nile, the more philosophic course would
have been instead of conjecturing a backwater,
to strike ^ west across the great valley, and there
10not to mention Baker's water which he too
might have called a Lake, he would have
come to the central Lualaba, not 90 or 100
yards
but from 2000 to 6000 yards and
always deep
- this near the bottom of the
15trough, and then further West another
Lualaba
, a worthy companion to that in
the centre. The central Lualaba I would
fain call the Lake River Webb, - the Western
the Lake River Young. The Lufira and
20Lualaba West form a Lake the native name
of which, "Chibungo" must give way to Lake
Lincoln
. I wish to name the fountain of
the Liambai or Upper Zambesi
, Palmerston
fountain
, using these two names by way
25of placing my poor little garland on their
tombs, and adding that of Sir Bartle
Frere
to the fountain of Lufira. Three
names of men who have done more to
abolish slavery & the slave-trade than
30any of their contemporaries.


4th October 1870. A trading party came from
Ujiji, arrived on 23d Sept, left for N.W. four
days afterwards. Report an epidemic raging
between coast & Ujiji & very fatal. Syde bin
35Habib
and Dugumbe coming - they have letters {22}
and perhaps people for me, so I remain, though
the irritable ulcers are well-nigh healed.
I fear that my packet for the coast may
have fared badly, for the Lewale has kept
5Musa Kamaal by him so that no evidence
against himself or dishonest man Musa
bin Saloom
should be given. My box and
guns with Despatches I fear will never be sent.
Zahor, to whom I gave calico to pay carriers
10has been sent off to Lobemba. Muhamad
sowed rice yesterday. Has to send his
people who were unsuccessful among Balegga
away to the Metambe, where they got ivory
before. - I cannot understand very well
15what a "Theoretical Discoverer" is. If anyone
got up and declared in a public meeting
that he was the theoretical discoverer of
the "philosopher's stone", of perpetual motion
for watches, should we not mark him as
20a little wrong in the head? So of the Nile
sources
. The Portuguese crossed the Chambeze
some seventy years before I did, but to them
it was a branch of the Zambesi & nothing
more. Cooley put it down as the New Zambesi
25and made it run backwards, uphill
between 3000 & 4000 feet! I was misled by
the similarity of names and a map to think
it the Eastern branch of the Zambesi. I was
told that it formed a large water in the
30South West. This I readily believed to be
the Liambai, in the Barotse Valley, and
it took me eighteen months of toil to work
back again to the Chambeze in Lake
Bangweolo
, and work out the error into {23}
12
which I was led. Twenty-two months elapsed
ere I got back to the point whence I set
out to explore Chambeze, Bangweolo,
5Luapula, Moero, and Lualaba. I spent
two full years at this work, and the Chief
Cazembe
was the first to throw light on
the subject. - "It is the same water here
as in the Chambeze, the same in Moero
10& Lualaba and one piece of water is just
like another. Will you draw out calico
from it that you wish to see it? As your
chief desired you to see Bangweolo, go to
it, and if in going north you see a travelling
15party, join it - if not come back to me
and I will send you safely by my path along
Moero." #fox


8th Octr 1870. - Mbarawa & party came yesterday
from Katomba at Mamohela. Reports that
20Jangeonge (?) with Moeneokela's men had been
killing people of Metamba or forest, and
four of his people slain. He intended
fighting, hence his desire to get rid of me
when I went north. Got one and a half
25tusks, but little ivory, but Katomba's party
got fifty tusks. Abdullah had got two tusks
also been fighting, and Katomba had sent
a fighting party down to Lolinde. Plunder &
murder is Ujijian trading. Mbarawa got
30his ivory on the Lindi or as he says "Urindi"
which has black water, and is very large -
An arrow could not be shot across; its
400 or 500 yards had to be crossed by canoes,
goes into Lualaba. - It is curious that all
35think it necessary to say to me, "The Manye {24}
Manyema are bad - very bad." The Balegga
will be let alone, because they can fight, and
we shall hear nothing of their badness. My
slavelings join in the chorus of the Manyema
5being bad. The Babemba were good said
Simon, and he killed two because he was
safe. - -


X

X to be copied into Journal = 10th Octr 1870 came out of hut today 1
after being confined to it since 22nd July or 80 days – by irritable
ulcers on the feet - The last 20 days I suffered from fever
which reduced my strength, taking away my voice and
5purging me = appetite good but the third mouthful of any
food caused [ ]{n}ausea & vomiting – purging took place of
profuse sweating – I am thankful to feel myself well –
only one ulcer open the size of a split pea – Malachite was
the remedy most useful but the beginning of the rains may
10have helped the cure as it does to others = copper rubbed down
is used when malachite cannot be had – We expect
Syde Bin Habib soon - He will take to the river and I
hope so shall I – The native traders reached people who
had horns of oxen got from left bank of LualabaKa-
15tomba
’s people got most ivory namely 50 tusks – the others
only four – the Metamba or forest is of immense extent
and there is room for much ivory to be picked up
at 5 or 7 bracelets of copper per tusk if the slaves sent
will only be merciful – The nine villages and a 100 men
20killed by Katomba’s slaves at Nasangwa were
all about a string of beads fastened to a powder horn
which a manyema man tried in vain to steal – – Ka
gets 25 of the 50 tusks brought by his people

XI

XI. we expect letters & perhaps men by Syde Bin Habib.


No news from the coast had come to Ujiji save a rumour
that some one was building a large house at Bagamoio
but whether French or English no one can say – possibly
5the Mission urged on by Colonel Playfair & Dr Kirk
Tozer curiously enough follows the policy of Bp Mackenzie
which he so formally repudiated – Rearing boys got from
captives of men of war and writing to India that to teach
the young thus obtained is the great secret of mission work
10He does not know                 that         the especial instruction
of the young has been advocated & acted on for the last
30 years in Africa India South Seas & elsewhere – Possibly
the erection of a huge establishment on the mainland
may be a way of laboriously proving that it is more healthy
15than the island to which he was driven by fear of death
It will take a long time to prove by stone & lime that the higher
lands 200 miles inland ar better still both for longevity
and work –         I am in agony for news from home
All I feel sure of now is that my friends will all wish
20me to complete my task – I join in the wis now     as
better than doing it in vain afterwards

XII

XII. The Manyema hoeing is little better than scraping the 2
soil & cutting through the roots of grass & weeds by a horizontal
motion of the hoe or knife –     They leave the roots of maize
groundnuts – sweet potatoes & dura to find their way into
5the rich soft soil, and well they succeed so there is no need
for deep ploughing - The groundnuts & cassave hold their
own against grass for years Bananas if cleared of
weeds yield abundantly –         Muhamad sowed rice
just outside the camp without any advantage being secured
10by the vicinity of a rivulet and it yielded for one measure
of seed one hundred & twenty measures of increase – This
season he plants                         and on the damp soil
along a rivulet called     bonde     The rainwater does not
percolate far – The clay retains it about 2 feet beneath the
15surface
– this is a cause of unhealthiness to man – Fowls
and goats have been cut off this year in large numbers
by an epidemic -




Sentence to be inserted after ""there may only be a thread"
20of water at the bottom but the mud is grievous" Some 20
or 40 yards
of the path on each bank is mixed up by the feet
of passengers into a deep stickey mass – [      ]{You} may put one
foot on each side and{of} the walk and waddle onwards but soon
that fails you for                 the rank vegetation often usurps the few
25foot holds you have and down
inches                                                         you come into the mire

XIII

XIII. Often too the path takes the bed of the rill for 50 or 60 yds
as if the first passenger had gone that distance seeking a space
of forest less dense for his path = Near a village the road run-
-ning along a rivulet may have been to make it difficult for an
5enemy to find a path by night =       The approaches to hamlets on the
side of a hill are certainly made with a view to confuse marauders
for they come near the dwellings and then ascend to a point
above the highest point of the village, and they go winding up
and down the steepest parts of the slope The rank vegetation
10being left so that it is impossible to take a straight course –


The visit of the Ujijian traders must be felt by the Man-
-yema
to be a severe infliction - The huts are appropriated and
no leave asked – Firewood - pots – baskets food used without
scruple and anything that pleases is taken away – Usually the
15women flee into the forest and return to find the whole place a
litter of broken food – I tried to pay the owners of the huts in
which I slept but often in vain for they were hidden in the forest
and feared to come near – It was common for old men
to come forward to me with a present of bananas as I passed
20uttering with trembling accents "Bolongo "Bolongo" friendship
friendship. If I stopped to make a little return present others
ran for plantains or palm toddy = The slaves eat up what
they demanded without one word of thanks - "but they are
bad" dont give them anything" Why what badness is there in
25giving food - "O they like you" but hate us" - one man gave
me an iron ring and seemed inclined to be friendly –
yet they are undoubtedly bloodthirsty       to other Manyema
                                                                                                & kill each other


XIV [v.1]

XIV 13th Octr 1870Lions fat is asserted to be a certain [1]
preventative to the bite of the Tsetse – Lions are very numerous
in Urori and many are killed and the fat sold – the Garaganza
use it to protect their cattle and when smeared on the animals
5the Tsetse     comes not near them on accout of the smell –


                        on coming inland the safe way is to go to 1 Mdonye
                                2         Makinde   3   Zungomero 4 Masapi 5 Irundu
then turn         ^         North to the Nyamnyams and thence to the Nyembe
                                6 Nyamgore & then South to Merere’s
10and so                 on South to Merere’s – A woman chief lies in
the straight                 way to Merere but no cattle live in her land –
another insect lights on the animals & when licked off bites the tongue
or breeds & is       fatal as well – as tsetse – It is large in size –


                                Tipotipo & Syde bin Ali come to Nyembe – thence
15to Nsamas                 cross Lualaba at Mpwetos – follow left bank
of that                 river till they cross the next Lualaba & so into
Lunda of                 Matiamvo – much ivory may be obtained
by this                 course & it shews enterprise –-


                                Syde bin Habib & Dugumbe will open up the
20Lualaba                 this year and I am hoping to enter the West
Lualaba
                or Youngs river, and if possible go up to
Katanga – The Lord be my guide & helper – I feel the [3]
want of medicine strongly as much almost as of men

[XIV v.2]


Turn over = safe way to avoid the #
[2] Tsetse in going to Merere's ^ North to 1 Mdonye
2 Makinde 3 Zungomero 4 Masapè
55 Irundu 6 Nyamgore = then South
to Merere's


Msene 6 days from Unyembe North
        market & many Arabs live there




10

all these ten Rivers go into Uerere


Mokunge three eyes or fountains all
very hot.



{figure}
15

# Travelled 199
hours
but so
mountainous
say 200 miles


20

# Rivers crossed
by Ramadan &
Hassani August
and Septr 1870
25in Balegga -
They fall into U-
-irere
-? Baker's
or what a
        "large water" -


{29}
[                ]

                                16th Octr 1870 - Moenemgoi
the chief came to tell me that Monamyembo
had sent five goats to Lohombo to get a charm
5to kill him. "Would the English and Kolokolo
(Muhamad) allow him to be killed while
they were here?" I said that it was a false
report but he believes it firmly. Monamyembo
sent his son to assure us that he was
10slandered, but thus quarrels and bloodshed
feuds arise. The great want of the Manyema
is national life. Of this they have none.
Each headman is independent of every other.
Of industry they have no lack, and the villagers
15are orderly towards each other, but they go
no further. If a man of another district ventures
among them it is at his peril. He is not
regarded with more favour as a Manyema
than one of a herd of buffaloes is by the
20rest. He is almost sure to be killed.
Moenekus had more wisdom than his
countrymen. His eldest son went over to
Monamyembo's who was subject to the father
was killed by five spear wounds. The old
25chief went and asked "Who had kllled slain
his son"? "None knew, perhaps the Bahombo.
he went thither - They denied it - Then they
said "Perhaps Monamdenda" - he denied.
question repeated, received same answer -
30"didn't know." The old man ^ then died - This, {30}
8. 15
though he was heartbroken was called witch-
craft by Monamyembo. Eleven people were
murdered, and after this cruel man was
5punished he sent a goat with the confession
that he had killed Moenekus' son. This
son had some of the father's [      ] wisdom.
The others he never could get to act like men
of sense.


10

The sites chosen for some of the most signal
Grecian oracles were marked by the rushing
forth of a living spring from the recesses of
the native rocks of Greece, the Castalian
springs
at Delphi, the rushing stream of
15the Hercynia at Lebadea. It was felt that
nothing could so well express the Divine voice
speaking from the hidden abysses of the
unseen world as those inarticulate but lively
ebullitions of the life giving element from its
20unknown mysterious sources. The prophetic
utterances in the remoter East were the
bubbling, teeming springs of life in those hard
primitive rocks, in those dry parched levels.
"My heart is inditing" - is bursting, bubbling
25over with a good matter. This image would be
drawn from the abundant crystal fountains
which all along the valley of the Jordan pour
forth their full grown streams, - scattering
fertility and verdure as they flow over the
30rough ground, - "boiling or bubbling over" of
the "Divine fountain of Inspiration within
the Soul
."


"The words of Judgment bursting out one by
one, slowly, heavily, condensed, abrupt from
35the prophet's heavy and shrinking soul; each {31}
sentence wrung forth with a groan, as though
he had anew to take breath before he uttered a
renewed woe; each word forming a whole for
itself, like one heavy toll of a funeral knell.
"
5(Pusey) - - (Jowett) "At the time when our
Saviour came into the world the Greek language
was in a state of degeneracy & decay. But that
degeneracy may be ranked among the causes
that fanned the growth of Christianity. It was
10a preparation for the Gospel, the decaying soil
in which the new elements of life were to come
forth, the one common speech of the then
civilized nations of the world. The definiteness
of earlier forms of human speech would have
15imposed a limit on the freedom of the Gospel.
A religion which was to be universal required
that the division of languages, no less than
of nations should be broken down. It pleased
God through broken and hestitating forms of
20speech to reveal the universal truth for which
the Greek of Plato would have been no fitting temple
". -


[                ]

XVII

XVII to be copied - 19th Octr Bambarre = The Ringleading
Nassick deserters
sent Chuma to say that they were going with the
people of Muhamad what{ich} left today to the Metamba = I said
that I had naught to say to them – They would go now to the
5Metamba which on deserting they said they so much feared & left
me to go with only three attendants and get my feet torn to
pieces in mud & sand = They probably meant to go back to the
women at Mamohela who fed them in the absence of their husbands
They were told by Muhamad - that they must not follow his
10people and he gave orders to bind them & send them back if
they did – They think that no punishment will reach them
whatever they do – They are freemen & need not work or do any
thing but beg. "English" they call themselves & the Arabs fear
them though the eagerness with which they engaged in slave
15hunting shewed them to be genuine niggers –     To lie without
compunction seems to be one of their Indian acquisitions – Ibram
said "that I told him to beg"!         and Simon said that I had spoken
to him only once & he would [  ]{ha}ve gone on intended to go till I took
the gun from him – Derrides any entreaties Katumba spoke
20persuasively several times & he refused to go – The gun would
have been used to steal from the Manyema as it was when we
came back here to bully them for four fowls.


20th first heavy rain of this season fell yesterday afternoon
It is observable that the permanent halt to which the Manyema
25have come is not affected by the appearance of superior men among
them - They are stationary & improvement unknown - Moenekus paid
smiths to teach his sons     and they learned to work in copper & iron
but he never could get them to imitate his own generous and
obliging deportment to others – He had to reprove them perpetually for
30mean short sight ways and when he died he virtually left no
successor for his sons are both narrow minded, mean,
short sighted creatures, without dignity or honour –




    #Lonzua Luaze Luanzo
35


All they can say of
[   ]ir forefathers is that
they came from Lualaba up Luamo then to Luelo and
thence here – The name seems to mean forest people –
40Manyuema =

p72 into Last Journal p72


The party under Hassani crossed the Logumba at Kanying
gere
’s
– and went N. & N.N.E. – They found the country
becoming more & more mountainous till at last when
one day from Uerere it was perpetually up & down


45

They slept at a village on the top They could send for
water to the bottom only once. It took so much time to
descend & ascend –                 Rivers all flowed into Uerere or
Lower Tanganyika         Hot fountain – water could not
be touched nor stones         stood upon Balegga   very un-
50friendly – collected     in thousands – we
came to buy ivory -
said Hassani &         if
there is none we
go away


55{figure}

"Nay" shouted they, "you
came to die here" then
shot with arrows - when
shot was returned they
60fled & would not come
to receive the captives

XVIII

XVIII. 25th Octr 1870- Last Jour f II 72 Bambarre = to be copied #
In this Journey I have endeavoured to follow with
unswerving fidelity the line of duty – my course has
been an even one turning neither to the right hand
5nor the left though my route has been tortuous
enough =     All the     hardship hunger & toil were met
with the full conviction that I was right in persever
ing to make a complete work of the exploration of the
sources of the Nile – Mine has been a calm —
10hopeful endeavour to do the work that has been given
me to do whether I succeed or whether I fail – The prospect
of death in following pursuing what I knew to be
right did not make me veer to one side or the other
I had a strong presentiment during the first three
15years that I should never live through the work enterprise
but that weakened as I came near to the end of the
journey – and a strong desire to discover any
evidence of the great Moses having visited these
parts bound me – spellbound me – I may say
20for if I could bring to light anything to confirm
the sacred oracles I should not grudge one whit all
the labour expended – I have to go down the central
Lualaba
or Webb’s lake river – Then up the Western
or Youngs lake river to Katanga head waters & then
25retire –     I pray that it may be to my native home
Syde bin HabibDugumbeJuma Merikano
Abdullah Masudi are coming in with 700 muskets
and immense store of beads copper &c They will
cross Lualaba & trade West of it – I wait for them
30because they may have letters for me – I have had no
letter from th Foreign Office – The last I had was a
piece of the most exhuberant impertinence that
ever left the Foreign or any other office – I was to
have no claim for any services rendered = no
35position when my work was done – Lord Russells
name had been obtained to it though a statesman
like him might bind future Governments to
to give h{H}e never would enjoin them not to give
This bore internal evidence of being the effusion
40of the supernumerary undersecretary Murray
I expect only the same treatment that Murray would
claim for himself – The offer of other work or
of being provided with another office – The slave
trade on the West Coast having ceased he ought
45to have resigned but he thought to earn his salary
by unjustly stopping mine – The only annoyances
I have suffered were from this as Lord Clarendon
called it "ungracious & unjust" letter - and from a
letter of busybody instructions from the R.G.S. (Sheet 9)

XIX
 
Syde bin Salem Burashid
    family Lumke 
              
Mengongo soga – Guke a fish
        sangardo – Do  




5

XIX. 28 Octr Moenemokaia who has travelled further
than most Arabs said to me "If goes with a good
natured civil tongue, he may pass through the worst
people in Africa unharmed" This true – time
also is required – one must not run ^ through a country, but
10give the people time to become acquainted with
you and let their first fears subside —


29th The Manyema buy their wives from each other
a pretty girl brings ten goats – saw one brought
home today – she came jauntily with but one
15attendant     and her husband walking behind -
They stop five days – then go back and remain other
five days at home – The husband fetches her again
Many are pretty – and have perfect forms and
limbs – They hoe large spaces for maize – It is
20merely scraping the surface The soil is so rich
no more is needed


31st OctMonangoi of Luamo – married to the
sister of Moenekuss came some time ago to beg that
Kanyingere be attacked by Muhamad's people –
25no fault has he "but he is bad" – Monangoi the
chief here offered two tusks to effect the same thing
on refusal he sends the tusks to Katomba & may get
his countryman spoiled by him – "He is bad" is all they
can alledge as a reason – Meantime this chief here
30caught a slave who escaped = a prisoner from
Moenemokia's and sold him or her to Moenemokia
for 30 spears & some knives – When asked about this
captive he said "she died" – It was simply theft - but
he does not consider himself bad


35

2nd November 1870 – The plain without trees
that flanks the Lualaba on the right bank
called Mbuga is densely peopled and the
inhabitants are all civil and friendly – From
50 to 60 large canoes come over from the left
40bank daily to hold markets – These people too are
good but the dwellers in the Metamba or
dense forest are treacherous and murder a single
person without scruple – The dead is easily concealed
while on the plain all would become aware of it


45

I long with intense desire to move on & finish
my work – I have also an excessive wish to find
any thing that may exist proving the visit of the
great Moses & the ancient Kingdom of Tirhaka
but I pray give me just what pleases Thee my
50Lord – and make submissive to Thy will in all things


XX

XX. I recieved information about Mr Young's search
trip up Shire and Nyassa only in February 1871 and
now take the first opportunity of offering hearty thanks
to H M Government and all concerned in kindly enquiring
5after my fate – Musa and his companions are fair average
specimens for heartlessness and falsehood of the lower
classes of Muhamadans in East Africa - When on the
Shire we swung the ship into midstream every night in order
to let the air put in motion by the water pass from end to end
10Musa's brother in law stepped into the water one morning
in order to swim off for a boat – and was seized by a crocodile
The poor fellow held up his hand imploringly but Musa and
the rest allowed him to perish – on my denouncing his
heartlessness, Musa replied “Well – no one tell him = go in there
15When at Senna a slave woman was seized by a crocodile,
four Makololo rushed in unbidden and rescued her –
though they knew nothing about her. From long inter-
course with both I take these incidents as typical of the
two races. Those of mixed blood possess the vices of both
20races and the virtues of neither – A gentleman of superior
abilities has devoted life and fortune to elevate the Johanna
men
but fears that they are "an unimprovable race"
The Sultan of Zanzibar who knows his people better than
any stranger cannot entrust any branch of his revenue
25to even the better class of his subjects but places
his customs income and money affairs in the hands
of Banians from India, and his father did the same
before him – When the Muhamadan gentlemen         of
Zanzibar are asked Why their sovereign places all his
30pecuniary affairs and fortune in the hands of aliens they
frankly avow that if he allowed any Arab to farm his
customs he would receive nothing but a crop of lies - Burton
had to dismiss most of his people at Ujiji for dishonesty –
Spekes followers deserted at the first approach of danger
35Musa fled in terror on hearing a false report from a half
caste Arab about the Mazitu 150 miles distant though
I promised to go due West and not turn to the North till far
past the beat of that tribe – The few liberated slaves with
whom I went on had the misfortune to be Muhamadan
40slaves in boyhood but did fairly till we came into close
contact with moslems again. A black Arab ^ was released
from a 12 years bondage by Cazembe through my own
influence and that of the Sultan's letter =     We travelled
together for a time and he sold the favours of his female
45slaves to my people for goods which he perfectly well knew
were stolen from me –     He recieved my four deserters
and when I had gone off to L Bangweolo with only four
attendants the rest wished to follow but he dissuaded
them by saying that “I had gone into a country where there
50was war” – He was the direct cause of all my difficulties
with these liberated slaves but judged by the East African
Moslem standard as he ought to be and not by ours - He is
a very good man, and I did not think it prudent to come
to a rupture with the old blackguard –

[map] [map] [map] [map]
{figure}

Last Journals Vol p 71


XXI

XXI Laba means in the Manyema dialect medicine - 3
a charm - "boganga" This would make Lualaba mean the
river of medicine or charms - but we do not hear of
its being famed among them as the Ganges is in
5India - and possibly this is not the proper meaning
of the word - Muhamad and others found its banks
very healthy and it yields abundant food both
in its waters and on its banks.       The sacred River
does not accord with the fact of Lualaba being
10applied to the Lufira when it becomes large
and also to the third Lualaba or Young's river
still further West dividing Rua from Lōnda -
Hassani thought that it meant great because
it seemed to mean flowing greatly or grandly -


15

      Cazembe caught all the slaves that escaped
from Muhamad and placed them in charge of Funga
-funga
so there is little hope for fugitive slaves so long as
Cazembe lives = This act is to the Arab's very good -
He is very sensible and upright besides -       XXI

XXII

XXII 3d Novr 1870 got a Kondo hondoas the large
double billed Hornbill The ^ Buceros cristata Kangomira of the Shire and
the Sassassa of Bambarre - It is good eating = The
fat of an orangetinge like that of the zebra I keep
5the hide to make a spoon of it -     An Ambassador
at Stanboul or Constantinople was shewn a
hornbill spoon and asked if it were really the bill
of the Phoenix - He replied that he did not
know but he had a friend in London who knew
10all these sort of things - The Turkish Ambassador
in London brought the spoon to Professor Owen
He observed something in the divergence of the
fibres of the horn which he knew before and
went off into the Museum of the college of Surgeons
15and brought a preserved specimen of this very
bird - "God is great - God is great" said the Turk
This is the Phoenix of which we have heard so often =
I heard the professor tell this at a dinner of the
London Hunterian Society in 1857.

XXIII

XXIII There is no great chief in Manyema or Balegga 4
all are petty headmen each of whom considers himself a
chief - It is the Ethnic State with no cohesion between
the different portions of the tribe - Murder cannot
5be punished except by a war in which many
fall and the feud is made worse and trans-
mitted to their descendants.                 cor                copied


+ The Soko is represented by some to be extremely
cunning stalking succesfully men & women
10while at their work - kidnapping children -
and running up trees with them - He seems
to be amused by the sight of the young native
in his arms - but comes down when tempted
by a bunch of bananas and as he lifts that
15drops the child - The young Soko in that case would
cling closely to the armpit of the older - One man
was cutting out honey from a tree and naked a
Soko suddenly appeared & caught by by the privates XXIV
XXIV then let him go         Another man was hunting
and missed in his attempt to stab a Soko - Soko seized
the spear & broke it then grappled with the man who
called to his companions "#Soko has caught me" he bit off
5the ends of his fingers #and escaped       unharmed -
both men are now alive at Bambarre Soko
is so cunning and has such sharp eyes that no
one can stalk him in front with^out being seen by
his small sharp eyes, hence when shot it is
10always in the back - When surrounded by men
and nets he is generally speared in the back too
otherwise he is not a very formidable beast -
He is nothing as compared in power of damaging
his assailant to a leopard or lion - He is
15more like a man unarmed - It does not occur
to him to use his canine teeth which are long
and formidable - Sokos come down in the
forest within a hundred yards of our camp & would be
unknown but for giving tongue     Like fox hounds
20This is his nearest approach to                 speech -

XXV

XXV A man hoeing having his privates uncovered 5
behind was stalked by a Soko and seized thereby -     He
roared out but Soko giggled & grinned & left him
as if he had done it in play - a child caught up
5by Soko is often abused by being pinched & scratched
and let fall     He is said sometimes to use a
spear drawn out of his own body but this is denied
by some - Soko kills the Leopard occasionally by
seizing both paws & biting them so as to disable
10them - Soko goes up a tree groans over his
wounds & sometimes recovers - while Leopard
dies - At other times both Soko & Leopard die -
Lion kills him at once and sometimes tears his
limbs off but does not eat him - Soko eats
15no flesh - #small bananas #are his dainties but
not maize - his food consist of wild       fruits
which abound - one Stafene or Manyema mamwa is
like large sweet sop but indifferent in taste & flesh
Soko brings forth at times twins - never catches women

XXVI

XXVI A very large Soko was seen by Muhamads
hunter sitting picking his nails - tried to stalk him but
he vanished -     Some Manyema think that their buried
rise as Sokos - one was killed with holes in his ears
5as if he had been a man -     # He is very strong - fears guns
but not spears -




The Heathen Philosophers were content with mere
guesses at the future of the Soul - The elder prophets
10were content with the Divine support in life and in
death - The later prophets advance further as
Isaiah - Thy dead men shall live together with my
dead body shall they arise - awake and sing ye that
dwell in the dust for thy dew is as the dew of herbs
15the earth also shall cast out her dead"     This taken
with the sublime spectacle of Hades in the XIV chap
seems a forecast of the future but Jesus instructed
Mary and her sister and Lazarus & Martha without
hesitation spoke of the resurrection at the last
20day      as a familiar doctrine far in advance of its
                                Mosaic law in which she h{she had} been reared

XXVII

XXVII 6


Ikwenu alumwa = Lualaba salutation
a ko sema iamwu Manyema Do to men
Doshanga kakaka Do      to women



5

Monyungo chief was sent for five years among the
Watuta to learn their language and ways - He sent
his two sons and a daughter to Zanzibar to school
Kills many of his people says they are so bad if
not killed they would murder strangers - Unruly
10ordered some of them to give their huts to Muhamad
refusing he put fire to them & they soon called
out let them alone we will retire -     He dresses
like Arabs     has ten loaded guns at his sitting place
four pistols - two swords several spears and
15a two bundles of the Batuta spears - laments
that his # father filed his # teeth when # he was young


The names of his very numerous people is Bawungu
country Wungu = his other names are Iranga - Mohamu

XXVIII

XXVIII The Basango on the other hand consider their chief
as a deity and fear to say aught wrong lest he should hear
them = They fear both before him & when out of sight = The
Father of #Merere never drank pombe or beer and
5assigned as a reason that a great man who had
charge of people's lives should never become
intoxicated so as to do evil = Bange he never
smoked but in council smelled at a bunch of it
in order to make his people believe it     had
10great effect on him - -     Merere drinks pombe
freely but never uses Bange - He alone kills
sheep - He is a lover of mutton - and beef
but neither goats nor fowls are touched by him


9 th Novr 1870 sent to Lohombo for dura
15and planted some Nyumbo - I long excessively
to be away and finish any work by the two Lacustr
Lacustrine rivers
Lualaba of Young and Webb
but wait only for Syde & Dugumbe who may
    have letters and as     I do not intend to return XXIX
XXIX hither but go through Karagwe homewards 7
I should miss them altogether - I groan and am
in bitterness at the delay but     thus it is - I pray
for help to do what is right but sorely am I
5perplexed and grieved and mourn -     I
cannot give up making a complete work of
the exploration




10th November 1870 a party of Katombas men
10arrived on their way to Ujiji for carriers - they
report that a foray was met S W of Mamohela
to recover four guns which were captured
from Katomba and his people killed when
last here - Three were recovered and ten
15of the Arab party slain       The people of Manyema
fought very fiercly with arrows and not till
many were killed and others mutilated would
they give up the guns - They probably expected
this foray and intended to fight to the last XXX
XXX - They had not gone in search of ivory while
this was enacting consequently Muhamads men
have got the start of them completely by going along
Lualaba to Kasongo's and then along the western verge
5of the Metamba or forest to Loinde or Rindi R -
The last men sent took to fighting instead of trading
and returned empty - The experience gained
thus and at the South West will probably
lead them to conclude that the Manyema are
10not to be shot down without reasonable cause
They have sown rice and maize at Mamo-
hela
but cannot trade now where       they got
so much ivory before - Free men were
killed at Rindi or Loinde and one escaped
15The reason of this outbreak by men who have
been so peaceable is not divulged but anyone
seeing the wholesale plunder to which the houses
& gardens were subject can easily guess the         rest

XXXI

XXXI Mamohela camp had several times been [8]
set on fire at night by the tribes which suffered assault
but did not effect all that was intended - The Arabs
say that the Manyema now understand that
5every gunshot does not kill - The next thing they
will learn will be to grapple in close quarters
in the forest where their spears will outmatch
the guns in the hands of slaves - It will follow
too that no one will be able to pass through this
10country - this is the usual course of Suaheli
trading - It is murder and plunder and each
slave as he rises in his owners favour is
eager to shew himself a mighty man of valour
by cold blooded killing of their country men
15If they can kill a fellow nigger their pride boils up
The conscience is not enlightened enough to cause un-
-easiness and Moslemism gives less than the light of
nature - I am grievously tired of living here. XXXII
XXXII Muhamad is as kind as he can be but to
sit idle or give up before I finish my work are
both intolerable I cannot bear either yet am forced
to remain by want of people - Merciful Father Help me


5

11th Novr Wrote to Muhamad bin Saleh at Ujiji
for letters and medicines to be sent in a box of
china tea which is half empty - If he cannot
get carriers for the long box itself - then he is
10to send these the articles of which I stand in
greatest need -


        Friends of a boy captured at Monanyembe
brought three goats to redeem him - He is sick
and emaciated - one goat was rejected - The boy
15cried tears when he saw his grandmother
and the father too when his goat was rejected
"So I returned and considered all the oppressions
that are done under the Sun - and behold the tears
of     such as were were oppressed and they had

XXXIII

XXXIII no comforter, and on the side of their oppression 9
there was power but they had no comforter" Ecc IV-I
the relations were told either to bring the goat or let the
boy die - This was hard hearted - at Mamohela
5ten goats are demanded for a captive & given too
Here three are demanded "He that is higher than the
"highest regardeth, and there be higher than they"
"marvel not at the matter
"


I did not write to the coast for I suspect that the
10Lewale Syde bin Salem Buraschad destroys my
letters
in order to quash the affair of robbery by his
man Saloom he kept the other thief Kamaals by
him for the same purpose - Muhamad writes
to Bin Saleh to say that I am here & well - that I
15sent a large packet of letters in June/69 - with money
received no answer - nor my box from Unyembe
and this is to be communicated to the consul by a friend
at Zanzibar - If I wrote it would only be to be burned
This is as far as I can see at present

XXXIV

XXXIV. The friend who will communicate with
the consul is Muhamad bin Abdullah the Wuzeer
Seyd Suleiman is the lewale of Governor of Zanzibar
Suleiman bin Ali or Sheikh Suleiman the Secretary


5

The Mamohela horde is becoming terrified
Every party going to trade has lost three or four
men and the last foray lost ten and saw
that the Manyema can fight - They will soon
10refuse to go among those whom they have forced
to be enemies - one of the Bazula invited a
man to with him to buy ivory - when well
in among Zulas he asked if his gun
killed men and how - He was shewn a bale
15 and powder and stabbed his informant dead
no one knows the reason of this but the
man probably lost some of his relations else
where - This     is called murder without cause

XXXV

XXXV. When Syde and Dugumbe come I hope to 10
get men and a canoe to finish my work among
those who have not been abused by Ujijians
and still retain their natural kindliness of
5disposition     None of the people are ferocious
without cause, and the sore experience which
they gain from slaves with guns in their hands
usually ends in sullen hatred of all strangers
the education of the world is a terrible one
10and it has come down with relentless rigour
on Africa from the most remote times - What
the African will become after the awfully hard
lesson is learned is among the future devel
opments of Providence - When He who is
15higher than the highest accomplishes his purposes
This will be a wonderful country and again
something like what it was of old - When Zerah
and Tirhaka flourished & were great

XXXVI

The soil of Manyema is clayey and XXXVI remarkably
fertile - The maize sown for it rushes up to seed
and everything is in rank profusion if only it
be kept clear of weeds - Bambarre people
5are indifferent cultivators planting maize
Bananas & plantains and groundnuts only
No dura a little cassava - no perisetum
or meleda - pumpkins melons Nyumbo
though they all flourish in other districts
10a few sweet potatoes appear but elsewhere
all these nature grains and roots are abundant
and cheap -       No one would choose this as a
residence except for the sake of Moenekuss &
The people are honest never steal though
15stolen from by our people as Simon and
Amoda of my party and others of Muhamad's

XXXVII

XXXVII                 Oil is very dear while at Lualaba a 11
gallon may be got for a single string of beads and beans
ground nuts - cassava maize plantains in rank
profusion The Balegga like the Bambarre people
5trust chiefly to Plantains and ground nuts -
To play with parrots is their great amusement -


13th Novr 1870 - The men sent over to Lohombo
about 30 miles off got two and a half loads of
dura for a small goat - but the people were
10unwilling to trade - "If we encourage Arabs
to trade they will come and kill us with their guns"
so they said and it is true - The slaves are overbearing
and when this is resented then slaughter ensues.
Got some sweet plaintains and a little oil
15which is useful in cooking and with salt as butter
on bread - but all were unwilling to trade -


Monangoi was over near Lohombo     and heard of a
large trading party coming and not far off, This may be
Syde & Dugumbe but reports are often false

XXXVIII

XXXVIII When Katomba's men were on the late foray
they were completely overpowered & compelled by the Man
-yema
to lay down their guns and powder horns on
pain of being instantly despatched by bowshot - they were
5mostly slaves who could only draw the trigger & make
a noise       Katomba had to rouse and all the Arabs
who could shoot and when they came they killed many
and gained the lost day - The Manyema did not
kill anyone who laid down his gun & powder horn
10This is the beginning of an end which was easily
percieved when it became not a trading but a
murdering horde of savages and when wherever
invited     by old feuds in order to get goats
and then sell the captives back for ten goats each
15Buceros cristata - screams & picks at his
tail till he discharges the contents of his bowel Then
leaves him - It is called "play" by the natives and
in the Suaheli "Utane" or XXXIX
XXXIX Msaha - fun or wit. He follows other birds in the same 12
merciless way - screaming & pecking to produce purging
Manyema call it "Mambambwa" - The Buffalo bird
warns its big friend of danger - calling Chāchāchā
5Rhinocers birds calls out Tyetyetye       tye for
same purpose - Manyema call Buffalo bird
"Mojela"     Suahel "Chassa"


a climbing plant is known in Africa as ntulung--ope
which mixed with flour of dura kills mice -
10They swarm in our camp and destroy everything
but Ntulungope is not near this




The foray above mentioned was undertaken by
Katomba for twenty goats from Kassessa!
15Ten men lost for twenty goats but they will think
twice before they try another foray




one dollar a day is ample for provisions for a
large family at Zanzibar - What nice flesh of
20goats or ox fowls - bananas milk butter - sugar eggs
bazarre mangoes - potatoes

XL

XL. Ambergris is boiled in milk and sugar
and used by the Hindoos as a means of increasing
blood in their systems - a small quantity is a dose
Ambergris is found along the shore of the sea at
5Barawa or Brava and at Madagascar
as if the sperm whate Changoi got rid of it
while alive - Lamos or Amu is wealthy
and well supplied with everything as grapes
peaches wheat cattle camels &c - The trade
10is chiefly with Madagascar - The houses are
richly furnished with furniture dishes from
India -       At Garaganza there are hundreds of
Arab traders there too all fruits abound
and the climate is healthy - from its elevation
15Why cannot we missionaries imitate these
        Arabs in living on heights?


XLI

XLI Copy


Manyuema country 180 miles say 13
                        West of Ujiji
15 Nov
                                                        1870


5

The   Right Honourable Lord Stanley


My Lord As soon as I recovered suffi
-ciently to be able to march from Ujiji I went
up Tanganyika about 60 miles and thence
struck away N W into the country of the Manyuema
10or Manyema
- the reputed cannibals - My object
was to follow down the central line of drainage
of the great Nile valley
which I had seen passing
through the great Lake Bangweolo and changing
its name from Chambeze to Luapula - then on
15passing through Lake Moero assuming the name
Lualaba and becoming itself a great Riverein
Lake
at first eight to ten miles broad with several
inhabited islands in it, and then holding a breadth
of from two to six miles
as far as it is     known
20I soon found myself in the large bend which this
great Lacustrine River makes by going West and XLII
XLII then turning away to the North - Two hours were the
utmost I could accomplish in a day, but by persever
ing I gained strength and came up with the trading party
of Muhamad Bogharib who by native medicines and
5carrying me saved my life in my late severe illness
in Marungu         Two days before we arrived at
Bambarre the residence of the most influential
Manyema chief called Moenekuss we met a
band of Ujijian traders carrying         18000 lbs
10weight of ivory bought in this new field for a
mere trifle in t{h}hick copper bracelets and beads
The traders had been obliged to employ their slaves
to collect the ivory and slaves with guns in their
hands are often no better than Demons - We
15heard but one side of the story - The slave version
and such as would have appeared in the Newspaper
if they     had one - "The Manyema were bad
- they were always in the wrong - wanted to eat the
slaves and always gave them just occasion to capture
20people                 goats sheep fowls and grain -

XLIII

XLIII The masters did not quite approve of this but the 14
deeds were done and then masters and men joined in
one chorus "The Manyema are bad bad bad very
bad" - In going West of Bambarre I followed the
5Luamo a river of from 100 to 250 yards broad
which rises in the mountains opposite Ujiji and
flows across the great bend when near its
confluence I was among people who had been
maltreated by the slaves     and they naturally looked
10on one as if of the same tribe with their persecutors
Africans are not unreasonable though though
smarting under wrongs if you can fairly make
them understand your claim to innocence and
do not appear as having your "back up" The
15women here were particularly outspoken in asserting
our identity with the cr{ue}uel strangers - on calling to
one vociferous lady who gave me the head traders
name, just to look if he and I were of the same
colour she refused with a bitter little laugh "Then you
20must be his brother" The worst the men did XLIV
to XLIV to us was to turn out in force armed
with their large spears & wooden shields and shew
us out of their districts - Glad that no collision
took place we {returned}returned to Bambarre and then
5with our {friend}friend Muhamad struck away due
North       he to buy ivory and I to reach
another part of the Lualaba and buy a canoe -


The country is extremely beautiful but difficult
to travel over         The mountains of light grey
10granite stand like islands in Now Red
sandstone and mountain and valley are all
clad in a mantle of different shades of green
The     vegetation is indescribably rank         through
the grass if grass it can be called which is over
15half an inch in diameter in the stalk and from
ten to twelve feet high nothing but elephants
can walk The leaves of this Megatherium
grass are armed with minute spikes which as
we worm our way along elephants walks rub
20disagreably                 on the side of the face where     the XLV
XLV the gun is         held and the hand is made sore by 15
fending it off for hours the other side for hours - The Rains
were fairly set in by November and in the morning
or after a shower these leaves were loaded with
5moisture
which wet us {to}to {the}the bone - The valleys are
deeply undulating and in each innumerable
dells have to be crossed There may be only a
thread of     water on the bottom but the mud mire
or Scotticé "glaur" is grievous - thirty or
10forty yards
    of the path on each side of the
stream are worked by the feet of passengers
into an adhesive {compound}compound - By placing
a foot on each side of the narrow footway one
may waddle a little way along but the rank
15crop of grass gingers & bushes cannot spare
the few inches required for the side of the foot and
{down}down he comes into the mire - The path often runs
along the {bed}bed of the rivulet for 60 or more yards XLVI
XLVI as if he who first cut it out went that distance
seek{ing}ing a part of the {forest}forest less dense than the rest
for his axe         In other cases the "Muale palm"
from which here as in Madagascar grass cloth is
5woven and called by the same name "Lamba"
has taken possession of a valley - the leaf stalks
as thick as a {s}strong mans arm fall off
and block up all passage save by a path
made and mixed up by the feet of elephants
10and buffaloes The slough therein is groan
compelling and deep     Every now & then the
traders with rueful {faces}faces stand panting
The sweat trickles down my face, and I
suppose I look as grim as they though I
15express a hope that good prices will reward
them for as the coast for ivory obtained with
so much toil - In some cases the subsoil
has given way beneath the elephants enormous
weight - The hole is filled with mud and one
20taking it                         all to be about calf         deep XLVII
XLVII steps in to the top of the thigh and {flaps}flaps on to a 16
seat, soft enough, but not luxurious - a merry laugh
relaxes the facial muscles and I conjecture that this
gruesome fun is all I shall ever get for the explorations
5Some of the {numerous}numerous {rivers}rivers which in this
region flow into Lualaba are covered with
living vegetable bridges - a species of dark
{glossy}glossy grass with its roots and leaves is
the chief agent in felting into a mat that covers
10the {whole}whole stream          When stepped upon it yields
twelve or fifteen inches and that amount of
water {rises}rises on the leg - At every step the foot
has to be lifted high enough to place it on the
unbent mass in front and this fatigues
15like walking on deep snow - Here & there
holes appear which we could not sound with
a stick six feet long - They gave the impression
that any where one might plump through
and finish the chapter - Where the water is XLVIII
XVLVIII     is {sha}shallow The Lotus or sacred Lilly
sends it roots to the bottom and spreads it broad
leaves over the floating bridge so as to make believe
that the mat is its crown but the grass referred to
5is the real supporting agent -


Between each district of Manyema broad
belts of the primeval forest still stand - Into
these the sun though vertical cannot pene-
trate except by sending down ^ at         Midday thin pencils
10of rays into the gloom - The rain water
stands for months in stagnant pools
made by elephants feet and the dead leaves
decay on the damp soil and make the
water of the numerous rills & rivulets of the
15colour of strong tea -     The climbing plants
from the size of {whip}whipcord to that of a man
of wars haw{sers}sers are so many the ancient
path is the only passage         When one of the giant
trees falls across the road it {makes}makes a {wall}wall XLIX
XLIX breast high to be climbed over - and the mass 17
of tangled climbers brought down makes cutting a
path round it a work of time which travellers never
undertake       The shelter from the sun of the Forest
5makes it pleasant but the roots of trees high out
of the soil across     the path keep the eyes constantly
looking down and a good shot gun does no
harm to parrots or quince fowls on their
tops - I have heard gorillahs here called Sokos
10prowling within fifty yards without getting a
glimpse of them - Their call to each other resem
bles that of a Tom cat not so loud or far
reaching as that of the peacocks - When in flight
they give tongue not unlike fox hounds - His
15nest is a poor contrivance resembling that
of our cushat dove Here he sits in pelting rain
with his hands on his head - The natives call it
his house and laugh at him for being such a
fool as after building it not to go beneath it
20for shelter - Bad water and frequent wettings L
L. told on us all by choleraic symptoms & loss
of flesh - Meanwhile the news of cheap ivory
caused a sort Californian gold fever at Ujiji
It prevented me from getting any carriers save
5the worthless liberated slaves who by thieving
lying and fornicationcowardice have been a perpetual
annoyance during all this Journey - The
traders eager to secure all the Pagazi or
carriers spread the report that I would go
10away to my own country and leave them as
Speke did his as Suez - We were now
overtaken by a horde ^ from       Ujiji numbering 600 muskets
all eager for ivory The elephant tusks had
been left to rot with the other bones in the
15interminable forests where the animals were
killed - The natives knew where they had been
left and if treated civilly readily brought the
precious teeth many half rotten or gnawed LI
LI by the teeth of a rodent animal to sharpen his 18
teeth as London rats do on leaden pipes - I had already
in this Journey two severe lessons that travelling
in an unhealthy climate in the rainy season
5was killing work and besides being unwilling
to bear company with the new comers I feared
that any present weakness ^ by further exposure might result in
something worse went back seven days
and on the 7th February last went into winter
10quarters at a camp formed by the heads of
men as civil and kind as I could wish - a
letter obtained from the Sultan of Zanzibar
through the kind offices of Sir Bartle Frere
has been of immense service to me with most
15of his subjects - I had no medicine - some though
sent for twice had been unaccountably detained
at Unyembe by the Arab Lewale or governor


Two English guns in the box are surely not    LII
LII. not too much for his virtue - Rest - boiling
all the water {figure} I used and a new species of potato
famed among the natives as a restorative soon
put me to rights again     The rains continued
5into July and 58 inches fell
    The mud from
the clayey soil was awful and laid up some
of the strongest in spite of their intense eagerness
for ivory     I lost no time after it was feasible
to travel in preparing to go North but my
10attendants were fed and lodged by the slave
women whose husbands were away from
the camp on trade and pretended to fear going
into a canoe I consented to refrain from
buying one - They then feared the people though
15the inhabitants were reported by the slaves
to be remarkably frienvly     elsewhere I could
get the country people to carry from village
to       village and was comparatively independent LIII
LIII. when as happened with some they deserted 19
into the arms of prostitutes six times over - But in
Manyema no one can be induced to go into the
next district for fear they say of being killed &
5eaten - I was at their mercy and entreaty was
answered by calling when out of sight "who
will carry his things" and a loud laugh to make
me hear - The head Arabs remonstrated
and they literally trembled and consented to go
10anywhere but on find that no compulsion
was to be used refused again - When I had
gone with my only three attendants I could not
regret the absence of the rest for three of them
had previously gone unknown to me to
15a slave war and came back boasting that
they had killed four of the people whose kindness
to us had touched my heart and nothing could
exceed the eagerness with which uninvited
they ran off to help to enslave their countrymen LIV
LIV nothing but danger would have
        deterred      them from slavehunting and
here there is none for the report of gun makes
the Manyema flee in terror On no account
5would I have brought them here but I suspected
that my letters to the coast for other men
had been destroyed and I had a sore longing
to finish my work and retire - The country
to the North is even more difficult than that
10I have described for except a broad belt of
Buga or Prairies along the right bank of
the Lualaba it is all forest saving the clearing
round each village - and these are ten miles
apart
- The rivers and rivulets are innumer
15able I crossed fourteen in one day from
knee to thigh deep
- Muhamads party was
five hours in crossing one in flood - a man
in a small canoe went     sounding among LV [v.1]
    LV. 20 the trees to find where it was     breast
deep
In another case they were two hours in a river
from breast to neck deep and they saw
nothing but gloomy forest - though they went
5near to what the Balegga call uerere or lower
Tanganyika
named by its discoverer Albert
Nyanza
For the first time in my life my
feet failed - When torn by rough travel
instead of healing kindly as heretofore an
10irritable eating ulcer fastened on each foot
and laid me up for five months - these are
common here and slaves whose wailing
may be heard the whol[ ] night long are
often killed by them - I have been minute
15even to triviality that your Lordship may have
some idea of the obstacles to progress in this
region exploration is only possible by canoes
and as soon as I get men who have been
taught to work four or five months will [LV v.2]
[LV] finish all I have to do - What remains
to be accomplished may be understood
by the     following -


[                ]
LVI

LVI continuation of a Despatch to Lord Stanley 21


This great Lacustrine river which I call
Webb's Lualaba is only one of {three}three each of
which {having}having th{e}e {same}same native {name}name {requires}requires
5 [#] an {English}English {epithet}epithet to dis{ting}tinguish it The
{river}river Lufira {rises}rises in a fount{ain}ain South
West of this which {I}I would fain {call}call Bartle
Frere
's fountain
and {th}th[   ] When it becomes
very large it is called Lualaba West of this one
10{again}again another great {river}river beg{ins}ins {in}in {a}a fountain
and from {its}its {source}source down {its}its {only}only native
name is Lualaba - I wish to add Young's
Youngs Lualaba
and Bartle Frere's Lualaba
unite and form a Lake the native name of
15which is Chibungo but I am fain to call it
Lake Lincoln - Looking back from this to the
full {grown}grown gushing fountains not more LVII
LVII {more}more than {ten}ten miles apart The
largest of these fountains at which a man
cannot be seen on the other side is the source
of the Liambai or upper Zambesi this
5I name after good Lord Palmerston
Near it rises the Lunga which further
down is called Luenge and still further
off Kafue or Kafuge - I would name it
Oswell Fountain         These four fountains
10gushing forth so near to each other
and forming great rivers are probably the
unfathomable springs of the Nile men
-tioned to Herodotus by the secretaryretary of
Minerva
in the citycity of SaisSais fromfrom which LVIII
LVIII [ ] half the water flowed" = from Youngs and 22
Bartle Frere's fountains
= "Northward into
Egypt" - and the other half = "from Palmerstons
and Oswell fountains
= "into Inner Ethiopia"
5I heard of this remarkable mound & fountains
some 200 miles distant on the South West - again
on the South East 150 miles off - again on
the North East 180 miles distant and
now on the N.N.E. many intelligent
10Arabs who have visited the spot give the
very same information as having excited
their admiration as much as it that of
the natives - I have ventured to give name by
anticipation - I shall write no [      ]{other} letter
15till I have either succeeded or fallen - The
names of Palmerston Lincoln & Frere I wish
to honour as of men who have done more LIX
LIX for the abolition of the slave trade & slavery
than any of their cotemporaries - The great and
good man Palmerston and Lincoln are no
longer among us, and I desire to place, as it were
5my poor little garland of love on their tombs.


          By degrees the conviction has crept across
my mind that all we moderns can fairly do in
in common modesty claim is is the rediscovery
of the sources of the Nile which had sunk into
10oblivion somewhat like the circumnavigation
of Africa by the Phoenician Admiral of one
of the Pharoahs about B C 600 He
was not believed because he reported
having the sun on his right hand in
15passing round Libya This stamps the tale
of the Admiral to us as genuine By placing
the fountains of the river of Egypt between
10°-12° South Lat. Ptolemy [            ] genuine LX
LX geography from men who had visited this very 23
region     By making the water collect into two or
three large Lacustrine rivers
- Extant speci-
-mens of those which in prehistoric times
5abounded in Africa and in the south are still
called "melapo" - in the North Wady's both
words meaning the same thing = river beds
where no water ever now flows, he did
what no mere theorist would dream of doing
10Ptolemys predecessors were probably the real
collectors of the facts he made use of and the
former explorers must have travelled extensively
Had I left at the end of two years I could have
given little more light on the country than the
15Portuguese who in their three slaving visits
to Cazembe asked for slaves & ivory alone
and heard of nothing else - I enquired about the
waters till ashamed and almost afraid of being
put down as affected with Hydrocephalus - I had
20to feel my way and every step of the way, and LXI
LXI was generally groping in the dark for who cared
were the rivers ran - Many a wary foot I trod ere
I gained a clear idea of the drainage which flows
from the watershed in         10°12° South on which stand
5Ptolemys mountains of the moon - The length of
this watershed is between 700 & 800 miles from
West to East - Here the fountains of the Nile do
unquestionably arise - The mountains on it
are between 600 & 700 feet above the sea
10The idea of melting snow is if I remember
rightly is not Ptolemy's Kenia & Kilimanjaro
are said to be snow capped but no one
ever reached the snow - They send no water to
any part of the Nile and never could have
15been meant by the correct ancient explorers


          I would fain crave your Lordships approboation
of my labours but the supernumerary undersecretary
Murrays
impertinent letter
forbids any Govt
from allowing me any claim no matter what
20services I may render David Livingstone


LXII

LXII 22nd Novr 1870 copied foregoing despatch - It
will be delivered by Muhammad Bogharib into the consul's
hands at Zanzibar


24th Novr Herpes is common at the plantations
5in Zanzibar but the close crowding of the houses
in the town     they think prevents it. The lips &
mouth are affected & constipation sets in for 3
days -     cured by going over to mainland
Affections of the lungs are cured by residence at
10Bariva or Brava and also on mainland


the Safari of Halzani took my letters from
Ujiji but person employed I do not know


25th Nov wrote to Tom Agnes - Young - Webb
Oswell Dr Hamilton Sir Roderick     Sir Bartle Frere -
15Tracey - Stearns of Bombay - Maclear = Bleek
Brother John in Canada =     Letters to be delivered
by Muhammad Bogharib into Col Playfair or Dr Kirk's
own hands at Zanzibar - Lt Kinnaird & B Braithwaite

LXIII

LXIII 29th Novr 1870 Safura is the name of the
disease clay or earth eating at Zanzibar = It     often
affects slaves and the clay is said to have a pleasant
odour to the eaters, but it is not confined to slaves
5nor do slaves     eat in order to kill themselves - It is
a diseased appetite and sick men who have plenty
to eat are often subject to it - The feet swell
flesh is lost - and the face looks haggard - The
patient can scarcely walk for shortness of breath
10and weakness and he continues eating till he
dies = Here many slaves are now diseased with
safura The clay built in walls is preferred and
Manyema women when pregnant often eat it.
The cure is effected by drastic purges for seven
15days and nothing of ^ fish butter - milk or beef must
enter his mouth for three{two} years after it --     old
vinegar or cocoa trees put into a large bason &
old slag made red hot cast into it - Then "Mbuye ^ asofoetida"
1/2 a rupee in weight - . copperas sulph Do
20a small glass of this fasting morning & evening LXIV
LXIV produces vomiting & purging of black dejections -
This is continued for seven days - no meat eaten but
only old rice or dura & water - a fowl in course of time
no ^ fish butter eggs or beef for two years on pain of death
5Muhamad's father had skill in the cure and the
above is his prescription - Safura is thus a
disease per se - It is common in Manyema &
makes me in a measure content to wait for
my medicines - from the description inspiss-
10ated bile seems to be the agent of blocking up the
gall duct and duodenum and the clay [      ]{or} earth
may be nature trying to clean it away -     the
clay appears unchanged in the stools and in
large quantity a Banyamwezi carrier who
15bore an enormous load of copper is now by Safura
scarcely able to walk - He took it at Lualaba where
food is abundant & he is contented with his lot -
        squeeze a fingernail & if no blood appears beneath it
                Safura is the cause     of the bloodlessness - LXV
LXV a dread of encountering this disease without any
any medicine reconciles me partially to this detention




2 Decr 1870 Sokos collect together and make a drumming
5noise some say with hollow trees then burst forth
into loud yells well imitated by the natives - If a man
has no spear Sokos goes away satisfied - If
wounded he siezes the wrist lops off ends of the
fingers and spits them out - slaps the cheeks
10of his victim and bites without breaking the
skin - draws out a spear but never uses
it - takes some leaves and stuffs them into
his wound to stanch the blood = Does not
wish an encounter with an armed man = He
15sees women do him no harm & never molests them
a man without a spear is nearly safe from him
They beat hollow trees as drums with hands
and then scream as music to it. When men
hear them they go to Sokos but Sokos never
20goes to men     with hostility - Manyema say "Sokos
is a man" "& nothing bad in him" a Soko was killed
near this with holes in his ears - He had died a man & risen a Soko

LXVI

LXVI. opinion and facts - 2 Rhinoceroses scary
chivalry - Helmore found by Baldwin starving no
hunter - no horses no medical man - Sekeletu
blamed though he got not £8000 to place him
5on Healthy Highlands and I was accused as
morally guilty of his death though no letter was
sent to me - saying     he had come ^ or gone to