Three Versions of the 1871 Field Diary

This page allows users to engage in comparative study of three versions of the 1871 Field Diary: the original 1871 Field Diary, the revised version in the Unyanyembe Journal (1866-72), and the posthumously edited and published version in the Last Journals (1874). Users can scroll through each of the versions or guide their search using dates found in the texts. For each manuscript, we have selected colors that match the corresponding colors of the original documents.

1871 Field Diary (Fragments Integrated)
David Livingstone


Date of composition: 23 March 1871-3 November 1871
Place of composition: Nyangwe; Manyema; Ujiji
Clendennen & Cunningham number(s): Field Diaries, 033, 037, 038, 039
Digital edition and date: Livingstone Online, 2016
Publisher: University of Maryland Libraries, College Park, MD, USA
Project id: liv_015002
TEI encoding: Adrian S. Wisnicki, Kathryn Simpson, Doug Emery



CII

CII - to be copied into journal at Ujiji now 28


23rd March 1871 Left Kasongo - he gave a
goat & guns &c - country       gently undulating
shewing green slopes fringed with wood
5Grass from 4 to 6 feet = Luamba or
cotton meadow grass - Nyassi in patches
reached Katenga's about 6 miles off
many villages & people passed us
carrying loads of provisions - cassava
10from the chitoka or market - soil
a little sandy - allows good drainage


  24th = Great rain in the night &
morning - and sickness of
men prevented our march


15

      25th Went to Marimwe
miles off- many hamlets at
each station = country undulating
and grassy - trees scarce
Patches of Arum at every
20village and cassava far
off on account of the pigs
which are now plenty - a
black ugly pig - crossed a rivulet &
the Lohemba -


25

  26th Went four miles and crossed the
Kabwe maji - the a mile beyond Kahembai
which flows into the Kunda and it
into Lualaba - country open and
low hills appear in the North - We
30met a party from the traders at Kasongo
chiefly Matereka's people - Salem & Seyd
bin Sultan
- They had eighty two captives
say they fought ten days to secure
them and two Malongwana & two of the
35Banyamwezi - they had about 20
tusks and carried one who broke
his leg in fighting - We shall be safe
only when past the blood shed -
and murder


40

[1 Nyangwe
Lokengo 3 Kilonda
Bagenya 2
rowers
Likele 4 far
45Bakuzz]



[Kibrinke R
is rocky
Lohike
poisoned
50arrows]

CIII

CIII 27th along a ridge of land over
looking a well cultivated lowland with
hills in the distance where the Bogharib
feat was performed - many villages come
5through rather tumble down ones 7 miles
a headman bothered [ ] this one to give
a goat and in fear he did it. Arum
Arum common -


28th The Banian slaves are again
10trying compulsion in I don't know
what - refused to take their bead
rations     and began an oration
by the mouth of Chakanja - I
could not listen to it as he has
15been concocting a mutiny against
me - It is excessively trying and
so many difficulties have been
put in my way I doubt whether
the Divine favour and will is
20on my side       We came six miles
today crossing many rivulets
running into the     Kunda
which also we crossed in a
canoe - It is about thirty yards
25wide and deep - Then near the
village where we sleep we crossed
the Liya about twenty yards and
going into Kunda & Lualaba


I am greatly distressed because
30no law here - they probably
mean to create       a disturbance
at Abeds place to which we
are near           The Lord look on it


[                ]


35

    29th March - the slaves demanded
double allowance and as usual
told me of what they got   near the
sea coast -     We crossed the river

CIV

CIV - The MolembeThe Moangor by two 27
well made wattle bridges - It is 20 yards & a
very strong current and is feared on that
account - the the Molembe in a canoe -
5swelled by rains to 15 yards & many rills and
much mud - Came about 7½ miles to
sleep at one of the villages of Nyangwe
Hope to reach Abed tomorrow     About
sixty market women came past us
10from the chitoka or market place
on the Lualaba -     they pass thither
by night and come away about midday
having disposed most of their goods
by Barter - country open & dotted
15over with villages -     Trees along the
watercourses chiefly - Grass not very
long - four to six feet - Pigs abundant
country low as compared with Tangan
-yika
- about 2000 feet above the sea


20

      The headmans house I am lodged
in contained the housewifes little
conveniences in the shape of forty
pots - dishes baskets - knives &c &c
mats   all which the wife removed
25to another house I gave     four strings
of beads and go on tomorrow



30th after seven miles we came
to Nyangwe market place where
Abed and Hassani have built
30and thence sent their people over
Lualaba as far as the Loeki or
Lomame - Hope they will not
shed blood - Abed says my
words against bloodshed stuck
35into him - and he ordered his
people to give presents to the chiefs
and not kill unless attacked

CV

30 CV - 31st March 1871 Went down to
take {figure} a look at Lualaba here - It is narrower
than it is above but still a mighty river
about 3000 yards broad and deep - Has
5many Islands of large size but at
these it is still over 2000 yards or
one miles    Banks here are steep &
deep -       The banks of the other
rivers are of gravel - It flows
10fast towards the   North - people
very numerous but tomorrow
we shall see the     great gathering
at market - This         is held for
two one days and then omitted for three
15slaves bought here are good as
tailors of grass cloth but their
tongue is     strange - they come
from far



Monday
201st April
1871


  Rain early every morn
-ing  I fear it will be
difficult to buy a canoe - The
25Manyema have learned to distrust
all strangers and think to buy
means   plunder and murder



2 Chitoka or market contained
over a thousand people carrying
30earthen pots and cassava
grass cloth fishes fowls - they
were alarmed at my coming
among them and ready to flee
many stood afar off in suspicion
35many came from the other side
of the river with their goods
tomorrow market is held up river

CVI

CVI 3d April 1871 tried to secure a         31
longitude by fixing a weight on the key
of the watch helping it on - Will try in a
quiet place tomorrow - People all fear
5us and they have good reason for
it in the villanous conduct of
many of the blackguard half castes
cannot get canoe so I wait to
see what will turn up


10

    River is said to over flow all
its banks annually as the Nile
further down does -       Here it is
over 3000 yards broad - or a mile
and a half - with large islands
15In the distance is is 2 miles or 4000
yards - I sounded across yesterday
Near the bank it is nine feet. The
rest 15 feet & one cast in the middle
was 20 feet - Between the islands
2012 feet and nine feet again inshore
Mologhwe Kahemba gave us a
small sheep - It is a mighty river truly
This morning 4th of avil time I
took distances and altitudes altern-
25nately with a bullet for a weight
on the key - They may give a relative
Longitude     soil stiff black loam and
very feverish      3d Arab month 4th
                                will appear in 2 or 3 days


30

5th - People cross over to buy
viramba's or grass cloths - Arabs
asked many questions about the
Bible - How many prophets -
They say they believe all - I believe
35all but Muhammad -         7


CVII

CVII - was ill all yesterday by taking 2
cups of very sweet malofu or beer made
from bananas - shall touch it no more


7th April 1871 made this ink with the seeds
5of a plant called by the Arabs Zingifure
It is known in India and here is used
by the Manyema to dye virambas and
ornament their       faces and heads
I sent my people over to the other side
10to cut wood to build a house for me
The borrowed one I live in hads mud
walls & floors which are damp foul
smelling and unwholesome -   I shall
have grass walls and grass & reeds
15on the floor - of my own house - the
free ventilation will keep it sweet
This is the season called Masika - The
finishing rains - We have rain
in large quantity almost every night
20and I could scarcely travel even if I
had a canoe - but still it is trying to
be kept back by suspicion and by
the wickedness of the wicked - The
Arabs are very kind to me [  ]nding cooked
25food every day - I taught Abed to
make a Mosquito curtain of thin
print - He endured the persecution of
these insects sleeping on a high stage
when they were very numerous -


30

    The Manyema are not trustworthy &
they bring evil on themselves often
Paid one yesterday to bring a large
canoe - He brought one capable only of
carrying three and after men waited
35some hours we have to put of crossing
till tomorrow -

CVIII

CVIII. 8th April 1871 Every headman of 33
four or five huts is a Mologhwe Begin or chief and
glories in being called so -    there is no political
cohesion - The Ujijian sla[   ]y is an accursed
5system but it must be admitted that the
Manyema too have faults the result of
ignorance of other peoples - Their isolation
has made them as unconscious of danger
in dealing with the cruel strangers as little
10dogs in the presence of lions -       their
refusal to sell or lend canoes for fear of
blame by each other will be ended by the
party of Dugumbe which has 10 head-
men taking them by force - they are
15unreasonable and bloodyminded to-
-wards each other - Every Manyema would
like every other headman slain - They are
subjected to bitter lessons & sore experience


        Abed went over to Mologhwe Kahemba
20and mixed blood with him - He was told
that two large canoes were hollowed out
and nearly ready to be brought for sale
If this can be managed peaceably it is a
great point gained and I may get one at
25an Arab's   price which may be 3 or 4
times the native price - Heavy rains
almost every night would prevent my
progress at   present even if I had a canoe
There is no love lost among the three Arabs here



30

    9th Rainy - but sent off people to cut
wood for house - The Loeki is said
by slaves to be larger than this
but we expect Abed's party back
from it in a few days with correct
35information on that & other
points - people said to be
very fierce & dangerous
to the       Ujijians

CIX

CIX. 10th April 1871 Market today -
over 700 market people passed my door
It seems a pleasure of life to haggle & joke
and laugh & cheat - many go away with
5care worn countenances - many are
old and carry heavy loads of dried
cassava earthenpots which they dispose
of for oil     fish and relishes for their
food -      The men go flaunting in
10gaudy lambas and carry little save
their iron wares fowls & grass cloth
Bought two fishes with long snouts
very good eating



12th    New ℂ last night of 4th Arab
15month
- New house to be finished
today - The affair of Mteza resolves
itself   into a a party of 25 Turks from
Suez under Ishmael coming up to
Lower Tanganyika & living on an
20island - Took ivory by force and
then - went away but five went to
visit Mteza - He was kind to them
                        when powder was     spent
Afterwards ^ all ran away leaving all
25their ill gotten ivory -     Mteza said
to be circumcised & to order his people
to undergo the rite but so many
lies are told one can believe nothing
The idea of a mission seems first
30to have entered the Arab mind by
the beginning of bp Mackenzies - but
tales very from Mteza walking in
white and reading the Koran in
Arabic to the missionary getting
35500 slaves & 500 frasilahs of ivory
                and nothing else being done

CX

CX. 13 April 1871 came into my new 35
house yesterday the first of the 4th Arab
a great comfort for the other was foul
full of vermin & bad smelling -    Bugs
5and Kapassi Arab accompaniements
made me miserable - Manyema huts
are all clean in comparison - Killed
a goat and gave the same beads that
were refused - These slaves require to
10know that they are not the masters -
Abed says if slaves think that you fear
them they climb over you = This is
true - I clothed mine for nothing     they
thought that my kindness was fear and
15tried to ride rough shod over me -



      Mologhwe Kahemba came over
and says that he will bring a canoe for
sale - Loeki due west of this is three
days off - Its confluence is four
20days down Lualaba and all declare
it to be bosoa very large indeed -



14th Market today - Kahemba gave to
Abed two slaves as a present = I
have been writing part of a Despatch
25in case of meeting people from the French
settlement on the Gaboon at Loeki
but the canoe affair is slow & tedious
The people think only of war - getting
up a war against some one else as
30price of it!     They are a bloody minded
race - our protests for peace are
considered false = and that war in
some way is meant by buying a canoe
or getting one at all         9

CXI

  CXI 15th April the river Lomamo enters
Lualaba a short distance below this but
on the Western bank - a spring of brine
rises in its bed & the people cook it
5down and sell the salt - The Lomamo
is deep and is crossed by canoes of
Rashid & people call it the Lofubu
Lofubu and not Lomamo -
Nganze is further down and a
10market is held on its Northern
bank



16th April - It is believed that
serampSerampela gave Rashid
one three ^ (4) slaves as a present to the Arab
15traders here and Rashid keeps two
of them and declares that these were
given to him by the chief - this is
the sort of dishonesty all practise if
they possibly can =     The evidence is
20not clear and Rashid will leave as
soon as possible and sell the slaves
ere the truth can be clearly known
This vitiates his evidence about the
cannibalism - but here they eat war captives
25# and say that some buy a slave
with   a   goat and eat him



17th Rainy


18th    Market here - The Lepidosiren alive
in pots of water - White ants roasted
30a chetina and another common snail
Lepidosiren is called Sembe - Abed
went a long way to see canoe but
it was still further and he turned


{figure}       19th Dreary waiting but Abed
35          proposes to come & trade along
          with me this will render
          the party stronger and he
            will not shoot people in
            my company - We shall
40              hear Katomba's peoples
              story too


{text description}
[[ ]gnao
[   ]ml]

CXII

CXII 20th April 1871[                  ]
chief was to visit us yesterday but failed 37
probably through fear - Rashid got four
slaves by promising to bring a large body of
5men to attack chipange - came here and
after a deal of wrangling went off South
and will sell the slaves quickly so as to
end the matter - no honour among these
half castes -


10

    The chief Mokandira says that Loeki
is small where it joins Lualaba but
another which they call the Lomame
is very much larger & joins Lualaba to
but further down - Rapids reported



15

  21st a common salutation here is
Ule hatsi - thou art on earth = Ua tala
thou lookest - Ua boka ^ or Uyoka thou awakest
Ule Koni - thou are here - U ri ho - thou
art here =


20

They deny cannibalism as common {figure} - they
eat only a man taken ^ or   killed in war - say
the meat is not good - and it makes
one dream of the man killed - some
West of Lualaba buy a slave with a
25goat in order to eat him and eat him
they do - yet they are a fine looking race


Kunzi ^ or Kusi is North - Mhuru = South
ñkanda West or other side Lualaba
Mazimba = East = Bagenya people
30of West of Lualaba -      (Kanayumbe R. & island)





  22nd Market here - The chief chimburu
came over but I did not see him - He is
said to be very handsome & light coloured {figure} {figure}
Moene Lualaba or Mologhwe Nyangwe
35came too but I was not told who
he was till too late to do him honour
There are so many chiefs who shake
hands as a privilege it is confusing - they
touch one hand then clap both theirs together on
40the chest - this is       repeated twice         10

CXIII

CXIII - 23d April 1871. Journal
            24 Do        Do Kamolondo is
about ^ twenty five miles broad   The Lufira at
Katanga is a full bowshot wide - It goes
5into Kamolondo - Lui means water
only       Kayumba chakoma is
East of Lufira junction   Kikonzi
Kalanza
is on the West of it and
Mkana of the underground dwellings
10still further West -     some are only 2
days from Katanga = Charwe people
are friendly - Kamolondo about ten
days distant from Katanga



  25th News have come of four men
15sent near to this to buy ivory - were
pressed to go to war and then a war
made when 2 were killed - We can go
no where but the people wish us   to go
to kill others - a dreadful state truly



20

They force on a war against others by getting
traders to go ostensibly for trade then
send word that war is coming and
call out here it is - They a fray takes
place inspite of all traders can do -
25The Manyema are bloodminded & no
mistake - I refused to send my men
to bring back Abed and Hassani's
people they would only add to the con
fusion being as bloodthirsty as the
30Manyema where no danger exists
Where the people can fight traders and
people are as civil as possible - At
Moenyempandes Bogharib left a
debt of 28 slaves and did not dare to
35fire a gun - Here his people bound
the headmen of villages till tusks were
brought for mere nothing - It is a
sad   sad tale to tell as this Manyem
villainy     The Lord look on it

CXIV

  CXIV note for   letter -
        In reading about the Fountains of the Nile 38
in boyhood the idea suggested by the words
of the ancient historian was that the head
5waters welled up out of one ^ "ain" or eye and therein
without visible cause parted ^ to the North and
        to the       As       a         mere conjecture         or trader
^ South - # Possibly the primitive traveller ^ who
visited these springs ^ described them corre
10ctly enough in ^ non scientific common language as
issuing from one spot without dwelling
                        which is not apparent to the eye
on the fact ^ that though from one place
they gushed forth ^ on to from opposite slopes
15of the watershed - The ancient priests who
heard his tale may have understood it
naturally but the supernatural agreed
best with all their notions or then The
                lifting up its head from the unseen abyss
20wonderful river ^ and the marvellous
was transmitted to the time of [     ]Herodotus
in preference to the plain - The two
conical hills Crophi and Mophi
between which the fountains were
25said to be situated seem to be later
embellishments of the primitive story



        I am tired and weary - Have had a
perfect surfeit of seeing the grand
panorama of nature unfolding itself
30in mountain valley woodland Buga
or prairie - The glorious tropical
vegetation in all is richness ^ beauty and
Majestic forms - peoples - beasts
Lakes and river and humanity in
35endless variety and of beautiful form
Winwoode Reade seems to have hit the
exact truth in say that the typical negroe is
not the West Coast African on whose
form & features an unhealthy climate
40has told injuriously for ages but the
ancient Egyptian is the true negro
though all our ideas of Africans [       ]
[   ]to[     ]                            of human[    ]         11

[figure]

CXV

CXV - 26 April 1871 - Journal Chitoka
called Abed's nine slaves and asked their
countries and tribes - one with his front
                                                when he        was
5upper teeth extracted ^ about ten years of age
belongs to the Malobo tribe on the
other side of the Loeki - another comes
from the river Lombadzo or
Lombazo on the West of Loeki This
10may be another name for the Lomame
His country is called Ñañga and
(Ñoñgo) the tribe Ñoñgo - His chief         Mpunzo


          The Malobo tribe is under Yuñga
& Lomadyo - another ^ toothless slave a mere boy
15said he came from Lomame but his
statement was made in fear - the other
two declared positively that no traders came
into their country - this promises ivory
for Abed who is now eager to embark
20but not more so than I am - We look
anxiously for the return of Katomba's
and Abeds people with news as to the
way





        27th waiting anxiously but we
25cannot hasten people far off - Even
the owners of the canoes cannot be
moved -"Yes Yes we shall bring them"
but they do not stir = they doubt us





  28th Sun - Abed sending off to other
30side to buy slaves - a pretty woman
for 300     cowries and 100 strings of beads
she can be sold again for ivory -     We
hear of a half caste reaching the other
side of Lomame - probably from
35Congo or Ambriz - but reporters had
not seen him -


  a man with ten slaves digging
malachite at Katanga for 3 months
gains a hundred frasilahs of copper {figure}
40It is very cheap - fountains
eight days from Katanga S =

CXVI

CXVI. note for letter These four fountains seem to be 12
what the Egyptians priests ^ learned men of remote antiquity 41
considered to be the chief sources of the ^ renowned river
of Egypt which five for its beneficial effects ^
5                                                # and mysterious source
they regarded devoutly viewed as an emblem of the Deity
In my letter from Ujiji in 1869 which
I fear has been destroyed I described
the structure of the Watershed and added
10information about Lake Lake Bangweolo
as a supplement to a letter of   July 1868
The copy is at Ujiji so I now give from
memory some idea of its contents as
explanatiery of the springs of the Nile
15which the      ancients may not have
known -
The watershed situated between
ten and twelve South Latitude is between
700 & 800 miles in length - the general
height is between 4000 & 5000 feet above
20the level of the sea but mountains rise
stand at various parts of it which
are between 6000 & 7000 feet above
[   ] ocean - These are what Ptolemy
put down for reasons ^ now unknown as
25"The mountains of the Moon"- Large flat
patches of the watershed elevation are
                                        with slightly depressed valleys
^ flat upland forest ^ the trees on which
        one or         two miles apart         on the stems
30shew by their branches and the lichens ^
that the prevailing winds & rains are
from the South East - Their are nNo
runnels to guide off the abundant
                        from             the flats
35tropical rains - The water sinks into
the somewhat sandy soil until it comes
to a stratum of prime white river sand su[  ]
ted on a bed of hardened soft yellow
sand^stone which being impervious   to
40water guides the fluid ^ it to the nearest
valley -   This structure was found
prevailing in the Kalahari Desert
when Mr Oswell and I digged for
water for our oxen in the sucking
45places of the     Bushmen and
Bakalahari



Fragment
      of
Original
50
of{Dr} Livingstones
Journal
in Africa

CXVII

CXVII note The valleys into which the water is 40
led are covered with a thick sward of wiry
damp loving grass & other aquatic plants up
to the verge of the forest - no bushes or trees
5can live on the oozing earthen mantle
which supports the long grass and is
itself supported on water and the pearl
white ^ river sand above mentioned - The
nearest approach to oozing earthen
10sponge is our "Bog" but here we have
no   peat nor yet the, in the sun, the
mosses or Heaths from which peat
is formed - The earthen sponge is a
great specific gravity and     though
15constantly pouring out clear what
water ^ [which] descends into the centre of the
valley & forms a perennial rill = it is
only when the rains have supersat[  ]ated
the     flats and the slopes of the valleys
20are so full as to lift up the whole
earthen sponge that the natural
valves by it weight was shut opens
especially the valves at         its lower end
and the water of innundation in
25all the upland streams is gently let
go - The ensuing floods happen
towards the close of the rainy season
and even after the rains have
entirely ceased     the water generally
30                Then [                        ]
is clear -     near the centre of all the
valleys on the watershed a rivulet
is formed whose perennial
flow is fed on each bank by 30
35or a hundred yards of oozing sponge
[ ]ranches ^ rills enter it on all its course
down and these rills & rivulets
are almost innumerable - that
is it would require more than half
40a mans lifetime to count them
a birds eye view of them     would
appear somewhat like the vegetation
[  ] frost on our window panes
or more closely the vegetation

CXVIII

CXVIII Note in Canada Balsam which mad 42 13
philosophical Instrument makers insist on
putting between the object lenses of the object
[ ]lasses of our Telescopes - These are the
5                                                        the great rivers of
primary or ultimate sources of ^ the Congo
Zambesi and Nile - By their union
streams of from 20 to 30 yards broad are
formed     and these again converge into
10three ^ or four great lines of drainage = Large
Lacustrine rivers = extant specimens
of those which in prehistoric times
abounded in Africa - The Lakes and
                no large river begins in a           Lake
15Lake rivers are not sources ^ but they
serve Bosoa = great somewhat the same end as
the cisterns made to regulate the supply
of water in our artificial canals
the natural valves of the watershed
20The Lakes and the lacustrine rivers
unite in the important object
of holding back the sudden flushes
which otherwise would follow the
Tropical rains - In other cases of this [country]
25[ ]mall insignificant rivers
suddenly swell = a perfect
wall of water rushes down without
warning and in the memory of
persons     still living whole car[ ]vans
30of slaves in the chains have been
swept away before they could escape
to higher ground in the immediate
vicinity - Without the determining restraining
machinery of natural valves and ^ Friction
35Riverein ^ to[    ]ns lakes broad above and
^ narrow below - a seven days Tropical
rain would make the grand old
Nile assume the character of a
mountain torrent and rush up
40with a "bore" compared to which

CXIX

  CXIX. Note The "bore" of the Hooeley at Calcutta 43
                                would - would carry
a mere bagatella ^ carrying destruction or
death on its roaring       waters, instead
5of as by the kind ^ arrangement hand of Providence
it has done for ^ ages bearing by its slow
majestic swell and overflow fertility
and life to the millions of upper and
lower Egypt - the arrangement
10which has from time immemorial
prevented the Nile from being a
curse always also detains a volume
of water tile ^ to   be slowly let off sufficient
to supply the enormous evaporation
15from a river which with remarkably
few influents in the more arid
part of its course and whose length
measured in Latitude and Longitude
from the sources to the sea is
20about three thousand miles -





    Beginning of Despatch which the Lord
grant I may have to write


        I have the pleasure of reporting to
your Lordship that ^ at last I have succeeded in
25reaching four remarkable fountains
on the watershed of this ^ inland country in -
each of which becomes at no great
distance off a large river - They rise
from the base of an earthen of        land swell of -
30mound which can scarcely be called
a hill as it is only about --- above
the general level     It is covered with
wiry grass but neither bushes nor
trees though the country adjacent is all
35covered with upland forest - In my letter
of November last year I mentioned
from hearing that the fountains were
not ten miles apart - I ought to have
said not a quarter of a mile apart
40for by pacing I found the two fountains
on the North side just about ---

CXX

note CXX - I was not aware of Mr Young's search trip up 39 the
Shire and Nyassa till February 1871 but feel
extremely thankful to H M Government and
all concerned in kindly inquiring after my
5fate - Musa and his companions are fair
average speciments of the lower class of
Muhamadans of Arab extraction on the in East





Africa - Surampela a chief near Loeki -
[ ]island Ibwe = chipange another gave
10    Syde bin Sultans people to attack Sura
Lofubu river 300 yards by canoe -
300 [     ]    at Kimburu ^ Chinungwe R      Ñanze
                  by canoe =             Kansari a
man             of Kimburu here today
15these             chiefs were visited by Rashid
who             returned today - country
extremely muddy & full of rills - The
Lofubu is a large river 300 yds & deep
crossed by canoes - The Nganze is
20another about 250 yds - canoes [   ]
The captives we met before crossing
here were Surampela people - He is
a great chief - good looking and kind
though he had suffered severely by the
25kindred of Rashid - He invited
Rashid to see a cannibal feast by some
of his people who had five victims all
cut up   some pieces roasted and some
boiled - saw human flesh actually eaten
30Recieved two slaves as a present and
plenty of provisions but no ivory - was
near the Loeki - the country is called
Ibwe





CXXI

    CXXI note. NKoñgolo = deity Manyema



          Hassani  has travelled much
but has a curious idea of the drainage
Lufira and Lualaba West begin ftns
5each 3 fathoms broad = Lunga is
2 fathoms Do  Hill between the four
fountains about a quarter of a mile
across without trees - He thinks
that Lufira and Lualaba both         go
10into Kamolondo which he says
is as broad as Moero - say 20          miles
His sketch confused enough is
{figure}


    He confuses the flow up
15and down = says that
another river rises in
Lunda which becomes
the Lomame West
of all Lualabas and it joins this
20Lualaba far down


  From Katanga to Luivi R 3 days
From Luivi to Charwe 7 days
From Mpweto's to Nyembwakunda    5 days
From Chisabi to Nyembwe Kunda 3 days
25Kipeta another Lekulwe River
Lofuvi Do



Usambe R to Lualaba West from East
Makara R Do Uyawa - Uyawa
Kirira a promontory enclosed
30Katapa


From Mpweto to Nyembe K 5 days
and 3 from Chisabi[ ] Moenye Do
Kayumbe to Nyembwe a[  ] 6 days

CXXII

CXXII - note
      I was not aware of Mr Youngs search
trip up Shire & Nyassa till February 1871         36
but feel am extremely thankful to H M Government
5and all concerned in kindly enquiring
after my fate - Musa and his companions
are fair average specimens ^ of the lower
classes of Muhamadans in East Africa
# for heartlessness and falsehood
10The Sultan who knows his people better
than anyone else cannot entrust any
branch of his revenue to even the better
classes of his subjects but places all his
customs ^ income and money affairs in the hands
15of Banians from India and his father did
the same before him - When the Muhama
dan gentlemen of Zanzibar are asked
why their Sultan places all his pecuniary
affairs in the hands of aliens they at
20once frankly assert that it is on account
of their almost universal falsehood
and dishonesty - In their case religion
and morality are completely disjoined
    ostentatious         promises dont imply decency
25 Hence the idea of making any sacrifice
[      ] to propagate Islam is to them a farce
and in all their long intercourse
with the natives on the mainland
they have propogated nothing but
30syphilis and the domestic Bug - With
the disease they have been unfort
unhappily ^ too successful and the wide
prevalence skin disease and bleared
eyes therefrom in their own offspring
35makes it apparent that unlimited
polygamy is no barrier to the spread
of this foul complaint - Neither
Portuguese nor Arabs have sold trade
brandy to the natives - the only reason
40I can discover for this great difference
between the East and West coasts is
that they are all too eager topers of it
themselves to carry it any distance

CXXIII

CXXIII. Journal = 29th April 1871 Abed
made some more red ink of Zingifure
for me - This is what I now write with





30th chitoka here = added up the Rain
5fall in Manyema of 1870-7[ ] chiefly at
Bambarre = 61-98 inches - at
Mamohela it was rather scanty this
year - at Bambarre very copious -


      Confused reports come of the traders
10men two days distant but on the other
side - Have remained two months -
though sent for a few days - Went to fight
got between two rivers the bridges of which
were cut and several were killed in the
15water - no dependance can be placed on
any one - I refused to send my slaves
because they would only add to the con-
-fusion and murder - If they go
anywhere I must go with them or
20murder is certain - The loss in this
case is part of the process of teaching
the Ujijians -"Thou shalt not kill"-


    - Saw pieces of a remarkable spotted
fish with scales and tail prolonged
25above {figure}                                            all those who
come to                                             the market
are eager traders and go off     with a little
oil - salt - pepper shell fish and snails
Eels - clarias capensis - Beans
30cloth - iron of fine quality worked
to shew its goodness {figure} #
into long thin spindles at each end of
a knob of metal = Red bananas
appear and the oil is only a string of
35beads for about a gallon - the old
women look careworn and anxious
The carry large loads to & from the
market The men wear a very
long lamba made up in folds
40like a kilt - the women have the
worst of it

CXXIV

  CXXIV Journal 1st May 1871 Wednesday - 34
# Katomba's people arrived having cossed
R. Lindi & reached the Babira where they got a[ ]
much ivory as could be carried away
5at 2 rings each tusk - The Babire kill
elephants now and brought tusks
for sale by the dozen - they dress the
hair like Bashukulompis upright -
and no quarrel occurred = My friends
10here are eager to be off and I am eager for
a canoe - Lualaba becomes very large
after recieving the Nyengere black
water - six miles at least and it has
forest on each side - From the Shamikw
15# Shamikwa it recieves probably Bakers
water -     another water still larger
falls into it from the South West - This
probably the Lomame to which black
traders come to buy oil - an animal
20with short horns and large body called
Bangala exists - horns brought =


2nd May - send a letter to Dr Kirk by
                Moenemokaia to buy no
more goods - but send letters to Ujiji
25I send three to bring away Abeds men
from Chipange but something hurried
up to shew war was meant and I refrain



      3rd Got names of sleeping places
from Mvarawa on to crossing Lualaba
30onto Abire - Good people all - no
quarrels with any one -


    Abed says confidentially that a canoe
will come in about 5 days - He is very
anxious to go himself to be first in
35the ivory market - says that word
came after me not to help me for I was
sure to die whither I was going - The
wish is father to the wicked thought
They hate me and it is well they do

CXXV

    CXXV. Journal       4th May 1871 -
Kasongo's people were struck of a great Friend
-ship with me came to the market of today &
brought 60 pieces of lambas = They go
5away and promise to bring me knives
and a sword for cloth - the metal is very
precious at the Babire - about 2000
people come to market - cassava dried
is exchanged for fish salt and oil = Iron
10for lamba's Brava went of yeter-
day with my letters to to Kirk & Agnes





      5th Heavy rains - Abed informed
me that men had come for goats to
enable them to secure people to drag a
15large canoe from the forest where it
has been cut & hollowed out to the
Lualaba - this so far is progress but
he needs one or two for himself and
will serve himself first though I
20shall have to pay an enormous price
for it





      6th Foggy morning - Men
returned from Chipange when
beads were done - Two killed
25slaves without honour or honesty





      7th Raining with rolling thunder
of Masika - a great body of
fleecy cloud drifts fast from the
North - The same often comes
30from the S=E-. Abed said that
he would give me the first canoe
he got and would tell me the price -





    8th I promised to lend Abed
half my people if he would come away
35as soon as we get the two canoes -
This would enable him to trade well
even before his own people returned
from the West - was glad of the offer
He has eighty frasilahs of the
40Matunda beads &c strings

CXXVI

CXXVI Journal = 8th Chitoka = bring a 32
tusk among the Babire - Zulampela's
people went off today homewards - [     ]


9th River rising steadily & covering an island


5

10th = the chief Pyanamomba came yesterday
from the other side South West - is of same
family as Kimburu - Abed bought two
and a half frasilahs of copper bracelets
with cowries =     many white birds pass
10 North = daily =   one is Ibis religiosa





          11th River rising fast and bringing
great quantities of aquatic grass & duckweed
colour of water a little darker than at Cairo
People leaving islands for the higher forest
15lands - men brought one canoe down to the
water yesterday = and the men off trading
on our West are heard of as near - When
they come we shall set off though with only
one canoe - Babire very friendly - they
20are on this side the Lindi - The Benya
on the other side use bows and arrows
They are not spoiled yet by the slaves =


            A man here told me that he was going
to fight on the West of Lualaba and eat
25those killed - Human flesh said he is better
than goats - saltish and even peppery - the
people here do not deny cannibalism save
as to people not slain in war - some say
it is not nice to eat their victims for they
30dream of them afterwards - they throw away
the heads = Women never partake of it
in any part of Manyema - nor the young -





            Afternoon Abed's people returned
at 2 PM from 2 days distance from
35Lomame - with a great number
of slaves and 16 tusks - "My soul is wearied
because of murderers
" Abed says they must
be shot down these people - They want
to fight and eat us - great crowds
40were slain as population is dense

CXXVII

  CXXVII Journal 11th May continued -
Lomame very large - Water black - goes into
Lualaba below this - People smelt copper
and it is very cheap = They were very civil &
5kind to the strangers but terrible fellows among
themselves   and at last provoked
an attack in which many of the Bakuss
were killed and eighty captives taken
the s[  ]angers losing not a man - or
10even being wounded - They redeemed their
friends with slaves - ! !





      12th a set in rain from Nor West
did not deter the market today - people
came singing and sheltered with mats
15as the copper is very cheap a supply is to
be sent for by the traders the day after to
morrow - 5 days to go 5 to trade and 5 to
return them down Lualaba - Abed
says he can put the one canoe all to
20rights in a few days that is put
thole pins and helm in - He melts
copper tomorrow - I have to submit
and do it as graciously as I can - fine
tastefully wrought virambas are
25made -     and coffee comes from
West bank of Lomame - The people
are very numerous and very handsome
all look better than Banyamwezi -
It is a perfect haul of slaves for all -





30

            13th people were shot down
though standing in amazement at
the guns as thunder & lightning -
great numbers fell - they refused
passage through their country -
35They have coffee plantations and
drink it after eating handing small
cupsful to all around - I send to
buy some - It seems good but
driled in the fruit rind -

CXXVIII

  CXXVIII Journal 13th May 1871 continued 30
I wrote to Moenemokaia to be sure & take all my
goods out of Shereefs hands & deliver them to Moenye
-ghere
& Syd bin Majid - and should Shereef prove
5troublesome to     beat him - and s[ ]nd him
off for not obeying consul's orders - [   ]afe too
and to send me by some one a sh[  ]t a
pair of trousers and one frasilah of
samsam beads = If I find them on coming
10from the fountains back to Lualaba
they will be a boon - If lost no great harm
is done - an armring of copper 1½ thick
for one string of beads - ! Dura Pennis-
-etum & maize grown largely - among
15the Bakuss - who make wale but not
porridge of them - they wash regularly
Houses of two stories - little clothing
used - women slaves here have rather
rounded compressed heads but very
20pleasant faces - & ancient Egyptian
round eyes = When they saw guns
they thought that they were the insignia
of the strangers chiefs - a long staff &
a knob on the lower end blackened
25with some medicine being the usual
official staff of chiefs = they feared
the Banyamwezi bows when drawn towards
them but guns taking aim were not
dreaded -       their effects aroused mute
30astonishment and looking up to the clouds
They use a very long handled spear darting
out from the long grass but keeping it
in hand - Their numbers are prodigious
The country literally swarms with people
35save a few patches of forest and great
pools of standing water waist chest and
neck deep which slowly drains off to the
Lomame - Many markets along their
route to which people come from far -
40Marketting is as great an Institution
perhaps greater than shopping among
ourselves -

CXXIX

CXXIX Journal - 14th May 1871 - Men
sent to buy copper on West of Lualaba and
one man to hasten the canoe - The ownrs
said to be sick


5

15th[  ] crossing the river Abed found
that [  ]ssani had played him false
with [ ]he canoes and turned right
about to go off down river to the
ivory - I approved of this and
10advised him to go and I would
help him to get copper by going up
Lomame from the confluence - He
will be nearer the copper mines
than we are now, and be buying ivory
15all the time I was up at the copper &
exploring -   the canoe is to come to
me today and Abed delivers it to me


      a row with two of my slaves
though they can employ Manyema
20to bring grass wood everything
with the beads I give - I offered
the two ringleaders their discharge
This damped them woefully =
It is their misfortune to be slaves
25and mine to be dependant on them -
the headman who sells the canoe and has
recieved 600 cowries of the price came
today - Karenga - It has not been
moved an inch towards the water
30though he got 3 goats to eat while dragging
it - !





16th a long talk with my mutineers
refuse to go unless Arabs were in
prow to go to - The loss of wages and
35prospective punishment had an effect
as explained by Hassani - I told him
that they were deserting me to be recieved
by him This alarmed him & made
him earnest in declaring that they
40should not remain with him - This
is now blown over -

CXXX

CXXX Journal - 16th May 1871 continued 26
Abed gave me a frasilah of Mantun[ ]a b[  ]ds
They alone pass current down riv[ ]r [          ]
have none - I gave him 7 dotis of [        ]
5American sheeting - i e 28 yar[ ] [  ]ich
is handsome payment -     an [   ]sually
large attendance at market today - 3000
at least - they catch the live Lepido siren
by the neck and lift him out to see his
10size - fish very abundant -   Earthen balls
such as is eaten in Safura were exposed
for sale and camwood ground and made
into small flat cakes -     There is quite a
roar of voices during all the time of haggling





15

    17th The disturbance about beads
was all a pretence in order to vex
me - I gave beads to buy provisions
this morning as canoe will certainly
come presently - they let it out that
20they wished to go home to Zanzibar
This has been uppermost in
their minds all the way to Bambarre
and from thence here - They asked a
writing of permission or a pass
25which I refused - I shall wait
for Dugumbe = here as the mud is
excessive in front to the Luira R.





      18th resolved to take the guns from
the mutineers as bought with my mone  y
30in this Abed and Hassani agreed
and said they were all at my servi  ce
did not make a noise about it bu  t
my demand was followed by several
wishing to go forward - they are
35senseless slaves with no honour

CXXXI

CXXXI - Note Journal - 18th May 1871 contin =
a goat so fat it could scarcely walk sold
for a treble string of beads {figure} fattened with
dura [ ] pennisetum & given in the village





5

[    ] Abed gave me 200 cowries
and [  ] strings of a greenish bead
very much admired by all here -
advises me to return to Ujiji as the
Banian slaves are sure to desert
10in front - spoke to them to give
up their guns and be gone but
all now professed willingness to go
on so being eager to finish my
work if possible I run the risk and
15gave beads to buy provisions - I shall
do a little work and meantime Dug-
-umbe
may arrive and I shall hire
men if he will at a thousand
dollars or £200 - When worried by
20these untoward circumstances the
bowels plague me too and discharges
of blood relieve headache and
are as safety valves to the system
which I should not have had if I had
25allowed Mr Syme to operate on me
Sir Roderick told me that his father
was operated upon by the famous
John Hunter and died at the early
age of forty in consequence
30He himself spoiled his saddles
when a soldier by frequent
discharges from the Piles but
would never submit to an operation
and he is now eighty years
35of age -
Turn to other sheet - CXXXII

CXXXII [v.1]

CXXXII Note - the Zingifure with which 29
this is written is declared to be a good remedy
for curing the itch which plagues very
many both Arabs and natives



5

        Near Lomame adultery is punished
by selling the culprit - his wife - Father-
children - a woman here was sold thus
for the crime of her husband =     She
was bought for ¾ lbs of beads -     They
10all wash regularly and are cleanskin
-ned in consequence - dont know
porridge - all their grain is cooked as
"wale" in which the grains do not
cohere as with rice properly boiled -


15

    The men are reckless fellows - one
was trying to sell a bracelet and it
being refused he lifted his spear and
made as if to plunge it into the
strangers chest - "Barter I say" said
20he in a brow beating way - This foolish
overbearing way was sometimes ans-
-wered by a ball in the chest and it
was scarcely to be wondered at for
pacific means were by Abeds orders fairly
25tried - presents to the chiefs - payment
of all guides - making friends with
influential men whose influence
was to be used on the strangers side but
generally in rain when far into this
30country and at last passage was
blocked up and much blood shed
they feared and fled from the drawn
bows of Wanyamwezi but looked at
guns as having no harm in them -
35looked up to see thunderclouds in mute
amazement - and did not attempt
to use their very long spears though they
do produce fearful havoc in long grass

CXXXIII [v.1]

CXXXIII     Note
  Thundu = an antelope on Lualaba: size of a
large goat = lokolia colour or skin - Horns
straight & tapering about 4 inches ---


5

Chobela a river which runs into
Kamolondo - 3 days from Mpneto's


Lualaba rises 10 feet above the
present level - [  ] At times but
generally about 15 feet - then with
10the water now 15 feet would be
30 feet of depth at flood --- which
is said to occur annually -



Maluñgwe a reddish skinned animal


Many white birds flying North 2 Ibis religiosa


15

10th May - 1871 = river falling fast -
people leaving islands and camping
in higher land of forest



11th Kiziwa said to be name of Lake
Albert


20

  Balegga first after leaving this
then Kasongo = a large tribe
then Baziri or Wazire
- R   Lira - ^ or Luira black water?
- Banayuba
25- Babire on this side Lolinde
Lolinde did not cross but
Benya with bows & arrows
                    are on other side





  Bagenya on other side of
30Lualaba & Lindi - Lualaba
makes so much Westing that when we
are on other side Lomame we shall be
about 6 weeks from mouth of Congo
but then both Lualaba & Lomame
35take a vast sweep back to the Eastward
to fall into or recieve L Albert water

CXXII [v.2]

CXXXII - Journal - # 20th May 1871 - Abed
goes off down river today wisely for ivory
I am hindered by owner of canoe being
sick - a mere excuse I suspect. He says
5that when he has sold all his goods he
will give me men and go himself too
to finish my work - I said "Haki a
Mungu" - and he said yes of a truth
I replied then I will give you a thousad
10dollars on the spot - this is £200 -





        21st Abed followed his people who
went off yesterday - White is rubbed on the
Manyema fare as token of joy at a birth
or other glad event - black as mourning
15It is difficult to realize the state of those who
are utterly ignorant of the world besides
and have heard no news save spearing
each other - Men cutting paddles





        22nd Headman refuses to bring the
20canoe without reason - River steadily
rising - colour darkening - wreck less[  ]


        a young woman slave passed the word
all the others from Kuss near Lomame to
save their porridge and meat and with it pay
25their passage across Lualaba and escape - It was
discovered and all are enchained this morn-
-ing - People came back from Abed for
some others who ran away - The slaves are
big strongly built men and women much
30aspersion to the Zanzibar freedmen -
Illicit intercourse is the general course that
reduced to slavery = and women tempt
men more openly than anywhere else
I have seen - save in the Haymarket





35

            23d a party came today from Mamohela
to get a fresh haul of the ^ Bakuss slaves Babire ivory - Dugumbe
is conjectured to be near to Kasongo's -
Hassani says that we shall get canoes
and seems confident - The party West
40[  ] this [ ]ill return 7 days hence - [         ]

CXXXIII [v.2]

  CXXXIII     Journal - 24th May 1871         23
Market or chitoka a busy scene - every one in
dead earnest = little time is lost in friendly greetings
Then the vendors of fish run about with potsherds
5full of snails or small fishes or clarias dried or
fresh and exchange for cassava steeped & dried -
potatoes - vegetables - grain - bananas - flour -
palm oil - fowls -     Each is intensely in
earnest for food or relishes as salt -
10pepper and all make strong assertions
as to the goodness or badness of the articles
for barter and makes the sweat stands
in beads on the face and body - ^ squeeling pigs & iron
^ knives are changed for cloths - some hide their
15wares in the large wicker funnel above
the basket but smile if I shake the finger
at them - a woman let fall a piece of
bassava which was shivered into twenty pieces
then demanded another piece I looked at
20her and it was so manifestly unjust that
she laughed as I told her to take up her load &
be gone - They appeal to each other in these
cases and have a natural sense of justice
About three thousand attended - many from
25far - and much benefit is derived
The men flaunt about in gaudy lambas
in many folds kilt fashion = The women
work hardest - The potters slap and sing
their wares all round and invite buyers
30to use their eyes as well as their ears in testing
their value - I bought two fine porous
earthen bottles of about a gallon each
for one string of beads - The women carry
huge loads on their backs strapped to the
35shoulders and forehead = hands full
besides - the roundness of the pottery
is wonderful seeing no machines
used - Girls sell cups of water for a few fishes





      25th making two shirts -


40

      26thSThe canoe bought by Abed
is not # the property of       the vendor
                and the real owner refuses the
slave of Kalenga so the affair stands still =
and excuses are made of sickness &c -
45Hassani recommends seizure of
[    ] canoes as no [      ]ing can [        ]

[CXXXIV]

[      ]
    Several headmen came with a present of
two slaves to prevent a war which they have
fancied to be impending - assured that
5no attack is intended they dont believe it
When we force them to land canoes they
will conclude that they were right in their
fancy - I have been two months trying to buy
a canoe and now bamboozled by this head
10man's false pretences of ownership no
other headman will even remonstrate - All
knew that the trader was plundered by Kalenga
but no one would let us know - a very
strange people - Katomba's slave buyers
15went off this morning across Lualaba



        28th Hassani declared that since
he came here not a banana or bit   of
cassava had even been presented to him
Market I generally visit to see the fish
20and people one man offered me a few
small fish - another a sweet potato &
piece of cassava - then a third 2 small
fishes - but manyema are not liberal
saw a man with ten human jaw bones
25strung over his shoulder - Asked if he eat
the flesh - yes and taking his knife he
said I cut up a man this way - I expressd
disgust at which he and others   laughed
see many strange people every time I go
30Two nice girls were selling Gumbe or
roasted     white ants -



        29th Mologhwe Dambo & two others
came to mix blood with Hassani - It is
simply a small incision made on the
35arm & blood from each rubbed on the spot
He says that he has promised him ten
canoes to be brought as soon as the copper
party under Manilla comes back to us



        30th      River has fallen four inches
40within the last four days - colour black or
very dark brown - considerable quantities
of wreck still float down -


  copper safari returned today as
was appointed = successful -
45brought a little coffee and vani

[CXXXV]

31st Manilla got fo[  ] frasilahs of copper
bracelets 35 + 4 = 140 lbs - brought specimens
of vanilla pods which the natives mix
with their coffee - How they know to
5manipulate the flowers - Wisdom
dwells not with us alone = conceit of it does



        1st June 1871 - Saturday = chitoka -
This being the Arab unlucky fifth
month
our departure is put off to the
10first of 6th month nine days hence
Manilla came yesterday from copper
bought 4½ frasilahs = Brought me
4 lbs of coffee unhusked or still in the
fruit find and dry - a day pot went
15for six plantains = small shrimps for sale


        2nd Hassani goes over Lualaba
today to speak about canoes - He is
confident of getting them - I am not -
Manyema are so untruthful it
20will come to seizure yet - But they
are very honest = we never lose an
article by them -


        3d    We had a discussion with
Hassani about these wretched Banian
25slaves
and he denies complicity with them -
He meant to speak only of canoes not going far
not them though he spoke distinctly of my
return in a short time with him when he
had got his ivory - The slaves too protested
30that they never refused to obey me!! = though
they asserted that all declined to go further
the threat to take the guns alone cowed them
apart from this they were pleased with the
prospect of plundering Manyema and
35getting slave by this means = Send
men to speak about the canoe -



        4th I send five men to speak to the
headman Kalenga and to demand either
the canoe he sold or two others or the
40thousand cowries - three goats and beads
they are ordered to speak only and speak
much then come away - Kalenga cooly
says "Wait till Abed comes back and I
shall return the goods to him - this is
45childish but like Manyema - He was
told by Abed in the presence of two
headmen that he had given the canoe to
me and Kalenga was at once to deliver it
[  ] them on my account - He had it not!

CXXXVI

  CXXXVI Journal = 5 June 1871
men delayed for want of a canoe to ferry them
across - chitoka today brings many - The
speak to him only but must I fear seize
5canoes for there is no honour among them
I have been here for two months negotiating
for one and after paying an exhorbitant
price find that I am the victim of deliberate
falsehood = Hassani was all day yesterday
10talking to those who promised canoes and
he will get none = No one can concieve how
they dawdle and lie to get goods they mean
not to pay - The feeling of   importance imparted
by haggling with strangers is dear to their hearts.



15

            6th Mokandira's child died so we
are again hindered from going = Market
people beaten and plundered I paid
some who were robbed by my men slaves
I am sick at heart in knowing of these
20outrages = Manyema are bad but slaves
ten times worse -



          7th hindered by canoe though paid for
being given to another - I fear that we must
march on land which in front is extremely
25wet and muddy -


          8th River rose again six inches and
then fell three = water very dark brown &
much wreck - duckweed & grassy islands
float down = Rain nearly ceased = Great
30masses of cloud float down from NorWest
but more frequently go up from NorEast -


            9th Men went yesterday afternoon
to Kalenga - He refuses to refund the price
of the canoe to anyone but Abed =     tries
35to draw the real owner into a scrape by
complaining that he refused his slave as
price of the canoe and goats too = We have
nought to do with that and Think it best to
retire and let Abed punish him ^ if he
40likes - Hassani's canoes not come =
so we go on foot day after tomorrow
It is very grievous   to be cheated after
losing nearly three months in the business
but Kalenga has no canoe and I must not
45be the first to do what may be called injustice
The Arabs would like to see me using force
Dugumbe delays strangely but probably
by his divination declaring all this month
to be most unlucky - Wends tonight =
50Arab fifth month - Lord help me

[CXXXVII]

[      ]
New moon not appearing last night
prevents safari from starting tomorrow - 20
It is dangerous for a small party to go if
5like mine cowardly & mutinous =   No
one visits villages three miles off on account
of floods [     ] which never end =       No canoe
can be got for love or money = mixing the
blood     makes no friendship so I decline
10it when invited - Arabs do it with all
who have power but the Manyema do it
to get presents of beads and perform no
other duty of friendship = Elsewhere one
becomes a member of the family and
15his safety is ensured by information
against all enemies in the country - Here
all knew Kalenga's falsehood but were
silent!





      11th New ℂ last night - Dugumbe will
20leave Kasongo today - we leave on the 14th
Hassani over river for canoes but probably
in vain - River fell three inches in
the last three days
- Much wreck floating
down - water colour of strong tea =



25

      12th Hassani has got 4 canoes and
hopes to get seven = the conduct of Kalenga
to me is not be endured - It is the most
childish impertinence because he thinks
nothing will be done to him but talk as
30Manyema do & have done for ages -
I send my men tomorrow to demand
either canoe or goods and to bind
him in case of refusal till he delivers
the one or the other - then buy a canoe
35and return with it = that the owner of
the canoe he sold without leave refuses
the woman he sent to buy with is to his
dark mind a sufficient excuse for
delivering neither money nor vessel
40I must wait for Dugumbe for I have
no powder and but few beads === He
will be here by the 20th currt =



      13th chitoka = men off to force Kalenga
to reason = if he refuses to refund to
45bind and give him a flogging - if It is
entirely lost then return and get
of my beads to buy another canoe
down the river - Kalenga fled -

CXXXVIII

CXXXVIII Journal 14th Hassani got nine
canoes - In 3 he put 63 persons - I   shall
send down the river on the left bank tomorrow
to try and buy one - Safari off this morning
5High winds have begun from South East and
shew cessation of the rains = Every thing
is drying as soap sugar mud &c



              15th canoe sent to get medicine for
a sick wife - detains us today - I paid for
10both medicine and canoe = and on


              16th got the men off very doubtful
if they will succeed in buying one for
all of them imitate the overbearing
manner of Zanzibar slaves


15

      Safari comes back from West with 2100
slaves 200 or   300 cowries per slave or 11-10
bunches of beards per head that is about 50
single strings about a foot long each =
River fallen a foot = Dugumbe near but
20detained by his divination



            17th stragglers come in from Dugumbe
large camp -     My people reached Tambu[  ]
yesterday and will get a canoe if they only have
a little common sense - a note from
25Palamotto says letters have come by Governor
for me and are at Ujiji = If I get a little
powder from Dugumbe & the canoe comes
I shall be ready to     run down the river



        18th The Arabs of Dugumbe's party saw
30Shereef flourishing   about my valuable
chronometer watch on his dirty body
This is like to break my heart - I have
no chronometer going - I suspect the
Longitude of Baker to be all wrong but
35cannot correct it - Dugumbe has
passed a short way down Lualaba to
build his Mosemba or dwelling place



        19th Heavy shower at 4 AM - last 19th
of June
finished the rains - Dugumbe goes
40West to Lomame and across it when
his station here is built = this will open
all Lake Lincoln for he has an immense
party = 500-600 guns as Ujijians count
and is fond of going into new fields

CXXXIX

CXXXIX Journal = 20th June 1871 - Two
of the party of Dugumbe brought presents of         19
four large fundos of beads each = I am
waiting   for my people and canoe. Katomba's
5people came back from the West yesterday
well satisfied with fine slaves cheap -
I look [ ] on the drove they brought un
chained with a sort of pleasure after
looking at many not traded for but
10murdered for -



          21st Dugumbe found it best to
come back to the chitoka here - He says
that he will buy me a canoe if my men
fail in getting one = This stirs up Hassani
15and Manilla = who might have
got a tenth for me with their nine



          22nd Visited Dugumbe = He sends
back to Ujiji two months hence and
I shall send then for goods - and
20make it a point to come back here



          23 = a touch fof fever first here



          24th better and thankful = the
Bakuss have flat Egyptian feet
women's round foreheads and the
25rest of the head slopes backwards
and upwards = a stout built
race both men and women good slaves





        25th Hassani's son circumcised
caused a feast



30

        26th Hassani's boat party foiled by narrows
4 days down - a canoe tilted over & 5 lives lost
Banian slaves come back - people all
fled and blamed Kolokolo's men for
killing and stealing their relations - p[     ]
35follow another [    ]te for Hassani's men
were shot at in the rapids with arrows
&
Kolokolo's deeds blamed - Oh horrible!!



      27th a cataract on North side of the
Luamo prevents my going up the
40river to Kamolondo -

CXL

CXL. Journal 27th June 1871 continued
It is in answer to my prayers that I have
been mercifully prevented from going
down river for I would have been the
5leading canoe into the narrows and it
is said cataract beyond the entrance
a dyke of rock cuts across country &
the two points of it a little ajar cause
the enormous mass of water to wheel
10behind one and make a whirlpool
in which canoes are carried round & round
helplessly - Had we gone down Luamo
as I wished the same danger would have
been incurred = I now go across to the
15Lomame - buy a canoe there and go up
to Katanga = It is probable that the Dyke
down river runs across into Lomame
so even if past the first narrows we
should have others to ascend in Lomame



20

        I wrote to Moenemokaia to take
my watch from Shereef and keep it till
a safe conveyance turned up - and
as Shereef used monthly 3 dotis calico
for himself - 2 Do for his woman 2 Do
25for each of his slaves besides beads and
knew he was breaking consuls orders - he
was to be delivered to the Governor for Seyed
Majid
= I dont know whether Syed bin
Majid
will do as I say but all will see that
30I feel very sore as to the watch and that
I am without one to measure distances
and position = Shereef brought 8 cases
of brandy for his own use and made
my porters carry it so I paid for the drunk
35ards swill = I asked also why he had
destroyed the consult's packet containing
the list of goods & notice of the watch -
I shall send by Dugumbe's people for my
goods and will come back here to recieve
40them


  River fallen 32 feet - dark brown water
and wreck still floating down

CXL [CXLI]

CXL. Journal = 27 June cont.ed Kauzene =         16
                              gave a Zouady of beads
Kisingite above as well as below this
so I go west to Lomame & probably
5escape the basaltic dyke if it goes so far
West



        28th eight villages in flames on the
other side Lualaba = The Bagenya
are seizing the country of Mohombo
10and all the straggling people of this
camp are over helping on the
begun by     Manilla Syde Habib's slave
work of destruction ^ and catching slaves
or rather free people to be made into
15slaves = nothing surprised me more
in England than the numbers of
persons met with who would
fain be slave owners - Persons
of the seedy scribe class asked
20with an air of concern   Will the
Africans work? Yes if you can
pay them = the lengthening of visage
caused by this answer told as
plainly as looks can tell that seedy
25had speculated on gratuitously
employing the labour of others
though it was evident that he
sorely needed to be employed him
-self in something else than penny
30a lining =             The Bagenya
are fishermen by taste and sell
the produce of their nets & weirs
to the other tribes who cultivate
the soil at the different markets





35

  29th Manilla's foray burns ten
village for a debt of 3 slaves
whose price he advanced =
The villagers are our market people

CXLII

CXLII. Journal 30th June 1871
1st July = Sunday = Went to Dugumbe and told
him my plan was to go with the safari he
sends West to Lomame - then buy a canoe
5and go up the Lake towards Katanga
visit the excavations and return to this
place if he would get his people to bring
some of my goods from Ujiji =   He
said that he would write out my order
10that the natives here and on the other
side had been poisoned against me
I know that this is the case but have
kept quiet - The Muhamadans are
unmitigated Liars and say that "I dont
15want slaves nor ivory but I want to
kill people
" and they persuaded them
not to sell a canoe to me but let them
have all = Hassani knows it all =
but swears that he does not join in the
20slander and did not know of Manillas
foray = pointing up to Heaven = &c &c
The falsehood of Muhamad has been
transmitted to his followers -


            2nd July 1871 = The upper stratum of
25clouds is from the NorWest = the lower from
the South East - When they mix or change
places the temperature is much lowered
Morning fogs shew river to be warmer
than the air



30

          3rd Safari of Hassani off down
river and on land entirely - Leaves the
unfortunates who turned back after;
actually reaching the ivory = gave him
and Abed hints as to meeting with Bakers
35to report themselves and me to the head
of Pasha Bakers expedition & not flee -



CXLIII

CXLIII Journal - 4th July 1871 = ill


5th Dugumbe promises assistance in         14
buying a canoe at Lomame = and
powder = says what I know otherwise
5that the Banian slaves have been
chief propagators of the slander
among the Manyema that I "wanted
no slaves nor ivory but only to
kill people
"- Susi - Chumah hear
10it all and remain quiet = Dugumbe
has nearly finished his house and
Safari is to be on 9th or 10th =
the seconday of the New ℂ Fungo 7 -
It is not open refusal now but secret
15villany and slander I have to
contend against in the Banian slaves





          5th [ ] River fallen
3 feet in all - that is one foot
since the 27th June = dark brown





20

          6th consult Dugumbe & offer
1000 dollars for other attendants =
kill a Tassa goat = I am unable to
buy any by Shereefs villainy =



6th con. Mokandira and other head
25men of Nyangwe came with a
pig - also goat as a present on
my going away - I refused
till I come back and protested
against the slander about my
30wishing to kill people = this will
be widely reported =





          7th woman reproved for
beating a slave frequently came and
apologized and we made friends
35again telling to speak softly as
she was now the slaves mother
slave came from beyond Lomame
and must have been a lady

CXLIV

CXLIV Journal - 8th July 1871 -
Kimburu comes to mix blood with Dugumbe
today and will give him 3 or 4 slaves -     He has
performed the ceremony with four traders and
5seems anxious for peace and friendship



        9th Dugumbe advised explaining
my plan of going to Lomame & thence to
Katanga and excavations to see what the
Banian slaves will object to - I did so
10this morning but no remarks were
made - these may come at River only
and stop me again = they only participate
in the Arab slander - I am the pioneer
say they others will follow and kill and
15take the country - What can the poor people
do but believe the Moslem lies - the Lord
open the way for me =


          River fallen three inches since 5th curt



        10th Manyema children do not
20creep as do others on their knees -
but begin by putting forward one
foot and using one knee = I have
seen a child use both feet and the
hands but never the knees = !!
25New ℂ last night = 7th month of Arabs
              Many guns fired at blood mixing



11th Chitoka = bought ten different
species of small fish and sketched
eight = most are the same as on
30Nyassa = a very active species of
glanis of dark olive brown colour
was not sketched but a spotted
one with offensive spine on back was
Sesamum seed abundant now =
35and cakes of pounded ground nuts as
on the West coast = the new comers
have been taught by the market women
to deal fairly and not overreach them
they are certainly clever traders and
40prefer dealing in the market to any
where else = there they are in countenance
by each other

CXLV

    CXLV - Journal 12th July 1871 -         13
The Banian slaves told me that they
would go to Lomame but no further
This I suspected would be the case -
5I report to Dugumbe and if he does not
help must go back to Bambarre and
send to Zanzibar for other people
I am fairly in the power of the
Ujijian slaves - Shereef destroys
10my letters = the Governor does
the same to prevent evidence of
his plunder going to the coast
Lord help me -       When told that
they would lose all their pay they
15said they would not lose their lives
and would be employed by others & get
more pay = Dugumbe will speak to
them -





    13th Dugumbe came and spoke to
20the Banian slaves = They profess to
wish to go back to Ujiji to bring
Shereef as a leader -     They have no
one to beat them say they or order
them = The upshot was that they refuse
25to go and it was well to let Dugumbe
hear them say we "Hawezi"     are
unable = non possumus =
I then said to Dugumbe I have goods at
Ujiji I dont know how many but
30they are considerable = Take them all
and give me men and if not enough
I will add to them = only dont let
me be forced to return to Ujiji so
near the end of my work -       He said
35that he would consult his company
and form a plan =



14th Dugumbe consulted his
Arab company and one Adie said
to me your slaves are very bad shewing
40that Dugumbe had given a truthful
account of them = I am distressed
& perplexed what to do so as not
to be foiled but all seems against me


CXLVI

CXLVI Journal = 15th July 1871
    The reports of guns on the other side
of Lualaba tell of Dugumbe's men
murdering Kimburu and another for
5slaves =     Manilla is in it again = and
it is said that Kimburu gave him
3 slaves to sack the ten villages we
saw in flames - He is meeting his doom
in spite of mixing blood and giving
10nine slaves for the operation =
Moenemgunga was his victim = & so
it goes on making me fear to go
with Dugumbe's people to be partakers
in their blood guiltiness


15

              Chitoka about 1500 people came
though many villages were burning
before us =     I saw three of Dugumbes
people with guns in the market place
with wonder but thought it ignorance
20and retired - when 50 yards off two guns
were fired and a general flight took
place - goods thrown away in terror
firing   on the helpless canoes took
place = a long line of heads in the water
25shewed the numbers that would perish
for they could not swim two miles
shot after shot followed on the terrified
fugitives = great numbers died -
and a worthless Moslem asserted
30that all was done by the people of the
English - This will spread though     the
murderers are on the other side plundering
and shooting - It is awful - terrible
a dreadful world this = as I write
35shot after shot falls on the fugitives
on the other side who are wailing loudly
over those they know are already
slain = Oh let thy kingdom come =

CXLVII

CXLVII Journal - 15th July continued         11
The canoes were all jammed in a creek at
the bottom of the market place
and the owners could not get them
5out - women threw away their
produce and scrambled for dear
life - men left their paddles in dread
as the merciless fire was rained
upon them by other men who must
10been cognisant of the plan of Murder
The women soon sank into their watery
graves - I counted 33 canoes afloat + 19 still in creek
one capsized - some overcrowded so as
to be logged in the stream without paddles
15one long canoe that could have held
30 was occupied by one man who
seemed to have lost his head - others
paddled fast to save the sinking till
in danger of swamping -     no one
20will ever know how many perished
in this bright summer morning
All the camp people set on the land
comers & plundered them = Women
were carrying loads for hours of what
25the water comers had thrown down
Manilla's brother was over at one
village of a friend - I sent men to
rescue him with our flag to
protect them for Dugumbe's
30people are shooting right and left &
without a flag they might have been
victims - I count twelve villages
burned this morning = this with
the previous ten makes twenty two -
35Dugumbe wisely objected to       my
men going to rescue the brother of
Manilla - He would send his own
men who were known to all the
fighting crew = -

CXLVIII

CXLVIII Journal 15th July continued
I went over to Dugumbe and       proposed to
catch the bloodhounds who fired in the
chitoka and on the canoes and put their
5heads on poles = He declared it was done
by Manilla's people to destroy the market
Eighteen women and a man had been
taken out of the water as they scrambled
along the long grass on the water's edge
10I got them to frank them back to their
friends and they slept at our camp waiting
for their friends to come and claim them
the other Manyema would charge for
their redemption so I manage all for
15them myself - Four came   and claimed
the saved ones and of course got their
relatives = In Manyema war the market
women are never molested - these
Moslems are inferior to them in sense
20of justice and right = I write names
of the women and the husbands who
claim them so that if deception is
practised we may know them





  [   ]      16th = liberating captured
25got them all into the hands of husbands
and friends - one had a ball shot through
the thigh - a pretty woman = the canoes
are to be delivered to the owners too -


        A manyema man said to be murdered
30by one of Dugumbe's people after finish-
ing a piece of work = said he was tired
and refusing to do more was killed by an
axe - friends came - cried over and burned
him -


35

          12 AM Dugumbe's people shooting
people on other     side Lualaba = set
fire to a village on bank = many
captives caught on other side river

CXLIX

CXLIX       Journal         10
1 PM The marauders are returning in
canoes and firing their guns beating
drums and doing all they can to say
5"see the conquering heroes come"
They are answered by the women
lullilooing and friends in Dugumbe's
camp firing guns of welcome = The
smokes of many villages ascend
10straight up and form clouds above
I count seventeen villages in flames
and these of our market people =
Dugumbe says that he did not send
this foray - and Tagamoio the head of
15it says that he went to punish the
friends of Manilla who being a slave
had no right to make war & burn
villages -       Manilla confesses to me
that he did wrong in that and loses
20all his beads and many friends in -
consequence



2 PM    an old man called Kabobo
came for his old wife - I asked   her
if this were her husband she went
25to him and put her arm lovingly
round him and said "yes" I gave
her five strings of beads   to buy food
she bowed down and put her fore-
-head to the ground as thanks and
30old Kabobo did the same = The tears
were in her eyes as she went off



Tagamoio has caught seventeen
women =     or say by his party
the captives by Arabs = 27 ----
35Dead by gunshot = 25 ----
2 heads of chiefs brought over
to be sold to relations

CL

CL Journal 16 July
drowned 5 men & women ^ of Ñomba numbers unknown
of drownd in river of the people generally
They can only be spoken of as by hundreds


5

      4 PM went over to Dugumbe
He had a number of headmen and made
them mix blood and promise to bri[  ]
market people - Tagamoio kept out
of sight - this open murder fills me
10with unspeakable horror = and I wish
to get away from it = I cannot go
in Tagamoios company and must
either go up Lualaba or down which
ever my Banian slaves choose - It
15is a great affliction to have such at all


          17th Went over to Dugumbe and
spoke of my plan = Muanamosunba
denied     that 27 people were captured
only ten but why ten? and of our
20best friends = the market people = I
spoke of my plan as he advanced no
other = I cannot go with Tagamoio's
murderers = the Banian slaves say
that they would go only to Lomame and
25then return - it would not be possible to
force them beyond that for whatever the
Ujijian slaves may talk they all
hate to have me a witness of their blood-
-shed and would connive at the desertion
30of my slaves =   Tried to go down Lualaba
and up Tanganyika      but that too was
objected to   It remained only to go up river
and on to Ujiji = Dugumbe asked them
why they refused to go = answer "Afraid"
35then you are cowards -"Yes we are" are
you not men = Ans -"We are slaves"
I said that I was glad that they

CLI

CLI - Journal 17th July 1871 continued         12
confessed it before Dugumbe = they
would lose all pay - I had entreated them
not to throw it away but if not theirs
5no wonder they care not for it - At
last I said that I would start for Ujiji
in three days on foot =   All asked here
[   ]t to be ashamed to ask beads or
[ ]nything else they possessed but
10[ ]aid that I had         enough for going
back to Ujiji to get other people -
It is a sore affliction     forty four
days back or 300 miles at least
45 days     and all after feeding the slaves {figure}
15for twenty one months -
but it is for the best - though
if I dont trust the riffraff
of Ujiji I must wait for
other men at least ten
20months - I shall go through
Rua - see the excavations
first and then the four
fountains and after
that Lake Lincoln


25

    18th the murderous
assault on the market people
was Hell without the fire
and brimstone = it brought
on headache which might
30have been serious had it
not been relieved by a
copious discharge of
blood - I was held up all
yesterday afternoon with
35[   ] impression which the
bloodshed made - It filled
me with unspeakable horror
Dont go away say the chiefs
but I cannot stay here in
40                agony -

CLII

CLII Journal 19th July 1871
Dugumbe sent me a fine goat         2
a maneh of gunpowder = 100     of
fine blue beads and 230 cowries
5as good in the way = I proposed
to leave a doti merikano &   one of
Kanike to buy specimens of
workmanship - He sent two
very fine large swords and two
10equally fine spears and said that
I must not send anything =
and would buy others with his
own goods = I sent one piece of Kanike
and one ^ doti of merikano as he has
15no cloth       and is very friendly
no action as to the captives =





{figure}



=       River fallen 4½ feet
in all = since 5 ult
20one and a half foot





    Few market people appear
today - formerly they came
in crowds - a few came from
the West bank with salt to buy
25back the baskets with which
they and others carried food
for sale =     about 200 came
in all chiefly of those who
have not lost relatives - seven
30canoes instead of fifty - an
old established custom has
great charms for this people
if no fresh outrage is committed
it will be re-established
35No canoes come into the creek of
death but land above it at
Ntambewe's = Pack up to start 20th

CLIII

CLIII Journal - 20th July 1871         15
Start back for Ujiji 300 miles -
off - One doti Kanike to Susi
          2 Dotis Merikano to Do for wife





5

   made but a short march
as I have been long inactive
and it is unwise to tire
oneself at beginning of a
journey - one does not
10get over it - one man
detained by sporadic
cholera which seems to
be serious



21st waiting to see what
15turn the sickness may
take = if favourable will
leave him with Dugumbe
Dugumbe came over to
advise me not to wait
20for the sick man but
leave him to his care =   It
was not altogether on the
sickness I waited - I
was told falsely about
25him while my slaves
were negotiating for
women with   whom
they cohabited - Dugumbe
advised haste which I
30am only too anxious     to
make and to travel in a
compact body as stragglers
are cut off - He lost   a
woman and his party
35seven people in the [    ]

CLIV

CLIV. Journal = 22nd July 1871 off
at daylight about six miles to
village of Mañkwara where I
spent the night in going - the
5chief Mokandira coveyed us
thither = promised him a
cloth if I came across from
Lomame = wonders much at
the underground houses -
10never heard of them before I told
him =   many of the rivulets
and rain gullies dried up
grass burning going on = I
heard sporadic thunder today
15and a few drops of cold rain
fell = same sprinkling yesterday


      23d Will reach R. Kunda
tomorrow = 24 crossed it = 50 yds
in two canoes then went up into
20LaBango[ ] = crowds followed all
anxious to carry loads for beads
several market women saluted us
In going from LoBango to the
Nyangwe chitoka and back they
25about 25 miles in one day
with heavy loads such as       no
slave would carry =


The most High speaking in Exekiel
of Jerusalem  says I put of my come
30liness upon thee =   If he does not put
of his comeliness on me I shall never
be comely in soul = If he does not
impart to me of his goodness I
shall never be good - but like
35these wretched Arabs in whom
Satan has full sway - the god of this
world having blinded their eyes -

CLV

CLV - Journal = 25th July 1871         17
we came over a beautiful
country yesterday - a vast
hollow     with much culti
5vation is intersected by a
ridge on which     the villages
are built - the path runs
along its top and we see the
fine country all spread out
10below with different shades
of green marking the plantations
this great hollow is drained
by the Kunda = into Lualaba
Today we descended into
15another hollow drained
by the fast flowing Ka-
hembai
into Kunda then
on to another ridge with
a great many villages
20burned off by Matereka's
foray - The We met the horde
climbing up on to the ridge
as we went N W. They
slept on the ridge and
25next morning in sheer
wantoness set their lodgings
on fire = The slaves had
evidently carried the fire
along and applied it to villages
30in their route - It was done
only because they could
do it without danger -
and it was such fun   to
make Mashenebe houseless

CLVI

  CLVI Journal 26th July 1871 -
came up out of the last valley of
denudation drained by the Kahembai
and then along a level country
5Met 4 men in hot haste   to
announce a woman's death.
Two died lately North & two South
of this of dysentery or some
disease of Abdomen = Pleurisy
10common from cold winds of the
North West -   Twenty two men
with large shields came to carry
the woman's body and all her
gear to her own home for burial
15about twenty women followed
them & the men waited under the
trees till they had wound up the
body - The women of Kama
in large numbers went to weep
20for her smeared their bodies
with clay - The relatives put
soot on their faces and shields



    27th left Kama's and soon
through many groups of villages
25of Kasongo welcomed by Matereka
Syde bin Sultan and another
bought two milk goats reasonably


28th rest 29th Sunday rest
Matereka sends a party to Ujiji
30with me for goods     this will
increase our safety among
the irritated people between
this and Bambarre = It is
colder here than at Nyangwe
35Kasongo is off in the forest N.
of this guiding a party & buying
ivory when he can for himself


CLVII

CLVII. Note Manyema Nyangwe = 18
12 July 1871 = our statesmen seem to have
come to the conclusion that Railways
and Telegraphs will be better managed
5by the Government than by private
companies - The reasons for that
seem to apply to the Great Newspapers
as the "Times" which are certainly
not so well managed for the safety
10of the nation by private anonymous
contributors as they would be
by the agents of Government
both angency and public official
being responsible to the country
15nothing could be more dangerous
to the welfare of the country   than
pigheaded effusions of a secret con-
        or               club frequenters
clave indulging in merciless vi-
20-tuperation against Louis Napoleon
who in spite of the extremest
abuse which could be raked up
against him in ^ specimens ancient & modern
railing has proved himself to be
25a wise and able ruler - a true friend
to France and a good ally to England
Then again the Times laboured to
misrepresent the Northerners in
th[ ]        great Black war - It was
30t[     ] our great misleading Journal
and the utmost efforts of our
statesmen were required to prevent
the b[  ]ghtful calamity of a war
with the United States which was
35imminent through the hole and
corner machinations of irrespons
ible penny a liners = Every Northern
victory was noticed with the in-
sulting insinuation that it must
40be remembered that the account
came through Northern channel[ ]

CLVIII

CLVIII Notes = Southern successes
were issued without any such damaging warning
Why were Englishmen kept in the dark as
to the steady crushing advances of the North
5ern army on Richmond while the
Journal Des Debats gave truthful
news of the War - Simply because
the ruling power has influence in
France which Government unfortu
10nately does not possess in England
them who can tell the harm done
to our name and arms by divulging
all the secrets of the Crimean war
This led to a compromise in the
15suppression of the Indian mutiny
by which the irresponsible con-
-clave brought the Indian command
to its knees - Is it for the honour
or dignity of England that this secret
20Inquisition should be tolerated
Is it not a fact that the Times of
late years is always in the wrong
always on the losing side - Nothing
could shew the need of guidance
25from a superior power than the late
affair in Jamaica - The Times
talked and railed but the Govt
aware of the outrageous legis-
lation that inevitably led to the
30outbreak applied the common
sense remedy by abolishing the
legislative assembly = We English
have been so accustomed to feel
proud that by the freedom of the
35Press our rulers could be bearded
that we we have allowed a secret
Inquisition to ride roughshod
over all law and order and
make itself supreme in defiance
40of dignity and common sense


CLVIX [CLIX]

CLVIX Note Journal Note The foregoing
Note to be amplified & sent to the 21
"Times" in laughing forebodings of his
awful-ire-Jupiter tonans


5

  Journal some Manyema are
going with us to Ujiji = Arabs
anxious to hear my opinion of the
Bloody massacre of Nyangwe
but I decling to enter on it - They
10know all about it already -



    30th July 1871 left and went
about 3 miles to a village
overlooking the Shokoye a man
a little ill refuses to march
15though the others carry his
bundle = - They send       thirty
tusks with us and are glad
of the opportunity to get more
goods from Ujiji - about a
20dozen Manyema go the
first that ever travelled so
far



            31st came yesterday to
village on hill and today
25went through the defile between
mt Kimazi and Kiyila
a cavern on the pass side
of the latter with a slatactite
pillar in entrance = came
30on to Mangala's numerous
villages and two being ill
on the     1st August = Wedens
day
= we rest - a large
market assembles in
35their midst -

CLX

[ ]ournal CLX 2 August 1871
Left Mangala's and came through 25
a great many villages all deserted at
our approach in consequence of the
5vengeance taken by Dugumbes party
for the murder of some of his {figure}
followers = Kasongo's men
eager plunderers of other Manyema
had to scold and threaten them
10and will set some to watch their
deeds tomorrow = Plantains {figure}
very abundant and good =
came to Kitette and lodged in a
village of Loembo = about thirty
15smithyies or rather foundrdies in {figure} the
villages we passed = they are
very high in the roof to avoid fires
and {figure} thatched with a sort of wild
plan-        tain leaf from which sparks
20and          rain run off equally well -



              Batata = ancients = Molenda
Mbayo
= Yamba = Kamoanga
Kitambwe = Ñoñgo = aulumba
Yeñgeyenge = Sim^baa = Mayañga
25Loembwe
recently dead = offer them
goatsflesh = Konḡolako kwa where
they came from - == effigies of in court


        3d = August three slaves escaped
by night and as all are enjoined to
30help us we are constrained to
wait so as not to abandon ivory
but it is vexatious to wait for
fugitives = Men sent in pursuit met
others coming from Kasongo to
35carry so we go on homeward
sacrifice[ ]      ar[ ] [ ]ffered to [     ]

[CLXI]

[    ] Journal         24
  4th came through miles of
villages burned because men
refused Abdullah lodging
5a goat speared by a lurking
revenge seeker -


5th


6th ^ came on to to Boma village through
many miles of palm or bananas [   ]


10

7th to village ill every step [    ] -
in pain


8th people shewed suspicion
by running away - In passing
along the narrow path with a
15wall of dense vegetation touch
ing each hand a large spear
was thrown at me from my
right and it glanced past my
back heavily into the soil about
2020 feet beyond me = the two men
from whom it came were about
30 feet off only & bolted - I dont
know how it missed except by
the man being too sure of his aim
25and God's good hand upon me
I was in front and of a small squad
and the main body had been
allowed to go till the leader came
the guilt is [  ]h Bogharib's - a little
30way on a gigantic tree burned off
so as to fall with a fearful crash
one yard from my body & covered
me with dust       thank God


CLXII

Notes CLXII = Uruko Kuss or Kuns name of coffee -
Kanone = Manyema name of Ibis religiosa -
Makéssi Do Do of oysters =   Pearls are said
to be found in them but no use is made
5of them = never strung = boreing not thought [  ]



{text description}
Note send for frasila samsam[ ]
          Frasilahs Langio --- 3 -
          Frasilahs Pink ---         3
10          Jorahs americano -         30
          Jorahs Kanikeo --         30
china box of Tea -- Indianlata        2
Pack china Tea     Wine         4
          clothing - 4 shirts -
15Medicines 4 Tr[    ]rs --- stockings
      Pens = Paper letters ink
[      ] - Watch = [      ]
[   ]



[      ] sugar - candles
20    By Dugumbe's men =



{text description}
as they think that I await
Bogharib - He offered
to bring me ten goats for
25my three if I would send
my guns - It would
only make matters
worse     Dugumbe
had a women speared
30here our two women
were borne off to be
eaten - the chief
shewed us on 10th
spot where they
35had killed one man
and eaten him lately
11th came to Mamohela



9th four hours of narrow {figure}
40path in dense vegetation
Adie goes to Lomame
waylaid by spearmen = a
woman and girl killed and a
spear again missed me by a
45hairbreadth in front = peering
into each hole of the vegetable
mass expected each moment to
to hear the rustling of spears and the
ru[ ]hing away of the enemy - I
50be[   ]e sick & weary & careless
of me taunted us but we could
ein = Heartsore reached
He offered to g[ ]
declined


CLXIII

CLXIII       Note = The Manyema are so afriad of guns that
[ ]ne gets the loan of a musket to settle any disputed
claim - merely carrying it on his shoulder gives him 22
all the influence he needs though it is known that he
5[   ]not use it = spears are disregarded = however
[ ]any one may have - but a musket is potent





Note = 24th May - The party that came through
from Mamohela report a great fight at
Mwana mpunda's and they saw the dead
10cut up for cooking with bananas - This
[ ]onforms Rashid's evidence - Mokandirwa
[   ] chief at Nyangwe says that they eat those
[ ]illed in war only - that the meat is not
good[ ] and it makes the eater dream of the dead
15Another man not so trustworthy said that
it is saltish and even peppery = needs but
a little condiment - It seems      to be cannibal-
-ism out of revenge or to inspire courage



Note Gulu deity above or Heaven -
20Mamvu = earth = Gulu is personal &
men on death go to him - Nkoba lightning



Note = Zurampela is about ^ N West
of this - in going thither 3 days off the
[ ]uive R. of very red water is crossed
25Mabila R recieves it into its very dark
water which flows into Lualaba



Note = many oysters in Lualaba - The
shells very thick and deformed by inse[    ]
It is probable that Pearls are in them



30

Kalonda = salt springs on West side of the
Lualaba - not hot - boiled for salt



Kirila islet 3 miles below Nyangwe
Magoyado 6 do - people and trees on it


Kūla or Nkula name of salt lagoon on
35West of Lualaba -


Lualaba is never fordatable anywhere at
anytime except by canoes



Two days from this a rapid exists [      ]e
[   ] side of the river = this side a[        ]
40Kirians its name =



Rice in ear in 73 days = D
[   ][      ] = m[ ]


0001

words Batulu = Husbands Sima 36


Pia = Milango



to be ordered from Zanzibar
a few soft black lead pencils
52 Frasilahs cowries
500 Sungomazi neck beads (not cracked)
in box with saw dust packing
Sardines = Sugar - 50 lbs = 25 lbs coffee no Tea
2 Flour in Tins or waterproof bags = old Tarpaulins
10Guns flints = Rifles - {figure}
3000 cartridges - caps                              63
Nautical At / 72
(old musical box -) present
Ghamess Wodrin   Lagh to
15point out men (good)
not to go to Unyinyembe

0002

                11th Mamohela = rest half a day -
ill still but we cannot delay - I do very
devoutly thank the Lord for sparing my
my life three times in 24 hours - No Lortd
5is good a stronghold in the day of trouble and
he knows them that trust in him -


12 Remain at Mamohela vil - the camp is
all burned off - First rain fell in evening
of the 11th Thunder - Laid dust -


10

13th on to Lolindi suffering much - a man
brought a Kite nearly full fledged out of
its nest on a tree - This is the first breeding
case I am sure off -


14th over many brisk burns to vil on
15side of mountain range = a little rain fell
after dark - near Luamo it ran in paths
& some burns and caused dew -


15th to Muanambongo's - Golungo
bush buck with stripes across body & spots
20along all the side in a ^ two rows


16th To Luamo very ill with bowels -


17th cross it and send a message to Katomba
at Moenengoi's = sent present of food back

0003

18th Aug. 1871 on to Katomba& welcome 37 by
all the heavily laden ivory Arabs = 3 relays take on
the spoil = Kenyengere  attacked and 150 captives
taken = about 100 slain - an old feud of Moenemgoi's
5M. Bogharib still at Bambarre with all my letters
for now unsent!       No news whatever from Ujiji


19th S. - rest - 20th Do from weakness - 21st Palms 22 Bambarre



  28th better & thankful = to Monandenda's on the
R Lombonda = Katomba's safari has a thousand {figure}
10Frasilahs & Muhamads 300



29 ill all night & remain


30 attendant ill remain at
Monandenda's 6 AM


31st 1 Sept Sat. up
15half over mountains
and sleep in dense forest


2d over range & down
onto marble capped {figure}
hill = 267 = Nyangwe women expert in
20diving for oysters = = news of killd unclothe them^-selves


3d  Rest   Equinoctial gales to Lohombo


4th vil in front of Lohombo - 5 Kasangangazi


6 th Rest 7 th Mamva 8 th Rest     9 th Do Do

0004

            Kasongo's near Lualaba - In writing about the
slave trade I have been obliged to use most distressing
caution in order not to give those who have never
seen it the appearance of plausibility in drawing out
5from their club sofas "exaggeration" - overdrawing"
like Mrs Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin - The like would
be philosophers doubt if there be a Hell - but I have
been in it twice         once on the Shire where we
had to clear the paddle wheels & chain cable of the
10dead every morning before we could start
and the horrible scenes of crocodiles & carrion are
unbearable to be even glanced at by the imagination
again - on the Kilwa slave route to Nyassa -
Then the Hell scenes I dare ^ not commit to paper
15or even think on - I drive them from my
thoughts if even they intrude as intrude in
part       they will do on suddenly awaking at
dead                   of night - getting up & walking about
sometimes           relieves me           but writing about
20them in constrained oppressed style as hinted
above jaded                  my mind so that I could
rather                                 think of nothing else or
                                            I could not think   on
necessary things and neglected all my own
25and family interests - Lord Palmerston's offer of
service to me fell       flat on my ear & heart


{text description}
12/2/70
John Kirk

0005

{figure} 3[ ]


{figure}


{text description}
Dr David Livingstone
5        HRM Consul Ujiji & Elsewhere



R Kanayumbe
  & islands



Bagenya peoples
    other side R[    ] [        ]



10

Kusi North


Mhuru = South


Liñkanda West or other side


Mazimba East

0006

{figure}

0007

{figure} 39


Shamikwa R 9 days


Nyengere black water


Babire upright hair

0008

{figure} 5


{figure}


{figure}


{figure}


0001

          28 Septr 1871 cont -
Journal = 20th camp
from Bambarre = 4½
Hours to last crossing of
5R Lovumngumba =



29th 4½ to under Mt -
Ngoilu = fruit plum
= good = rapid current
of forty yards & knee
10deep = 21st camp -


  30 Do 4 waters
many buffaloes
rest     3 hours
and go on to
15Masuko camp
6 hours or 7
        22 camp



1st Oct Monday
on to Mketos
20in mountains


2nd Rest -
safari reported
[     ]mp


{text description}
25Dr Livingstone

care of Dr Kirk

0002

3d to go on
Ghamees W. I
fighting with th[ ]
chief Merere -
5Moenenyun
on me side
Ghamees on
other   and
Unyembe
10Arabs on {figure}
a third side
Merere is
mad - cut
off hand
15of Makoa
- drunkeness
R =


    Read Bible
four times
20through = Manyema

0003

3d Masuko nearly ripe and in
great abundance = on to camp of
Masudi  24th camp -


5th Oct to Loanda vil = send
5to Kasonga for canoe - go


6th on to Kasonga vil -


7th Rest there = eyes
inflamed = Kasonga
to come today -

{figure}

0001

23d Oct. 1871 arrived at Ujiji = and [172a]
found that Shereef had sold off
all my goods for slaves & ivory
in spite of remonstrance by
5the chief men here - came impudently
and offered me his hand     !!!


24th Rest dispirited & sore


25th call Shereef & demand my
goods - said Ludha had ordered him
10to stay a month & then leave
Had divined on Koran & found
I was dead - then sold all = write letter


26th News from Garaganza
many Arabs killed - road
15shut up - one Englishman there

0002

{figure}
{figure}

0003

172b
ult.


{figure}


27th condole Seyed bin Madjid
5whose son is killed there


Thursday 1st Novr very hot
feverish - Rain soon -


3d Sat.

0004

Livu


{figure}


Megera apanda
goes into Losizi



5

{figure}
{figure}
{figure}



Dr. Kirk
        Consulate
                        Zanzibar
        care of H.M. Commissioner
                                        Seychelles


Unyanyembe Journal (1871 Field Diary Segment)
David Livingstone


Date of composition: 28 January 1866-5 March 1872
Place of composition: Unyanyembe
Repository: David Livingstone Centre, Blantyre, United Kingdom
Shelfmark: Cat 1115
Clendennen & Cunningham number(s): Journals, 011
Digital edition and date: Livingstone Online, 2016
Publisher: University of Maryland Libraries, College Park, MD, USA
Project id: liv_015006
TEI encoding: Adrian S. Wisnicki, Heather F. Ball, A.J. Schmitz



0660
660

1871
March
23d
Left Kasonga's - He gave me a goat &
5a guide - country gently undulating
shewing fine green slopes fringed
with green wood trees = grass from
4 ft to 6 feet high - Luamba or cotton
meadow grass general and Nyassi
10in patches - came to Katenga village
about 5 miles off - many villages &
many people passed going to market
with loads of provisions - soil a little
sandy allows good drainage


15

24th Great rain by night, and sickness of men
who as slaves take great care of themselves
a little headache prevents our march -


25th Went to Mazimwe about 7½ miles off
country undulating and grassy - trees
20scarce - Patches of shrubs of Arum appear at
every village - cassava far off on account
of the pigs which are abundant - cross
26th Rill Lohemba - then four miles and cross
Kabwemadgi Rt - then a mile beyond it
25the Rt Kahembai which flows into
the Kunda and it into Lualaba - The
great river being on our left - country
open and low hills appear - in N.
We now met a party of men from
30the traders at Kasenga's - Salem bin
Mukadam
and Seyed bin Sultan and counted
eighty two captives they had caught
them by fighting ten days with the
people of Surampela on the left bank
35of Lualaba - They were hired to go
against them by the chief Chipange
for two tusks and seven slaves - They
had about 20 tusks and carried one
who broke his own leg in rushing
40against a stump in the fight -

0661
661

1871
March
27th
Went along a ridge of land overhanging
5a fine valley of denudation well-cultivated
hills in distance N - where Hassani's feat
of bloodshed was performed - Many villages
on the ridge some rather tumble down ones,
which always indicate some misrule -
10our march about seven miles and a
headman who went with us plagued ours
to give a goat - I refused to take what was
not given willingly but the slaves secured it
and threatened our companion Kama with
15dismissal from our party if he became
a tool in slave hands - Arum common -


28 - I had hoped to gain influence in time
over the Banian slaves and went forward
though short of everything in the prospect
20of finishing my work and retiring but they
were not affected by kindness and now
tried to finish the few beads that got out
of some 700 lbs at Ujiji by demanding
extra rations - They tried compulsion
25to force me back to the coast - and it is
remarkable that all the slaves sent by
the great slave trader Ludha were fully of
the opinion that they were not to follow
but force me back - crossed the Liya
3029 and next day the Moangoi, by two well
made wattle bridges at an island in its bed
It is 20 yds and has a very strong current
which makes all the market people fear it
We then crossed the Molembe in a canoe
35It is 15 yds but swelled by rains & many
rills - came 7 ½ miles to sleep at one
of the outlying villages of Nyangwe -
about sixty market people came past
us from the chitoka or marketplace
40on the banks of Lualaba - They go
thither at night and come away about
midday - having disposed of most of
their goods by barter - country 0662
662
1871
March
30th
- open and dotted over with trees chiefly
5a species of Bauhinia that resists the
annual grass burnings - trees along the
watercourses and many villages
each with a host of pigs - country low
as compared with Tanganyika - about
102000 feet above the sea - The headman's
house in which I was lodged contained
the housewifes little conveniences in
the shape of forty pots dishes baskets knives
mats all of which she removed to another
15house - I gave four strings of beads &
go on tomorrow - Crossed the Kunda R.
other seven miles brought us to Nyangwe
where we found Abed and Hassani
had erected their dwellings and sent their
20people over Lualaba and as far West as
the Loeki or Lomame - Abed said that
my words against bloodshedding had
stuck into him and he had given orders
to his people to give presents to the chiefs
25but never fight unless actually attacked


31st Went down to take a good look at the
Lualaba here - It is narrower than it is
higher up but still a might river at
least 3000 yards broad
and always
30deep
- It can never be waded at any
point, or at any time of the year - The
people unhesitatingly declare that if any
one tried to ford it he would assuredly be
lost - It has many large islands and
35at these it is about 2000 yards or one
mile
- The banks are steep and deep -
of clay and a yellow clay schist in
thin stratae the other rivers as
the Liya and Kunda have gravelly
40banks - The current is about 2 miles
an hour away
to the North 0663
663
1871
April
1st
The banks are well peopled but one must
5see the gathering at the market of about 3000
chiefly women to judge of their numbers -
They hold market one day and then omit
attendance here for three days - going to
other markets at other points in the intervals -
10It is a great institution in Manyuema -
Numbers seem to inspire confidence and
they enforce justice for each other - As
a rule all prefer to buy and sell in the
market to doing business anywhere else
15If one says come sell me that fowl or
cloth - the reply is come to the "chitoka" or
marketplace -


2d They were afraid of my presence - suspicious
and some think from the slanders of the
20traders that to sell a canoe means to help
me to kill and murder Manyuema -


3d Tried to secure a longitude by fixing a
a weight on the key of the chronometer and
taking successive altitudes of the sun
25and distances of the moon - Possibly
the first and last altitudes may give
the rate of going - and the frequent distances
between may give approximate Long -


Here the river is as stated 3000
30yards
- large islands in the distance
I sounded it across - It is nine feet
near the bank - In the middle fifteen
feet - Between the islands twelve feet
and again nine feet near the shore

35It is said to overflow all its banks
annually except at elevated spots
on which are built - soil
generally stiff black loam adjacent
to the banks - very fertile & very
40feverish - A mighty river truly 0664
664
1871
April
4th
Moon the fourth of the Arabs will appear
5in three or four days - This to guide
in ascertaining day of observing the
lunars with the weight -


The Arabs ask many questions
about the Bible - How many
10prophets have appeared & probably
say, that they believe in them all
while we believe all but reject Mu-
-hamad
- It is easy to drive them
into a corner by questioning as they
15dont know whither the enquiries lead
and they are not offended when their
knowledge is as it were admitted -
When asked how many false
prophets are known they appeal to
20my knowledge and evidently never
heard of Balaam the son of Beor
or of the 250 false prophets of Jezebel
and Ahab - or of the many lying
prophets referred to in the Bible


25

6th Ill from drinking two cups of very
sweet malofu or beer made from
Bananas - I shall touch it no more


Made ink from the seeds of a plant
called by the Arabs Zingifure - It is
30a fine thick red colour and used
by the natives to ornament their faces
heads and to dye grass cloths or
virambas - It is known in India


7th I have to wait trying to buy a canoe
35sent people over to cut wood to build a
new hut - one sleeps in his mud
walls which are damp and foul
smelling and unwholesome - -
I shall have grass walls for my
40own hut for the free ventilation 0665
665
1871
7th
April
will keep it sweet - This is the season
5called Masika - the finishing rains
It is the worst time for travelling and
reconciles me to the delay - We have
heavy rains almost every night

and I could scarcely travel even if I
10had a canoe - But still it is trying to be
kept back by suspicion and by the
wickedness of the wicked -


Some of the Arabs try to be kind and
send cooked food every day - Abed is
15the chief donor - I taught him to make
a mosquito curtain of thin printed
calico - He had endured the persecution
of these insects helplessly except by
sleeping on a high stage when they
20were unusually bad - The Manyuema
often bring evil on themselves by being
untrustworthy - Paid one to bring a
large canoe to cross Lualaba - He brought
a small one capable of carry three only
25and after wasting some hours we had
to put off crossing till next day -


8th Every Manyuema headman of four
or five huts is a Mologhwe or chief
and glories in being called so - There
30is no political cohesion in the country
The Ujijian slaving is an accursed
system but the Manyuema too have
faults the result of ignorance of other
peoples - Their isolation has made them
35 [as] unconscious of danger in dealing
with the cruel strangers as little dogs
in the presence of lions - Their refusal
to sell or lend canoes for fear of blame
from each other will be ended by the
40party of Dugumbe which has ten head
men taking them by force - They are 0666
666
1871
April
8th
often unreasonable and bloody
5minded towards each other - Every
Manyuema head man would like every
other ruler slain - This subjects them
to bitter lessons and sore experience
from the Arabs who join a feud only
10for their own selfish ends of getting
goats and slaves


Abed went over to Mologhwe Kahembe
and mixed blood with him - was told
of two canoes hollowed out which are
15to be brought for sale - If this can be
managed peaceably it will be a great
point gained and I may secure one
even at an Arabs price which will
be three or four times that of a native
20No love lost among the Arabs here
but I keep my own counsel -


9th Cut wood for house - Loeki is said
by slaves who have come thence to
be much larger than the Lualaba
25but on the return of Abeds people
from the West we shall obtain
better information


10th Chitoka or market today - I counted
upwards of 700 passing my door
30With market women it seems to
be a pleasure of life to haggle &
joke and laugh and cheat - Many
come eagerly, and retire with care
worn faces - Many are beautiful
35and many old and carry very heavy
loads of dried cassava & earthen
pots which they dispose of very
cheaply for palm oil fish salt
pepper and relishes for their food
40The men appear in gaudy lambas 0667
667
1871
April
10th

512th
and carry little save their iron ware
fowls grass cloth & pigs -


New ℂ last night - 4th Arab month - I am at a
loss for the day of the month - New house
finished - a great comfort for the other
10was foul and full of vermin - Bugs
Tapazi or ticks that follow wherever
Arabs go made me miserable but the
Arabs are insensible to them - Abed alone
had a mosquito curtain, and never
15could praise it enough - One of his remarks
is if slaves think you fear them they
will climb over you - I clothed mine for
nothing, and ever after they have tried to
ride roughshod over me and mutiny
20on every occasion -


14th Kahembe came over & promises to bring
a canoe but he is not to be trusted - He
presented Abed with two slaves and is
full of fair promises about the canoe
25which he sees I am anxious to get -
They all think that my buying a
canoe means carrying war to the left
bank - and now my Banian slaves
encouraged the idea - He does not wish
30slaves nor ivory said they but a
canoe in order to kill Manyuema -
Need it be wondered at that people who
had never heard of strangers or white
men before I popped down among
35them believed the slander - The
slaves were aided in propagating the
false accusation by the half caste
Ujijian slaves at the camp - Hassani
fed them every day and seeing that
40he was a bigotted Moslem they equalled
him in prayers in his sitting place
seven or eight times a day -!

0668
668

1871
April
15th
They were adepts at lying and the
5first Manyuema words they learned
were used to propagate falsehood.


The Manyuema tribe called Ba-
-genya
occupy the left bank opposite
Nyangwe - A spring of brine rises
10in the bed of a river named Lofubu
and this the Bagenya inspissate by
boiling and sell the salt at market
The Lomame is about ten days West
of Lualaba and very large - The confluence
15of Lomame
or Loeki is about six
days down below Nyañgwe
by canoe
The river Nyanze is still less distant


16th On the Nyanze stands the principal
town and market of the chief Zurampela
20Rashid visited him and got two
slaves on promising to bring a war
party from Abed against Chipange
who by similar means obtained the
help of Salem Mokadam to secure
2582 captives - Rashid will leave
this as soon as possible sell the slaves
and leave Zurampela to find out
the fraud - This deceit which is an average
specimen of the beginning of half
30caste dealings vitiates his evidence
of a specimen of cannibalism
which he witnessed - but it was
after a fight that the victims were
cut up and this agrees with the
35fact that the Manyuema eat
only those who are killed in
war - some have averred that
captives too are eaten and a slave
is bought with a goat to be eaten
40but this I very strongly doubt.

0669 669

1871
April
18th
I found that the Lepidosiren is brought
to market in pots with water in them
5also white ants roasted and the large
snail Achetina and a common snail
Lepidosiren is called "sembe" -


Abed went a long way to examine a canoe
but it was still further and he turned -


10

19th It is dreary waiting and when Abed
proposed to go North I wished to go too
but my slaves were the hindrance and
we still had hopes of a canoe which would
have been a great boon to me now that
15it was raining every day


21st A common salutation reminds me of
the Bechwana's "U le hatsi" thou art on
earth - "Ua tala" thou lookest - "Ua boka"
or "byoka" thou awakest - "U ri ho" thou art
20here - "U li koni" thou are here about pure
Sichuana - and Nyā-No is identical
The men here deny that cannibalism is
common - They eat only those killed in
war and it seems in revenge for said
25Mokandira "the meat is not nice - It
makes one dream of the dead man" -
Some West of Lualaba eat even those
bought for the purpose of a feast but
I am not quite positive on this point.
30All agree in saying that human flesh
is saltish and needs but little condi-
-ment - And yet they are a fine
looking race - I would back a company
of Manyuema men as far superior
35in shape of head and generally
physical form against the whole
Anthropological Society - Many of the
women are very light coloured and
very pretty - They dress in a kilt
40of many folds of gaudy lambas

0670
670

1871
April
22nd
In Manyuema here Kusi = Kunzi is North
5Mhuru = South - Ñkanda West or other
side Lualaba - Mazimba = East = The
people are sometimes confused in name
by the directions - this Bañkanda is
only the other side folk = The Bagenya
1022nd Chimburu came to visit but I did not
see him - nor did I know Moene Nyangwe
till too late to do him honour - In fact
every effort was made to keep me in
the dark while the slavers of Ujiji
15made all smooth for themselves to
get canoes - All chiefs claim the
privilege of shaking hands that is
they touch the hand held out with
their palm then clap two hands together
20then touch again & clap again &
the ceremony concludes - This frequency
of shaking hands misled me when
the great man came -


24th Old feuds lead the Manyuema to
25entrap the traders to fight - They invite
them to go to trade and tell them that
such a village plenty of ivory
- lies - Then when the trader goes with his
people word is sent that he is coming
30to fight and he is met by enemies
who compel him to defend himself
by their onslaught - We were nearly
entrapped in this way by a chief
pretending to guide us through
35the country near Basilañge - he
would have landed us into a fight
but we detected his drift - changed
our course so as to mislead any
messengers he might have sent and
40dismissed him with some sharp words

0671
671

1871
April
25th -
News came that four men sent by Abed
5to buy ivory had thus been entrapped
and two killed - The rest sent for aid
to punish the murderers and Abed wished
me to send my people to bring the remain
ing two men back - I declined - because
10no matter what charges I gave my
Banian slaves would be sure to shed
human blood - We can go nowhere but
the people of the country ask us to kill
their fellow men - nor can they be
15induced to go to villages three miles
off
because there in all probability
live the murderers of fathers uncles or
grandfathers - a dreadful state truly


The traders are as bloodthirsty every whit as
20the Manyuema where no danger exists -
In most cases where the people can fight
the traders are as civil as possible - At
Moenempanda's the son of Cazembe
Muhamad Bogharib left a debt of 28
25slaves and 8 bars of copper each seventy lbs
and did not dare to fire a shot because
they saw they had met their match - Here
his headmen are said to have bound the
the headmen of villages till a ransom
30was paid in tusks! and had they
only gone three days further to the
Babire to whom Moenemokaia's
men went they would have got
fine ivory at two rings a tusk
35while they had paid from 10 to 18
Here it is as sad a tale to tell as was
that of the Mangenya scattered &
peeled by the Waiau agents of
the Portuguese of Tette - The good
40Lord look on it -

0672
672

1871
April
26th
Called nine slaves bought by Abed's
5people from the Kuss country West of
the Lualaba
and asked them about
their tribes and country - One with his
upper front teeth extracted was of the
tribe Malobo on the other side of the
10Loeki - Another comes from the river
Lombadzo
or Lombazo which is West
of Loeki - This may be another name
for the Lomame - The country is called
Ñañga and the tribe ñoñgo - chief Mpunzo
15The Malobo tribe is under the chief Yunga
and Lomadyo - another toothless boy said
that he came from the Lomame -
The upper teeth extracted seems to say
that the tribe have cattle - The knocking
20out the teeth is imitation of the animals
they almost worship - No traders had
ever visited them - This promises ivory
to the present visitors - All that is now
done with the ivory is to make rude
25blowing horns and bracelets


27th Waiting wearily and anxiously - we
cannot move people far off and
make them come near with news
Even the owners of canoes say "Yes
30Yes" we shall bring them" but do
not stir They doubt us and my slaves
increase the distrust by their lies to
the Manyuema


28th Abed sent over Manyuema to buy
35slaves for him - A pretty woman
for 300 cowries and a hundred strings
of beads - She can be sold again
to an Arab for much more in
ivory - Abed himself gave 130 $ for
40a woman cook and she fled to me 0673
673
1871
April
28th
when put in chains for some crime - I
5interceded and she was loosed - Advised
her not to offend again because I could
not beg for her twice


Hassani digged with ten slaves dug at the
malachite mines of Katanga for three
10months and gained a hundred frasilahs
of copper or 3500 lbs.


May 1st Katomba's people arrived from the
Babira where they sold all their copper
at two rings for a tusk and then found
15that abundance of ivory still remained
Door posts and house pillars had been
made of ivory now rotten - People
of Babira kill elephants now and
brought tusks by the dozen - till the
20traders get so many they carried them
by three relays - They dress their hair
like the Bashukulompo - plaited into
upright basket helmets - no quarrel
occurred and great kindness was
25shown the strangers - A river having
very black water the Nyengere flows
into Lualaba from the West and
it becomes itself very large - Another
river or water Shamikwa falls
30into it from the South West and
it becomes still larger - This is
probably the Lomame - A short
horned antelope common -


3d Abed informs me that a canoe
35will come in 5 days - Word was
sent after me by the traders south of
us not to aid me as I was sure
to die where I was going - The wish
is father to the thought Abed was
40naturally very anxious to get first 0674
674
1871
May
3
-4th
into the Babira ivory market yet
5he tried to secure a canoe for me
before he went - He was too eager
and a Manyuema man took ad-
vantage of his desire and came over
the river and said that he had one
10hollowed out and he wanted goats
and beads to hire people to drag it
down to the water - Abed on my
account advanced 5 goats a thousand
cowries and many beads and said
15that he would tell me what he wished
in return - This was debt - but I was
so anxious to get away I was content
6th to take the canoe on any terms - But
the matter on the part of the headman
20whom Abed trusted was all deception
He had no canoe at all but knew
of one belonging to another man
and wished to get Abed and me
to send men to see it - in fact to go
25with their guns and he would manage
to embroil them with the real owner
and some old feud be settled to
his satisfaction - on finding that
I declined to be led into his trap
30he took a slave to the owner and
on refusal to sell the canoe for
her it now came out that he had
adopted a system of fraud to Abed
He had victimized Abed but he
35was naturally inclined to believe his
false statements and get off to the
ivory market - His people came
from the Kuss country in the West
with 16 tusks and a great many
40slaves bought & not murdered for

0675
675

1871
May
11th
River rising fast and bringing down
5large quantities of aquatic grass duck
-weed &c - Water is a little darker in colour
than at Cairo - People remove &
build their huts on the higher forest
lands adjacent - many white birds
10the (Paddy bird) appear & one Ibis religiosa
They pass North -


The Bakuss retuned to near Lomame
They were very civil and kind to the
strangers but refused passage into
15the country - At my suggestion the
effect of a musket shot was shewn
on a goat - They thought it super-
natural - looked up to the clouds and
offered to bring ivory to buy the
20charm that could draw lightning
down - When it was afterwards
attempted to force a path they darted
aside on seeing the Banyamwezi
followers putting the arrows into the
25bowstrings but stood in mute
amazement looking at the guns
which mowed them down in
large numbers - They thought that
muskets were the insignia of
30chieftainship - Their chiefs all
go with a long straight staff of
rattan having a quantity of
black medicine smeared on each
end and no weapons in their
35hands - They imagined that the
guns were carried as insignia
of the same kind - some jeering
in the south called them big tobacco
pipes - They have no fear on
40seeing a gun levelled at them -

0676
676

1871
May
13th
The Bakuss use large & very long
5spears very expertly in the long grass
and forest of their country - They are
terrible fellows among themselves
and when they become acquainted
with firearms will be terrible to the
10strangers who now murder them
The Manyuema say truly "If it
were not for your guns not one of
you would ever return to your country


The Bakuss cultivate more than the
15Southern Manyuema - Pennisetum
Dura or hokus Sorghum - common
coffee abundant and they use it
highly scented in the vanilla which
must be fertilized by insects - They
20hand round cups of it after meals
Pine Apples abundant - They bathe
regularly twice a day - Houses of
two storeys - used but little clothing
The women have rather compressed
25heads but very pleasant countenances
Ancient Egyptian round wide awake
eyes - Their numbers are prodigious
The country literally swarms with
people and a chiefs town extends
30upwards of a mile - But little of
the primeval forest remains
many large pools of standing water
have to be crossed - but markets
are held every eight or ten miles
35from each other
- To these the
people come from far - the market
is as great an institution as shopping
is with the civilized - Illicit inter
course is punished by the whole of
40the offenders family being enslaved -

0677
677

1871
May
14th The people Bakuss smelt copper
from the ore and sell it very cheap
5and the traders sent to buy it with
beads - But the project of going in
canoes now appears to all the half castes
so plausible that they all tried to get the
Bagenya on the West bank to lend them
10and all went over to mix blood &
make friends with the owners - Then all
slandered me as not to be trusted as they
their blood relations were - and my
slaves mutinied & would go no
15further - They mutinied three times here
and Hassani harboured them till
I told him that if an English officer
harboured an Arab slave he would be
compelled by the Consul to refund
20the price and I certainly would not
let him escape - This frightened
him - but I was at the mercy of
slaves who had no honour and
no interest in going into danger
25the wages appointed by Ludha were
double freemans pay but they
cared nothing for what was to be
their masters - The slaves too
joined in the slander and my
30own people saying I wanted neither
ivory nor slaves but to kill the
Manyuema and take the country
for the other white people quite
took me aback.


35

16th Abed gave me a frasilah of Matunda
beads and I returned 14 fathoms
of fine American sheeting - but it
was an obligation to get beads from
one whose wealth depended
40on exchanging beads for ivory

0678
678

1871
May -
16th At least 3000 people at market today
my going among them has taken away
5the fear engendered by the slanders of
slaves and traders All are pleased
to tell me the names of the fishes & other
things - Lepidosirens are caught by
the neck and lifted out of the pot to
10shew his fatness - Camwood ground
and made into flat cakes for sale
and earthen balls such as are eaten
in the disease Safura or eartheating
There is quite a roar of voices in
15the multitude haggling - It was pleasant
to be among them compared to being
with the slaves who were all eager to go
back to Zanzibar - Some told me that
they were slaves and required a free
20man to thrash them, and proposed to
go back to Ujiji for one - I saw no
hope of getting on with them and
anxiously longed for the arrival of
Dugumbe - and at last Abed over
25heard them plotting my destruction
If forced to go on they would watch
till the first difficulty arose with
the Manyuema - Then fire off their
guns - run away - and as I could
30not run as fast as they leave me
to perish" - Abed overheard them
speaking loudly and advised me
strongly not to trust myself to
them any more as they would be
35sure to cause my death - He was
all along a sincere friend and I
could not but take his words
as well meant and true -

0679
679

1871
May
18th Abed gave me 200 cowries & some
green beads - I was at the point of
5disarming my slaves & driving
them away when they relented and
professed to be willing to go anywhere
so being eager to finish my geographi
-cal work I said I would run the
10risk of their desertion and gave
beads to buy provisions for a
start North - I cannot state how
much I was worried by these wretched
slaves who did much to annoy me
15with the sympathy of all the slaving
crew - When baffled by untoward
circumstances the bowels plague
me too and discharges of blood relieve
the headache and are safety valves
20to the system - I was nearly persuaded
to allow Mr Syme to operate on me
to close the valves but Sir Roderick
told me that his own father had
been operated on by the famous
25John Hunter and died in consequence
at the early age of forty - He himself
when a soldier spoiled his saddles
by frequent discharges from the
Piles but would never submit to
30an operation and he is now eighty
years old - His advice saved
me for they have been my safety valves


The Zingifure or red pigment is
said to be a cure for itch - The disease
35is common among both natives
and Arab slaves and Arab children

0680
680

1871
May
- 20th Abed called Kalenga the head
man who beguiled him as I soon found
5and delivered the canoe he had bought
formally to me and went off down
the Lualaba on foot to buy the Babira
ivory - I was to follow in the canoe
and wait for him in the River Luira
10but soon I ascertained that the canoe
was still in the forest and did not
belong to Kalenga - On demanding
back the price he said let Abed come
and I will give it to him - Then when
15I sent to force him to give up the
goods all his village fled into the
forest - I now tried to buy one
myself from the Bagenya but
there was no chance so long as the
20half caste traders needed any they
got all - nine large canoes and
I could not secure one


24th The market is a busy scene -
everyone is in dead earnest - little
25time is lost in friendly greetings
Then vendors of fish run about with
potsherds full of snails or small fishes
or young clarias capensis smoke
dried & spitted on twigs - or other
30relishes to exchange for cassava
roots dried after being steeped about
three days in water - potatoes vegetables
or grain - bananas, flour - palm
oil - fowls salt pepper - Each is
35intensely eager to barter food for
relishes and make strong assertions
as to the goodness or badness
of everything - the sweat stands
in beads on their faces - cocks 0681
681
1871
May
24th crow briskly even when slung
over the shoulder with their heads
5hanging down - pigs squeal -
Iron knobs drawn out out at each end
to shew the goodness of the metal
are exchanged for cloth of the Muale palm
They have a large funnel of basket work
10above the vessel holding the wares and
slip the goods down if they are not to
be seen - They hid them at first in fear
from me - They deal fairly and when
differences arise they are easily settled
15by the men interfering or pointing to me
They appeal to each other and have
a strong sense of natural justice - With
so much food changing hands of the
three thousand attendants much
20benefit is derived - some come from
twenty to twenty five miles - The men
flaunt about in gaudy coloured lambas
of many folded kilts - The women work
hardest - The potters slap and ring
25their earthenware all round to shew
that there is not a single flaw in
them - I bought two finely shaped earthen
bottles of porous earthenware to hold
a gallon each for one string of beads
30The women carry huge loads of them
in their funnels above the baskets -
strapped to the shoulders & forehead
hands full besides - The roundness
of the vessels is wonderful seeing
35no machine is used - No slaves
could be induced to carry half as
much as they do willingly - It is a
scene of the finest natural acting
imaginable - The eagerness with which 0682
682
1871
May
24th
all sorts of assertions are made - The
5the eager earnestness with which
apparently all creation above around
and beneath is called on to attest the
truth of what they alledge - The intense
surprise and withering scorn looked on
10those who despise their goods - but
they shew no concern when the buyers
turn up their noses at them - Little
girls run about selling cups of water
for a few small fishes to the half
15exhausted wordy combatants - To
me it was an amusing scene - I
could not understand the words that
flowed off their glib tongues but the
gestures were too expressive to need
20interpretation -


27th Hassani told me that since he had
come no Manyuema had ever pre-
sented him with a single mouthful
of food - even a potato or banana
25and he had made many presents
Going from him into the market
I noticed that one man presented
a few small fishes - another a sweet
potato and a piece of cassava and
30a third two small fishes - but the
Manyuema are not a liberal people
old men and women who remained
in the half deserted villages we
passed through in coming North
35often ran forth to present me
bananas but it seemed through
fear when I sat down and ate
the bananas they brought beer
of bananas and I paid for all
40A stranger in the market had 0683
683
1871
May
27th ten human under Jaws bones
hung by a string over his shoulder - on
5enquiry he professed to have killed &
eaten the owners - shewed with his
knife how he cut up his victim - When
I expressed disgust he and others
laughed - I see new faces every market
10day - Two nice girls were trying to sell
their venture which was roasted white
ants called "Gumbe"


30th River fell 4 inches during last four days
colour very dark brown and large quan-
15tities of aquatic plants & trees float down
Mologhwe or chief Ndambo came &
mixed blood with the intensely bigotted
Moslem Hassani - this is to secure the
nine canoes - He next went over to
20have more palaver about them and
they do not hesitate to play me false
by detraction - The Manyuema too
are untruthful but very honest
We never lose an article by them
25fowls and goats are untouched
and if a fowl is lost we know that
it has been stolen by an Arab slave
When with Muhamad Bogharib we had
all to keep our fowls at the Man-
30-yuema
villages
to prevent them being
stolen by our own slaves - and it
is so here - Hassani denies com
plicity with them but it is quite
35apparent that he and others encourage
them in mutiny -






0684
684

1871
June
5th
River rose again 6 inches & fell three
5Rain nearly ceased and large masses
of fleecy clouds float down here from
the North West with accompanying
[7th] cold
- I fear that I must march on foot
but the mud is forbidding


10

11th New ℂ last night and I believe Dugumbe
will leave Kasonga's today River down 3 in


14th Hassani got nine canoes & put 63
persons in three - I cannot get one
Dugumbe reported near but detained
15by his divination at which he is an
expert - Hence his native name is
"Molembalemba" - writer writing"- I
have no confidence in my slaves
so went in hopes of assistance from
2016th him - The high winds and drying
of soap and sugar tell that the rains
are now over in this part
-


18th Dugumbe arrived but passed to
Moene Nyangwe's and found that
25provisions were so scarce and
dear there as compared with our
market that he was fain to come
back to us - He has a large party
and 500 guns - He is determined to
30go into new fields of trade Has
all his family with him and intends
to remain 6 or 7 years sending
regularly to Ujiji for supplies of
goods


35

20th Two of Dugumbe's party brought
presents of 4 large fundos of beads
each - All know that my goods
are unrighteously detained by Shereef
and shew kindness which I return
40by some fine calico which I have

0685
685

1871
June
20
Among the first words Dugumbe said
5to me were "Why your own slaves are
your greatest enemies - I will buy
you a canoe but the Banian slaves
slanders have put all the Manyuema
against you" - I know that this was true
10and that they were conscious of the
sympathy of the Ujijian traders who
hate to have me here -


24 Hassani's canoe party foiled after they
had gone down four days by narrows
15in the river - Rocks jut out on
both sides not opposite but alternate
to each other and the vast mass of
water of the great river jammed in
rushes round one promontory on
20to another and a frightful whirl
-pool is formed in which the first
canoe went and was overturned
and five lives lost - Had I been there
mine would have been the first
25canoe for the traders would have made
it a point of honour to give me the
precedence - actually to make a feeler
of me while they looked on in safety
The men in charge of Hassani's canoes
30were so frightened by this accident
that they at once resolved to return
though they had arrived actually in
the country of the ivory - They never
looked to see whether the canoes
35could be dragged past the narrows
as anyone else would have done
No better luck could be expected
after all their fraud & duplicity
in getting the canoes - No harm
40lay in obtaining them but why try
to prevent me getting one -

0686
686

1871
June
27th
In answer to my prayers for preser
5vation I was prevented going down to
the narrows formed by a dyke of Mnts
cutting across country and jutting a
little ajar which makes the water
of enormous mass wheel round behind
10it helplessly and if the canoe reaches
the rock against which the water dashes
they are almost certainly overturned -
As this same dyke probably cuts
across country to Lomame my
15plan of going to the confluence and
then up wont do for I would have
to go up rapids there - Again I was
prevented from going down Luamo
and on the North of its confluence
20another cataract mars navigation
in the Lualaba and my safety thereby
secured - We dont always know
the dangers that we are guided past


28th River fallen two feet - dark
25brown water and still much
wreck floating down -


Eight villages in flames by a slave
of Syde bin Habib called Manilla
shewing his blood feuds of the
30Bagenya how well he can fight
against the Mohombo whose country
the Bagenya want - The stragglers
of this camp are over helping
Manilla & catching fugitives & goats
35The Bagenya are fishermen
by taste and profession and sell
the produce of their nets & weirs
to those who cultivate the soil at
the different markets - Manilla's
40foray is for an alledged debt of
3 slaves and ten villages are burned

0687
687

1871
June
30
Hassani pretended that he was not
5aware of Manilla's foray and when
I denounced it to Manilla himself he
shewed that he was a slave by cringing
and saying nothing except something
about the debt of three slaves -


10

July 1st I made known my plan to Dugum
-be
to go west with his men to Lomame then
by his and buy a canoe and go
up Lake Lincoln to Katanga and
the fountains - examine the caves
15inhabited - and return here if he
would let his people bring me goods
from Ujiji - He again referred to
all the people being poisoned in
mind against me but was ready
20to do everything in his power for
my success - My own people per
-suaded the Bagenya not to sell a canoe
Hassani knew it all but swears
that he did not join in the slander
25and even points up to Heaven in
attestation of innocence of all even
of Manilla's foray - Muhamadans
are certainly famous as liars - and
the falsehood of Muhamad has been
30transmitted to his followers in a
measure unknown in other religions


2 July The upper stratum of clouds is from
the Nor-West - the lower from the South
East - when they mix or change places
35the temperature is much lowered
and fever ensues - The air evidently
comes from the Atlantic over the
low swampy lands of the West Coast
Morning fogs shew that the
40river is warmer than the air

0688
688

1871
July
4th
4th Hassani off down river in high
5dudgeon at the cowards who turned
after reaching the ivory country - He
leaves them here and goes himself
entirely on land - Gave him hints
to report himself and me to Baker
10should he meet any of his headmen


Dugumbe promises assistance to
buy a canoe on Lomame and powder
The slaves under Shereef have made
me a sort of beggar - He again added
15Your Banian slaves are the chief
propagators of slander among the
Manyuema that you want neither
slaves nor ivory but to kill them"-
Susi and Chuma &c hear it all but
20never tell me - This has been the
course all the liberated have adopted
ever since I had them - Though they
saw stealing & plundering of my
goods they would never reveal it
25to me - and even denied knowledge
of it though partaking of the plunder
It is not now open refusal by the
Banians I have to contend against
It is secret slander and villainy
30and no one on whom I can rely -


5th River fallen 3 feet in all - that
is one foot since 27th June -


I offer Dugumbe 2000 $ or £400
for ten men to replace the Banian
35slaves and enable me to go up the
Lomame to Katanga & the underground
dwellings - Then return and go up
by Tanganyika to Ujiji - I added
that I would give all the goods I
40had at Ujiji besides He took a
few days to consult with his associates

0689
689

1871
July
6th
Mokandira and other headmen came
5with a present of a pig & a goat on
my being about to depart West -
I refused to recieve them till my return
and protested against the slander of
my wishing to kill people which they
10all knew but did not report to me
This refusal & protest will ring all over
the country


7th annoyed by a woman frequently beating
a slave near my house - on my reporting
15her she came and apologized - I told her
to speak softly to her slave as she was
now the only mother the slave had -
slave came from beyond Lomame
and was evidently a lady in her own
20land Calls her son Mologhwe or chief
because his father was a headman.


Dugumbe advised my explaining
my plan of procedure to the slaves - He
evidently thinks that I wish to carry it
25towards them with a high hand - I did
explain all the exploration I intended to
do -The fountains of Herodotus - beyond
Katanga - Katanga itself and the under
ground dwellings then return - They
30made no remarks - They are evidently
pleased to have me knuckling down
to them - When pressed on the point of
proceeding they say they will only go
with Dugumbe's men to the Lomame
35and then return - River fallen 3 inches since
the 5th


10th Manyuema children do not creep as
European children do on their knees
but begin by putting forward one foot
40and using one knee - Generally 0690
690
1870
July
10th
10th a Manyuema child uses both
5feet and both hands but never both
knees - one Arab child did the same
never crept but got up on both feet
holding on till he could walk


New ℂ last night of 7th Arab month


10

11th Bought the different species of
fish brought to market in order
to sketch ^ eight of them and compare them
with those of the Nile lower down
most are the same as in Nyassa
15A very active species of Glamis
of dark olive brown was not sketched
but a spotted one armed with
offensive spikes in the dorsal
and pectoral fins was taken
20Sesamum seed abundant just now
Cakes are made of ground nuts as
on the West coast - Dugumbe's
horde tried to deal in the market
in a domineering way - I shall
25buy that said one - These are
mine said another - no one must
touch them but me - but the market
women taught them that they could
not monopolize but deal fairly
30They are certainly clever traders and
and keep each other in countenance
They stand by each other and will
not allow each other to be overreached
and they deal very fairly and
35give food astonishingly cheap
once in the market they have no
fear


12th The Banian slaves declared before
Dugumbe that they would go to the
40river Lomame but no further 0691
691
1871
July
13
He spoke long to them but they will not
5consent to go further - When told that
they would thereby lose all their pay
they replied "Yes but not our lives"
They walked off from him muttering
which is insulting to one of his rank
10I then added - I have goods at Ujiji I
dont know how many but they are
considerable - Take them all and give
me men to finish my work - if not
enough I will add to them only do not
15let me be forced to return now I am
so near the end of my undertaking
He said he would make a plan
in conjunction with his associates
and report to me.


20

14th one of Dugumbe's company called Adie
said to me "Your slaves are very bad
This shews that Dugumbe had truly
reported the matter - I am distressed
and perplexed what to do so as not to be
25foiled but all seems against me -


15th
July
1871
The reports of guns on the other side
of the Lualaba all the morning tell of the
30people of Dugumbe murdering those
of Kimburu and others who mixed
blood with Manilla - Manilla is a
slave and how dared he to mix blood
with chiefs who could only have made
35friends with free men like them - Kim-
buru
gave Manilla three slaves and
he sacked ten villages in token of friend-
-ship - He proposed to give Dugumbe
nine slaves in the same operation
40But Dugumbe's people destroy his
villages and shoot and make his
people captives to punish Manilla 0692
692
1871
July
15th
- make an impression in fact
5in the country that they alone are
to be dealt with - Make friends
with us and not with Manilla or
any one else.


About 1500 people came to market
10though many villages of those that usually
come from the other side were now
in flames and every now and then
a number of shots were fired on the
fugitives - It was a hot sultry day and
15when I went into the market I saw
Adie and Manilla and three of the
men who had lately come with Dugumbe
I was surprised to see these three men
with their guns and felt inclined to
20reprove them as one of my men did
for bringing weapons into the market
but I attributed it to their ignorance -
and it being very hot I was walking
away to go out of the market when
25I saw one of the three haggling about
a fowl and seizing hold of it - Before
I had got 30 yards out the discharge
of two guns in the middle of the
crowd told me that slaughter had
30begun - crowds dashed of from the
place and threw down their wares
in confusion and ran - At the
same time the three opened fire
on the mass of people near the
35upper end of the marketplace volleys
were discharged from a party down
near the creek on the panic
stricken women who dashed at
the canoes - The canoes some fifty
40or more were jammed in the creek 0693
693
1871
July
15th
The men forgot their paddles in the terror
5that seized all - The canoes were not to
be got out the creek being too small for
so many - and men and women wounded
by the balls poured on them leaped and
scrambled into the water shrieking -
10A long line of heads in the water shewed
that great numbers struck out for an
island a full mile off - In going towards
it they had to put the left shoulder to a
current of about two miles an hour.
15If they had struck away diagonally to the
opposite bank the current would have
aided them and though nearly 3 miles off some
would have gained land - The
heads above water shewed the long line of
20those that would inevitably perish
Shot after shot continued to be fired on the
helpless and perishing - Some of the long
line of heads disappeared quietly - Others
threw their arms high as if appealing
25to the great Father above and sank
one canoe took in as many as it could
hold and all paddled with hands & arms
Those canoes got out in haste picked
up sinking friends till all went down
30together and disappeared - One man in
a long canoe which could have held
forty or fifty had clearly lost his head
he had been out in the stream before
the massacre began & now paddled
35up river nowhere and never looked
to the drowning - By & bye all the heads
disappeared - some had turned down
stream towards the bank and escaped
Dugumbe put people into one of the
40deserted vessels to save those in the
water - and save twenty one - but 0694
694
1871
July
15th
one lady refused to be taken on board
5from thinking that she was to be made
a slave of - she preferred the chance
of life by swimming to the lot of a slave
The Bagenya women are expert in
the water as they are accustomed to
10dive for oysters and those who went
down stream may have escaped
The Arabs themselves estimated the loss
of life at between 300 & 400 souls - The
shooting party near the canoes were
15so reckless they killed two of their
own people and a Banyamwezi
follower who got into a deserted canoe
plundering fell into the water Went
down then came up again and down
20to rise no more - My first impulse was
to pistol the murderers but Dugumbe pro
tested against my getting into a blood
feud and I was thankful afterwards that
I took his advice - Two wretched Moslems
25asserted "that the firing was done by the
people of the English" I asked one of them
why he lied so and he could utter no
excuse - no other falsehood came to his
aid as he stood abashed before me and
30telling him not to tell palpable falsehoods left
him gaping - After the terrible affair
in the water the party of Tagamoio who
was the chief perpetrator continued to fire
on the people there and fire their villages
35As I write I hear the loud wails on the
left bank over those who are there slain
Ignorant of their many friends now
in the depths of Lualaba - Oh Let thy
kingdom come - No one will ever
40know the exact loss on this bright 0695
695
1871
July
15.
sultry summer morning - It gave
5me the impression of being in Hell -
All the slaves in the camp rushed at
the fugitives on land and plundered them
women were collecting & carrying loads
for hours of what had been thrown down
10in terror - some escaped to me and were
protected - Dugumbe saved 21 and of
his own accord liberated them - They
were brought to me and remained over
night near my house - One woman
15of the saved had a musket ball through
the thigh another in the arm - I sent
men with our flag to save some for
without a flag they might have been
victims for Tagamoio's people were
20shooting right and left like fiends -
I counted twelve villages burning
this morning - Now I asked the
question at Dugumbe & others for
what is all this murder - all blamed
25Manilla as its cause and in one sense
he was the cause - but it was the
scarcely credible reason to be avenged
on Manilla for making friends
with headmen he being a slave
30I cannot believe it fully - The wish to
make an impression in the country
as to the importance and greatness
of the new comers was the most
potent motive - but it was terrible
35that the murdering of so many should
be contemplated at all - It made me
sick at heart - Who could accompany
the people of Dugumbe and Tagamoio
to Lomame and be free from blood
40guiltiness

0696
696

1871
July
15th
I next proposed to Dugumbe to
5catch the murderers and hang them
up in the marketplace as our protest
against the bloody deeds before the
Manyuema - If as he & others atteded
the massacre was committed by
10Manilla's people he would have con-
-sented but it was done by Tagamoio's
people and others of this party headed
by Dugumbe - This slaughter was
peculiarly atrocious in as much as
15we have always heard that women
coming to or from market have
never been known to be molested
Even when two districts are engaged
in actual hostilities the women
20say they "pass among us to market
unmolested no one ever been
known to be plundered by the men -
These Nigger Moslems are inferior
to the Manyuema in justice and
25right - The people under Hassani
began the super wickedness of
capture & pillage of all indiscriminately
Dugumbe promised to send over
men to order Tagamoio's men to
30cease firing and burning villages
They remained over among the
ruins feasting on goats fowls
all night and next day 16thth
continued their infamous work
35till twenty seven villages were
destroyed






0697
697

1871
July
16th
16th restored upwards of thirty of
5the rescued to their friends - Dugumbe
seemed to act in good faith and kept
none of them - It was his own free will
that guided him - Women delivered to
their husbands and about 33 canoes
10left in the creek are to be kept for the
owners too -


12 A.M. shooting still going on on the other side
and many captives caught - At 1 P.M.
Tagamoio's people began to cross
15over in canoes beating their drums
firing their guns and shouting as if
to say "see the conquering heroes come"
They are answered by the women of Dugumbe's
camp lullilooing and friends then fire off
20their guns in joy - I count seventeen
villages in flames and the smoke goes
straight up and forms clouds at the
top of the pillar shewing great heat
evolved for the houses are full of
25carefully prepared firewood - Dugumbe
denies having sent Tagamoio on this
foray and Tagamoio repeats that he
went to punish the friends made by
Manilla who being a slave had no
30right to make war and burn villages
That could only be done by free men
Manilla confesses to me privately that
he did wrong in that and loses all his
beads and many friends in consequence


35

2 PM An old man called Kabobo came
for his old wife - I asked her If this
were her husband - She went to him
and put her arm lovingly around him
and said "Yes" I gave her five
40strings of beads to buy food - All 0698
698
1871
July
16th
her stores being destroyed with her
5house - she bowed down and put
her forehead to the ground as thanks
and old Kabobo did the same - The
tears stood in her eyes as she went
off - Tagamoio caught 17 women
10and other Arabs of his party 27 - dead
by gunshot 25 - The heads of two
headmen were brought over to be
3 PM redeemed by their friends with slaves
Many of the headmen who have
15been burned out by the foray came
over to me and begged me to come
back with them and appoint
new localities for them to settle again
but I told them that I was so ashamed
20of the company in which I found
myself that I could scarcely look the
Manyuema in the face They had
believed that I wished to kill them
What did they think now - I could
25not remain among blood com-
-panions and would flee away
They begged me hard not to leave
they were again settled - The open
murder perpetrated on hundreds
30of unsuspecting women fills me
with unspeakable horror - I cannot
think of going anywhere with the
Tagamoio crew - I must either go
down or up Lualaba whichever
35the Banian slaves choose - It is a
great affliction to have slaves sent
4 PM to me instead of men - Dugumbe
saw that by killing the market people
he had committed a great error
40and speedily got the chiefs who had 0699
699
1871
July
16th
come over to me to meet him at his house
5and forthwith mix blood - They were in
bad case - I could not remain to see
to their protection and Dugumbe being the
best of the whole horde I advised them to
make friends and appeal to him as able
10to restrain to some extent his infamous
underlings - One chief asked to have his
wife and daughter restored to him first
but generally they were cowed and the
fear of death was on them - Dugumbe said
15to me I shall do my utmost to get all the
captives but he must make friends now
in order that the market may not be given
up - Blood was mixed and an essential
condition was you must give us chitoka or
20market - He and most others saw that in
theoretically punishing Manilla they had
slaughtered the very best friends strangers
had - The Banian slaves openly declare that
they would go only to Lomame and no
25further - Whatever the Ujijian slavers may
pretend they all hate to have me as a witness
of their coldblooded atrocities - The Banian
slaves would like to go with Tagamoio &
share in his rapine and get slaves -
30I tried to go down Lualaba then up it -
and West but with bloodhounds it is out of the
question - I see nothing for it but go back
to Ujiji for other men though it will
throw me out of the chance of discovering
35the fourth great Lake in Lualaba line
of drainage and other things of great
value - Dugumbe asked why the
refused to go - answer "Afraid" Then you
are cowards - "Yes we are" Are you men
40Answer - "We are slaves" - I said that
I was glad they confessed before him 0700
700
1871
July
16th
They would lose all pay - I had entreated
5them not to throw it away some 22
months wages but it is not theirs - They
do not care for what is to go to their
masters - At last I said that I would
start for Ujiji in three days on foot
10I wished to speak to Tagamoio
about the captive relations of the
chiefs but he always ran away
17th when he saw me coming - All
the rest of Dugumbe's party offered
15me a share of every kind of goods
they had and pressed me not to be
ashamed to tell them what I needed -
I declined everything save a
little gun powder but all made
20presents of beads and I was glad
to return equivalents in cloth It
is a sore affliction at least forty five
days in a straight line - 300 . . . or by the
turnings and windings 600 English miles
25and all after feeding and clothing the
Banian slaves for 21 months - But
it is for the best though if I do not
trust to the riffraff of Ujiji I must
for other men at least ten months
30there - With help from above I shall yet
go through Rua - see the underground
excavations first then onto Katanga
and the four ancient fountains eight
days beyond
- and after that Lake Lincoln


35

18th The murderous assault on the market
people felt to me like Gehenna without
the fire and brimstone but the heat
was oppressive and the firearms
pouring their iron bullets on the fugitives
40was a not inapt representative of
burning in the bottomless Pit -

0701
701

The terrible scenes of man's inhumanity to man
1871
July
518
It ^ brought on severe headache which
might have been serious had it not been
relieved by a copious discharge of blood
I was laid up all yesterday afternoon -
with the depression the bloodshed made
10It filled me with unspeakable horror -
Dont go away say the Manyuema chiefs
to me but I cannot stay here in agony.


19th Dugumbe sent me a fine goat - a
mauch of gunpowder - a mauch of
15fine blue beads and 230 cowries to
buy provisions in the way - I proposed to
leave a doti Merikano & one of Kanike to
buy specimens of workmanship - He
sent me two very fine large Manyema
20swords and two equally fine spears
and said that I must not leave anything
He would buy others with his own goods
and divide them equally with me - He is
very friendly -


25

River fallen 4 ½ feet since the 5th ult
i.e. one half foot


A few market people appear today
formerly they came in crowds - a very
few from the West bank bring salt to
30buy back the baskets from the camp
slaves which they threw away in panic
others carried a little food for sale
About 200 in all chiefly those who have
not lost relatives - one very beautiful
35woman had a gunshot wound in her
upper arm tied round with leaves -
Seven canoes came instead of fifty
but they have great tenacity & hopefulness
An old established custom has great
40charms for them and it will again be
attended if no fresh outrage is committed -
No canoes now come into the 0702
702
1871
July
19th
the creek of of death but land above
5at Ntambwe's village - This creek at
the bottom of the long gentle slope on
which the market was held probably
led to its selection


A young Manyuema man worked
10for one of Dugumbe's people preparing
a space to build on = When tired
he refused to commence to dig a
pit and was struck on the loins with
an axe and soon died - He was
15drawn out of the way and his relations
came - wailed over and buried
him - They are too much awed to
complain to Dugumbe - !!


20th Start back for Ujiji - All Dugumbe's
20people came to say good bye and
convoy me a little way. Made
a short march for being long in-
-active it is unwise to tire oneself on
the first day as it is then difficult to
25get over the effects -


21 st One of the slaves was sick and the rest
falsely reported him to be seriously
so to give them time to negotiate for
women with whom they had co-
30habited - Dugumbe saw through
the fraud and said leave him to
me - If he lives I will feed him if
he dies bury him - Do not delay
for any one but travel in a com
35-pact body as stragglers now are
sure to be cut off He lost a
woman of his party who lagged
behind - and seven others were
killed besides and the forest hid
40the murderers - I was only two too 0703
703
1871
July
21st
anxious to get away quickly and on
5the 22nd started off at daylight and
went about six miles to the village of
Mañkwara
where I spent the night
in going - The chief Mokandira con-
-voyed us hither - I promised him a
10cloth if I came across from Lomame
He wonders much at the underground
houses - never heard of them till I
told him about them - Many of the
gullies which were running fast
15when we came were now dry. ---
Thunder began & a few drops of rain fell
23d 24th crossed R Kunda of 50 yards in
two canoes and then ascended from
the valley of denudation in which it
20flows to the ridge Lobango - crowds
followed all anxious to carry loads
for a few beads - several market
people came to salute - knew that we
had no hand in the massacre as we
25are a different people from the Arabs
In going and coming they must have
a march of 25 miles with loads so
heavy no slave would carry them
They speak of us as "good" - The
30anthropologists think that to be spoken
of as wicked is better - Exekiel says
that the Most High put his comeliness
upon Jerusalem If he does not
impart of his goodness to me I shall
35never be good - If he does not put
of his comliness on me I shall never
be comely in soul but ^ be like these
Arabs in whom Satan has full
sway - the god of this world having
40blinded their eyes -

0704
704

1871
July
25th
25th We came over a beautiful
5country yesterday - A vast hollow of
denudation with much cultivation
is intersected by a ridge some 300
feet high on which the villages are
built - This is Lobango - The path
10runs along the top of the ridge and
we see the fine country below all
spread out with different shades of
green as on a map - The colours
shew the shapes of the different
15plantations in the great hollow
drained by the Kunda - After crossing
the ^ fast flowing Kahembai which flows into the
Kunda and it into Lualaba - we rose
on to another intersecting ridge
20having a great many villages burned
by Matereka or Salem Mokadam's
people after we passed them in
our course N.W. They had slept
on the ridge after we saw them
25and next morning in sheer wanton
ness fired their lodgings - The slaves
had evidently carried the fire
along from their lodgings and set
fire to houses of villages in their
30route as a sort of horrid Moslem
Nigger lark - It was done only
because they could do it without
danger of punishment - It was
such fun to make the Mashense
35as they call all natives houseless
Men are worse than beasts of
prey if indeed it is lawful to
call Zanzibar slaves men
It is monstrous injustice to
40to compare free Africans living 0705
705
1871
July
25th
under their own chiefs and laws and
5cultivating their own free lands with
what slaves afterwards become at
Zanzibar and elsewhere -


26th Came up out of the last valley of
denudation - that drained by Kahembai
10and then along a level land with open
forest - four men passed us in hot
haste to announce the death of a woman
at their village to her relations living at
another - Heard of several deaths lately
15of dysentery - Pleurisy common from
cold winds from North West - Twenty
two men with large square black
shields capable of completely hiding the
whole person came next in a trot
20to recieve the body of their relative and
all her gear to carry them to her own
home for burial - About twenty women
followed them and the men waited under
the trees till they should have wound the
25body up and weep over her - They
smeared their bodies with clay and
their faces with soot - Reached our
friend Kama -


27th Left Kama's group of villages &
30went through many others before we
reached Kasongo's - and were welcomed
by all the Arabs of the camp at this
place - bought two milk goats reasonably
28-29 and rest over Sunday - They asked
35permission to send a party with me for
goods to Ujiji - This will increase
our numbers and perhaps safety
among the justly irritated people
between this and Bambarre - All are
40enjoined to help me and of course
I must do the same to them.

0706
706

1871
July
29th
It is colder here than at Nyangwe -
5Kasongo is off guiding an ivory or
slaving party and doing what business
he can on his own account - has four
guns and will be the first to maraud
on his own account


10

30th They send thirty tusks to Ujiji and
seventeen Manyuema volunteer to carry
thither and back - These are the very first
who in modern times have ventured 50
miles
from the place of their birth - came
15only three miles to a ridge overlooking
the Rt Shokoye - & slept at village on a
31st hill beyond it - Passed through the
defile between Mount Kimazi and Mt
Kijila
- Below the cave with stalactite
20pillar in its door a fine echo answers
those who feel inclined to shout to it -
came to Mangala's numerous villages
and two slaves being ill rest on Wednesday
1st
25August
1871
A large market assembles close to us


2nd Left Mangala's and came
through a great many villages all
deserted on our approach on account
30of the vengeance taken by Dugumbe's
party for the murder of some of their
people - Kasongo's men appeared
eager to plunder their own countrymen
Had to scold and threaten them and set
35men to watch their deeds - Plantains
very abundant good & cheap -
came to Kittette and lodge in village
of Loembo - About thirty foundries
were passed - They are very high in the
40roof and thatched with leaves from
which the sparks roll off as sand
would - Rain runs off equally well

0707
707

1871
August
3
- 3d Three slaves escaped and not to
5abandon ivory we wait a day and
men sent after we left Kasongo came
up and filled their places -


I have often observed effigies of men
made of wood in Manyuema - some
10of clay are simply cones of clay with a
small hole in the top - on asking
about them here I for the first time
obtained reliable information - They
are called Bathata = fathers or ancients
15and the name of each is carefully
preserved - Those here at Kittette were
evidently the names of chiefs - Molenda
being the most ancient - Mbayo
Yamba - Kamoanga - Kitambwe
20Ñoñgo - Aulumba - Yenge Yenge -
Simba Mayañga - Loembwe recently
dead - They were careful to have the
exact pronunciation of the names
The old men told me that on certain
25occasions they offer goats flesh to
them - Men eat it and allow no
young person or women to partake
They say that originally those who
preceded Monlenda came from
30Kongolakokwa which conveys
no idea to my mind - It was interest
ing to get even this little bit of history
here - (Nkolñgolo = deity Nkongolo at the deity


4th Came through miles of villages all
35burned because the men refused
a certain Abdullah lodgings - The
men had begun to rethatch the huts
and kept out of our way but a
goat was speared by some one in
40hiding and we knew danger was near

0708
708

1871 -
4th
August
Abdullah admitted that he had no other
5reason for burning them than the
unwillingness of the people to lodge him
and his slaves without payment &
with the certainty of getting their food
stolen and utensils destroyed -


10

5th 6th Through many miles of palm trees
and plantains to a Boma or stockaded
village where we slept though the
people were evidently suspicious
7th and unfriendly


15

To a village ill and almost every
step in pain - People all ran
away and appeared in distance
armed and refused to come near
Then came and threw stones at us
20Then tried to kill those who went for
water - Sleep uncomfortably the
natives watching us all round
Sent men to see if the way was
clear


25

8th They would come to no parley - They
knew their advantage and the wrongs
they had suffered from Bin Juma
and Muhamad's men when they
threw down the ivory in the forest -
30In passing along the narrow path
with a wall of dense vegetation
touching each hand - We came
to a point where an ambush had
been placed and trees cut down to
35obstruct us while they speared us
but for some reason it was
abandoned - Nothing could be seen
but by stooping down to the
earth and peering up towards
40the sun a dark shade could 0709
709
1871
Aug.
8th
sometimes be seen - This was an
5infuriated savage - a slight rustle in
the dense vegetation meant a spear
A large spear from my right lunged
past and almost grazed my back =
and stuck firmly into the soil - The
10two men from whom it came appeared
in our opening in the forest only ten
yards off
and bolted - one looking
back over his shoulder as he ran
As they are expert with the spear I
15dont know how it missed except
that he was too sure of his aim
and the good hand of God upon
me - I was behind the main body
and all were allowed to pass till the
20leader who was believed to be Muhamad
Bogharib
or Kolokolo himself
came up to the point where they lay
A red jacket they had formerly seen
me wearing was proof that I was the
25same that sent Bin Juma to kill
five of their men, capture eleven
women and children & 25 goats -
Another spear was thrown at me
by an unseen assailant at it
30missed me by about a foot in
front - Two of our party were
slain - Guns were fired into the
dense mass of forest but with no
effect for nothing could be seen
35but we heard the men jeering &
denouncing us close by - Coming
to a part of the forest cleared for
cultivation I noticed a gigantic
tree made still taller by growing
40on an anthill 20 feet high 0710
710
1871
August
8th
had fire applied near its roots - I
5heard a crack which told that the
fire had done its work but felt no
alarm till I saw it come straight
towards me - I ran a few paces
back and down it came to the ground
10one yard behind me - broke into
several lengths and covered me
with a cloud of dust - Had the
branches not previously been rotted
off I could scarcely have escaped
15Three times in one day was I
delivered from impending death
My attendants scattered in all directions
came running back to me calling
out "Peace! "Peace"! you will
20finish all your work in spite
of these people and in spite of every
-thing" - I took it like them as an
omen of good success to crown
me yet - - Thanks to the "Almighty
25Preserver of men" We had
five hours of running the gauntlet
waylaid by spearmen who all
felt that if they killed me they would
be revenging the death of relations
30fFrom each hole in the tangled mass
we expected a spear - and each
moment expected to hear the
rustle which told of deadly weapon
hurled at us - I became weary
35with the constant strain of danger
and as I suppose happens with
soldiers on the field of battle - not
courageous but perfectly indifferent
whether I were killed or not.

0711
711

1871
Aug.
8
When at last we got out of the forest
5and crossed the Liya? on to the cleared
lands near the villages of Monanbundua Muanampunda
we lay down to rest and soon saw
that chief coming walking up in a
stately manner unarmed to meet us
10He had heard the vain firing of my
men into the bush and came to ask
what was the matter - I explained the
mistake that Munangonga had made
in supposing that I was Kolokolo
15the deeds of whose men he knew and
went on to his village together - In the
evening he sent to say that if I would
give him all my people who had guns
he would call his people together - burn
20off all the vegetation they could fire and
punish our enemies bringing me ten
goats instead of three milk goats I
had lost - I again explained that the
attack was made by a mistake in think-
25-ing I was the trader and that I had no
wish to kill men - To join in his
old feud would only make matters
worse - This he could perfectly under
-stand - I lost all my remaining
30calico - a telescope umbrella and
five spears by one of the slaves
throwing down the load and taking
up his own bundle of country cloth -


9th Went on towards Mamohela now
35deserted by the Arabs - Monanponda
convoyed me a long way and at one
spot with grass all trodden down
he said here we killed a man of
Moezia and ate the body - The meat
40cut up had been seen by Dugumbe -

0712
712

1871
August
10th -
In connection with this affair
5the party that came through from
Mamohela found that a great fight
had taken place at Muanampunda's
and they saw the meat cut up to be
cooked with bananas - They did not
10like the strangers to look at their meat
but said go on and let our feast
alone - did not want to be sneered
at - The same Muanampunda or
Monanbonda told me fondly that
15they ate the man of Moezia - They seem
to eat their foes to inspire courage
or in revenge - One point is very
remarkable it is not want that
has led to the custom for the country
20is full of food - Nobody is starved
of farinaceous food - they have
maize dura pennisetum - cassava
and sweet potatoes -


fatty ingredients of diet the palm
25oil - groundnuts - Sessamum
a tree whose fruit yields a fine
sweet oil


The saccharine materials needed
are found in the sugar cane - Bananas
30Plantains -


Goats sheep fowls dogs pigs
abound in the villages - The forest
afford elephants zebras buffaloes
antelopes and the streams many
35varieties of fish - The nitrogenous
ingredients all abundant - and
they have dainties in Palm
toddy and tobacco or Bange
The soil is so fruitful mere
40scraping off the weeds is as good
as ploughing -

0713
713

1871
Aug.
10th -
The reason for cannibalism does not
5lie in starvation or in want of animal
matter as was said to be the case with
the New Zealanders - The only feasible
reason I can discover is a depraved
appetite giving an extraordinary
10craving for meat which we call
high - They are said to bury a dead
body for a couple of days in the
soil in a forest and in that time in
this climate it soon becomes putrid
15enough for the strongest stomachs


The Lualaba has many oysters in
it with very thick shells - They are called
Makessi and at certain seasons are
dived for by the Bagenya women
20Pearls are said to be found in them
but boreing to string them has never been
thought of - Kanone = Ibis religiosa
Uruko - Kuss name of coffee -


The Manyuema are so afraid of guns
25that a man borrows a gun to settle any
dispute or claim - He goes with it over
his shoulder and quickly arranges the
matter by the pressure it brings though they
all know that he could not use it.


30

Gulu = Deity Above or Heaven
Mamvu - Earth or below - Gulu is a
person and men on death go to him -
Nkoba lightning - Nkoñgolo = deity?
Kula or Nkula - salt spring W of Nyangwe
35Kalunda Do Kiria rapid down river
Kirila islet in sight of Nyangwe Magoya Do
Note The chief Zurampela is about N W of
Nyangwe and 3 days off - The Luive R.
of very red water is crossed and the larger
40[Mabila] river recieves it into its very dark water
before Mabila enters Lualaba

0714
714

Aug.
?
1871
5copied
Notes Suleiman bin Juma lived
on the main land Mosessane near
Zanzibar - seems to have had remark
able foresight of events - Preeminently
a good man, upright and sincere
10none like him now for goodness
frequently foretold the deaths of great
men among the Arabs - said that
two middle sized white men with
straight noses and hair flowing
15down their girdles behind, came at
times and told him of things to come
He died twelve years ago and fore-
told his own decease three days before
it happened of cholera


20

Enquire further -


A ball of hair rolled in the stomach
of a lion as calculi are is a great
charm among the Arabs it scares
away other animals -


25

Lions fat smeared on the tails
of oxen to be taken through a country
abounding in Tsetse or Buñgo is
a sure preventive - When I heard of
it I thought that lions fat would
30be as difficult of collection as gnat's
brains or mosquito tongues but
I was assured that many lions
are killed on the Basango highland
and they in common with all beasts
35there are extremely fat so it is not
all difficult to buy a calabash of
the preventive -and Banyam-
wezi
desirous of taking cattle to the
40coast
for sale know the substance
and use it successfully ? ?

0715
715

1871
copied
Aug.
Note The Neggeri or Nyegeri a small
5animal attacks the τεϬτικλες of
of man and beast ferociously. Buffaloes
as I long ago heard from Makololo are
often castrated by him and die - These who
know him squat down on being attacked
10and defend themselves with a knife
Mbinde or Ratel flies at the tendon
Achilles - Bees detest his droppings &
urine so much as to escape at once
and leave him to eat the honey unmolested
15and all animals dread his attacks on
the heel - The Soko on the contrary
bites off the ends of the fingers and toes
while the leopards and all the cat tribe
attack the throat


20

Fisi ea Bahari = possibly the seal
is abundant in the Arab seas and
may have covered the tabernacle if
the animal skins were not those of the
Badger -


25

The Babemba mix a handful of castor
oil seeds with dura or Meleza (millet)
and grind all together - The feel the
need of only ingredients in these farina
-ceaus grains and custom makes
30them relish the mixture


Laba in the Manyuema tounge means
medicine - This would make Lualaba
the river of medicine or charms
but the Manyuema do not acknowledge
35that to be the meaning - nor is it
looked on as sacred like the Ganges
the banks are healthy and it yields
food abundantly both in the water
and on its banks - The word Lualaba
40is applied to the Lufira when it becomes 0716
716
1871
Aug
copied
very large and it is applied to the
5river that divides Rua from
Londa or Lunda - Lua means
river - Lui = water - Lualaba seems
to have the idea of flowing grandly


Note Kondohondo or Sassassa the
10Buceros cristata - The large double
billed Horn bill called Kangomira
on the Shire shot at Bambarre
is good eating if well cooked
and has orange coloured fat like
15the Zebra - I keep the bill to make
a spoon of it - An English Ambassa
-dor at Constantinople was shewn
a horn bill spoon and asked if
it were really the bill of the
20Phoenix - He replied that he
did not know but he had a
friend in London who knew
every bird in the Universe and
he along could decide - The Turkish
25Ambassador in London brought
the spoon to Professor Owen
and something in the arrangement
of the fibres of the horn bill
which he had noticed before led
30him to go into the Museum and
bring out a head of Buceros
Cristata - a preserved specimen
of this very bird -"God is great"
"God is great" said the stranger
35This is undoubtedly Phoenix
of which we have heard so often
I can add that Phoenix flesh is
good eating - Prof. Owen told
the tale before the Hunlerian Society
40in 1857 - at which I was present

0717
717

1871
Aug.
copied
Notes - The soko or gorrilah has in
5general a good character from the Man-
yuema
but he is cunning and not
devoid of a species of humour He
is said to stalk men and women very
10successfully when engaged in fieldwork
snatches up a child and runs up a tree
evidently amused by its screaming - When
tempted by a bunch of small bananas
which are his weakness he lifts them
15and drops the child - The young soko in
that case would cling to the shoulder and
under the armpit of the elder - one man
was cutting out honey from a tree - and
naked - A soko suddenly appeared
20behind and caught him by the privates
grinned and giggled & let him go -
Another man was hunting and missed
when trying to spear a soko - He grappled
with the man and the spear was broken
25in the struggle - The man shouted "Soko"
"has caught me" and before the man's
companions could come soko had
bitten off the ends of four fingers &
escaped unharmed Both men are now
30alive at Bambarre and all believe the
above statement to be true -


Soko has very sharp eyes and no one
can stalk him in front without being seen
He is on this account generally speared
35or shot in the back - I saw four
killed in one day all with back wounds
Muhamad's hunter saw one near to
Bambarre carefully examining & picking his
finger nails, which he tried to get near
40he was gone - Two nests were made
by sokos about a mile from my hut 0718
718
1871 -
August
copied
I wished to observe them from a place
5of concealment but the Manyuema
objected so strongly I yielded to them
By lying in ambush they speared one of
them - When newly killed his ugliness
is quite appalling - The likeness of Satan
10in the Ninneveh marbles is not have
so ugly as he - When seen in the Forest
in a path he often walks upright with
his hands on his head as if to steady his
loins - He is then to me a short bandy legged
15potbellied low browed villain without
a particle of the gentleman in him - He
is not a very formidable beast at any
time - It is indisputable that he tries to bite
off the ends of the fingers and toes - His
20strength is great as seen in encounters
with the leopard - It does not occur to
him to use his canine teeth which are
long and formidable - but he bites off the
leopards claws and both animals
25die together - Soko has been known to
prevail ^ by seizing the leopards paws but die afterwards of his wounds
He is able to hold his antagonist down
At least so say the natives - many came
down in the forest about a hundred yards
30from our Bambarre camp and
would not have been known except
by their giving tongue like fox hounds
He draws out a spear from his own
body but does not attempt to use it
35against his enemy - A lion kills him
at once but does not eat him -
Soko eats no flesh - nor maize
His food consists of wild fruits which
abound in the forests - Soko sometimes
40bears twins - never molests women 0719
719
1871
Aug.
copied
nor a man if he has no spear - one
5soko was killed and found to have
holes in his ears - Some would be wise
Manyema argued that he must have
died a man and rose again as a soko
others gravely assert that soko is as
10wise as a man and never injures
those who do not molest him - They
drum on hollow trees in the forest and
accompany the noise with a yelping
which is very well imitated by the
15natives - embryotic music? - When the
people hear Sokos at their drumming
they go out against them and attack
in order to kill them - but say they -
When Sokos hear us beating our drums
20and singing they never attempt to
disturb us - They are better than men
never steal but are content with their
own food - They keep certain districts
of the Forest to particular parties of
25Sokos like the street dogs of Constanti
-nople
and Cairo and when an intruder
comes from another district they beat
him back by slapping his cheeks
fondly and sometimes biting him


30

He treads on the dorsal parts of the
second joints of the fingers - not on
the nails or knuckles and in so
doing hitches the body along as if
with crutches - sometimes both hands
35down at once sometimes one after
the other - Sometimes upright but he
takes to all fours as soon as he sees
man -

0720
720

1871
August
11th
Came on by a long march of six hours
5across plains of grass and watercourses
lined with beautiful trees to Kassessa's
the chief of Mamohela who has helped
the Arabs to scourge several of his country
men for old feuds - He gave them
10goats and then guided them by night
to the villages where they got more
goats and many captives each to
be redeemed with ten goats more -
Last foray the people had learned
15that every shot does not kill and
they came up to the party with bows
and arrows and compelled the slaves
to throw down guns & powder horns
They would have shewn no mercy
20had Manyuema been thus in slave
power but this is a beginning of
the end which will exclude Arab
traders from the country - Rested half
a day as I am still ill - I do most
25devoutly thank the Lord for sparing my
life three times in one day - The Lord is
good a stronghold in the day of trouble and
he knows them that trust in him -


12th Mamohela camp all burned off
30we sleep at Mamohela village


13th At a village on bank of R Lolindi
suffering greatly - A man brought
a young nearly full fledged Kite
from a nest on a tree - This is
35the first case of breeding I am
sure of in this country - They are
migratory from the South
probably into these intertropical
lands

0721
721

1871
14th
Aug.
Across many brisk burns to a village
5on the side of a mountain range


First rains 12th & 14th gentle but near
Luamo it ran in the paths & caused dew


15th To Muanambonyo's - Golungo a bush
buck with stripes across body and two
10rows of stripes spots along the sides?


16th To Luamo R. very ill with bowels


17th cross river & sent a message to my
friend Katomba sent a bountiful supply
of food back


15

18th Reached Katomba at Moenemgoi's & welcomed
by all the heavily laden Arab traders - They
carry their trade spoil in three relays
Kenyengere attacked before I came & 150
captives taken - about 100 slain - this is
20an old feud of Moenemgoi which the
Arabs took up for their own gain - No
news whatever from Ujiji and M.
Bogharib
is still at Bambarre with all
my letters


25

19th 20th rest from weakness - 21st up to the
Palms on the West of Mt Kanyima Pass.


22d Bambarre - 28th Better & thankful
Katomba's party has nearly a thousand
Frasilahs of ivory and Muhamad's has
30300 frasilahs


29th Ill all night and remain = 30th Do Do but
go on to Monandenda's on R - Lombonda


{figure} at bottom of range Highest pt
on South side of range
35{figure}


31st Up and half over the mountain range and
1st
Sepr
and sleep in dense forest with several fine
running streams


40

2d over the range and down on to a marble
capped hill with a village on top -


3 Equinoctial gales - onto Lohombo

0722
722

Septr
1871
5th to Kasangangazi's 6th Rest - 7th
Mamba's = rest on 8th 9th Do Do People falsely
5accused of stealing but I disproved it
to the confusion of the Arabs who wish to
be able to say "the people of the English
steal too" A very rough road from
Kasangangazi hither & several running
10rivulets crossed - Manyuema boy followed
10th us but I insisted on his fathers consent
which was freely given - Marching proved
too hard for him however and in a
few days he left


15

Down into the valley of the Kapemba
beautiful undulating country - came
to village of Amru - this is a common
name and is used as "man" or "comrade"
or "mate"


20

11th Up a very steep high mountain range
Moloni or Mononi and down to a
village at bottom on other side of man
called Molembu


12th two men sick - went though I am now
25comparatively o sound and well - Dura
flour which we can now procure helps
to strengthen me - It is nearest to wheaten
flour - Maize meal is called "cold"- &
not so wholesome as the Hokus sorghum
30or dura - A long march along a level
country with high mountain
ranges on each hand - Along that
on the left our first path lay and it
was very fatiguing - We came to the
35rivulet "Kalangai" I had hinted
to Mohamad that if he harboured
my deserters it might go hard with
him - and he came after me for
two marches and begged me not to 0723
723
Septr
12th
think that he did encourage them
They came impudently into the village
5and I had to drive them out - & I suspected
that he had sent them - I explained and
he gave me a goat which I sent back
13th for - This march back completely used
up the Manyuema boy - could not
10speak or tell what he wanted cooked
when he arrived - I did not see him go
back and felt sorry for the poor boy
who left us by night in consequence
People here would sell nothing so I was
15glad of the goat


14th To Pyanamosinde's - 15 to Karunga
-magao
's
very fine undulating green
country 16th 17th rest as we could get
food to buy - 18th to a stockaded village
20when the people ordered us to leave - We
complied and went out ½ a mile &
built our sheds in forest - I like sheds
in the forest much better than huts in the
villages for we have no mice or vermin
25and incur no obligation -


19th Found that Barua are destroying all the
Manyuema villages not stockaded
We came Kunda's on the Rr Katenuba


20th through great plantations of Cassava.
30Came to a woman chief's & now
regularly built our own huts apart
from the villages near the hot fount
ain called Kabila - It is about blood
heat and flows across the path -
35crossing this we came to Mokwaniwas
on the Rr Gombeze and met a caravan
under Nassur Masudi of 200 guns
He presented a fine sheep & reported
that Seyed Majid was dead - Had 0724
724
1871
Septr
20th
been ailing and fell from some
5part of his new house at Darsalam
and in 3 days afterwards expired
A true and warm friend to me -
He had done all he could do to aid me
with his subjects - gave me two
10Sultan's letters
for the purpose
Seyed Burghash succeeds him.
This change causes anxiety Will
Seyed Burghash's goodness endure
now that he has the Sultanat?
15Small pox raged lately at Ujiji


22nd Caravan goes Northwards and we
rest and eat the sheep kindly presented


23d - We now passed through the country
of mixed Barua and Baguha
-
20Loñgu
-mba
crossed the Rr Lo^ ngumba twice &
then came near the great mountain
mass on West of Tanganyika
From Mokwaniwa's to Tangan-
25-yika
is about ten good marches
country mostly Forest #open -
The Guha people not very friendly
they know strangers too well to
shew kindness like Manyuema
30They are also keen traders - I was
sorely knocked up by this march
from Nyangwe back to Ujiji -
In the latter part of it I felt as if
dying on my feet - Almost every
35step in pain the appetite failed
and a little bit of meat caused
violent diarrhoea - the mind sorely
depressed reacted on the body -
All the traders were returning success
40-ful I alone had failed and experienced
worry - thwarting - baffling when
almost in sight of the end towards 0725
725
1871
Septr
which I strained - and all because
slaves had been selected for me
5instead of men.









October
8th
The road covered with angular fragments
of quartz very sore on the feet crammed
10in ill made French shoes - How the
bare feet of the men and women stood
out I dont know - It was hard enough
on mine though protected by the shoes
We marched in the afternoons where
15water at this season was scarce - The
dust of the march caused opthalmia
like that which afflicted Speke - This
was my first touch of it in Africa
We now came to the Lobumba R.
20which flows into Tanganyika and then
to the village Loanda - Sent to Kasanga
the Guha chief for canoes - The Longum
-ba
rises like the Lobumba in the Mnts
called Kabogo West - We heard great
25noises as if thunder as far as 12 -
days off
which were ascribed to Kabogo
as if it had subterranean caves
into which the waves rushed with
great noise, and it may be that the
30Loñgumba is the outlet of Tangan-
-yika
- It become the Luasse further down
and then Luamo before it joins
the Lualaba - The country slopes that
way but I was too ill to examine
35its source

0726
726

1871
Octr
-
9th on to islet Kasange - After much
delay got a good canoe for 3 dotis - and on
515th went to the islet Kabizi^-w-a - 18th start for
19th Kabogo East and 19th reach it 8 AM {figure}
20 rest men - 22 to Rombola -


23d At dawn off and go to Ujiji - Welcomed by
all the Arabs particularly by Moeneghere -
10I was now reduced to a skeleton
but the market being held daily and
all kinds of native food brought to it
I hoped that food and rest would
soon restore me - but in the evening
15my people came and told me that
Shereef had sold off all my goods
and Moenyeghere confirmed it by
saying We protested but he did not
leave a single yard of calico out of
203000 nor a string of beads out of 700 lb
This was distressing - I had made up
my mind if I could not get people at
Ujiji to wait till men should come from
the coast but to wait in beggary was
25what I never contemplated and I now
felt miserable - Shereef was evidently
a moral idiot for he came without
shame to shake hands with me and
when I refused assumed an air of
30displeasure as having been badly
treated - and afterwards came with his
"Ba^lghere" good luck salutation twice
a day and on leaving said "I am going
to pray" till I told him that were I an
35Arab his hand and both ears would
be cut off for thieving as he knew,
and I wanted no salutations from him
In my distress it was annoying to see
Shereef's slaves passing from the
40market with all the good things 0727
727
1871
Octr
24th
that could be bought with my goods
5My property had been sold to Shereef's
friends at merely nominal prices -
Syed bin Madjid a good man proposed
that they should be returned and the ivory
be taken from Shereef, but they would
10not restore stolen property though they
knew it to be stolen - Christians would
have acted differently even those of
the lowest classes - I felt in my
destitution as if I were the man who
15went down from Jerusalem to Jericho
and fell among thieves but I could
not hope for Priest Levite or good
Samaritan to come by on either side -
but one morning Syed bin Majid
20said to me "Now this is the first time
we have been alone together - I have no
goods, but I have ivory - Let me I pray
you sell some ivory, and give the
goods to you"- This was encouraging
25but I said "Not yet but by & bye"
I had still a few barter goods left
which I had taken the precaution to
deposit with Muhamad bin Saleh
before going to Manyuema in
30case of returning in extreme need -
But when my spirits were at their
lowest ebb the good Samaritan
was close at hand for one morning
Susi came running at the top of
35his speed & gasped out "An English
["] man - I see him" and off he darted
to meet him - The American flag
at the head of a caravan told of the
nationality of the stranger - Bales
40of goods - Baths of tin - huge kettles 0728
728
1871
October
28th
cooking pots - tents &c made me think
5this must be a luxurious traveller and
[not] ^ one at his wits end like me - It was Henry
Moreland Stanley
= the Travelling
correspondent of the "New York Herald"
sent by James Gordon Bennett Junior
10 [At an expense of more than £4000 four thousand pounds.]
^ to obtain accurate information
about Dr Livingstone if living and
if dead to bring home my bones
The news had to tell to one who had
15been two full years without any tidings
from Europe made my whole frame
thrill - the terrible fate that had befallen
France - The Telegraphic cables success-
-fully laid in the Atlantic - the election
20of General Grant - The Death of good
Lord Clarendon my constant friend -
The proof that HM Government had
not forgotten me in voting £1000
for supplies, and many other
25points of interest revived emotions
Ithat had lain dormant in Manyuema -
Appetite returned, and instead of the
spare tasteless two meals a day - I
ate four times daily, and in a week
30began to feel strong - I am not of a
demonstrative turn - As cold indeed as
we islanders are usually reputed to
to be, But this disinterested kindness
of Mr Bennett, so nobly carried into
35effect by Mr Stanley was simply
overwhelming - I really do feel extremely
grateful, and at the same time I am
a little ashamed at not being more
worthy of the generosity - Mr Stanley
40has done his part with untiring
energy, good Judgment in the teeth 0729
729
1871
Octr
28th
of very serious obstacles - His helpmates
5turned out depraved blackguards who
by their excesses at Zanzibar & elsewhere
had ruined their constitutions and pre-
-pared their systems to be fit provender
for the grave - They had used up their
10strength by wickedness, and were of
next to no service but rather downdrafts
and unbearable drags to progress -
As Tanganyika exploration was said
by Mr Stanley to be an object of interest to
15Sir Roderick we went at his expense
and by his men to the North end - and
found the river of Usige running in
the outlet is probably by the Loñgumba
R.
into Lualaba as the Luamo but
20this as yet must be set down as a
"theoretical discovery"-


By the arrival of the fast Ramadan
on the 14th November and a Nautical
Almanac
I discovered that I was on
25that date 21 days too fast in my reckon
[-]ing - Mr Stanley used some very
strong arguments in favour of my
going home - recruiting my strength
getting artificial teeth, and then
30returning to finish my task but my
judgment said all your friends will
wish you to make a complete work of
the exploration of the sources of the
Nile
before you retire = My daughter
35Agnes says "Much as I wish you to
come home I would rather that you
finished your work to your own
satisfaction than return merely to
gratify me"- Rightly ^ & nobly said my
40Darling Nannie - Vanity whispers 0730
730
1871
Octr

Novr
pretty loudly - She is a chip of the old
5block - My blessing on her and
all the rest -


It is all but certain that four
fullgrown gushing fountains rise
on the Watershed eight days South
10of Katanga each of which at no
great distance off becomes a large
river - and two rivers thus
formed flow North to Egypt - The
other two South to Inner Ethiopia
15That is Lufira or Bartle Frere's
River
flows into Kamolondo -
and that into Webb's Lualaba = The
main line of drainage - Another on
the nNorth side of the Sources -
20Sir Paraffin Young's Lualaba
flows through Lake Lincoln
otherwise named Chibungo &
Lomame and that too into
Webb's Lualaba - Then Liambai
25fountain
- Palmerston's = forms
the Upper Zambesi and the
Lunga (Lunga) Oswell's ftn
is the Kafue both flowing into
Inner Ethiopia - It may be
30that these are not the fountains
of the Nile
mentioned to Herodotus
by the Secretary of Minerva
in Sais in Egypt but they
are worth discovery as in the
35last hundred of the seven hundred
miles
of the Watershed from
which nearly all the Nile springs
do unquestionably arise - I propose
to go from Unyanyembe to
40Fipa - then round the South ^ end 0731
731
Novr = of Tanganyika - Pambete or Mbete
then across the Chambeze and round
[South of] Lake Bangweolo and due West to
5the Ancient Fountains - Leaving the
underground excavations till after
visiting Katanga - This route will
serve to certify that no other sources
of the Nile
can come from the South
10without being seen by me - No one
will cut me out after this explora-
-tion is accomplished - And may the
good Lord of all help me to shew
myself one of his stout hearted
15servants - an honour to my children
and ^ perhaps my country & race -


Mr Stanley had been mulcted of
a very large quantity of goods by his
guide taking to the Wavinza and
20Uha country where the "honga" is
shameless robbery accompanied
with insult. To avoid this he proposed
to go along Tanganyika Southwards
by canoe until were clear of the country
25of the robbers - and then strike East till
we came to that part of his route where
the people had all been friendly - We
went by sea to Burimba just 60'
South of Ujiji
then struck nearly
30East over a beautiful mountainous
country well covered with green open
forest but without a path going in
our direction for ten days -         We
reached his route at Merera of
35Losawa
where we bought plenty of
Dura - He shot a zebra & buffalo
near Tanganyika and at Npokwa
two zebras and a cow giraffe


[...]

Loading...
1871 Field Diary (Fragments Integrated)
David Livingstone


Date of composition: 23 March 1871-3 November 1871
Place of composition: Nyangwe; Manyema; Ujiji
Clendennen & Cunningham number(s): Field Diaries, 033, 037, 038, 039
Digital edition and date: Livingstone Online, 2016
Publisher: University of Maryland Libraries, College Park, MD, USA
Project id: liv_015002
TEI encoding: Adrian S. Wisnicki, Kathryn Simpson, Doug Emery



CII

CII - to be copied into journal at Ujiji now 28


23rd March 1871 Left Kasongo - he gave a
goat & guns &c - country       gently undulating
shewing green slopes fringed with wood
5Grass from 4 to 6 feet = Luamba or
cotton meadow grass - Nyassi in patches
reached Katenga's about 6 miles off
many villages & people passed us
carrying loads of provisions - cassava
10from the chitoka or market - soil
a little sandy - allows good drainage


  24th = Great rain in the night &
morning - and sickness of
men prevented our march


15

      25th Went to Marimwe
miles off- many hamlets at
each station = country undulating
and grassy - trees scarce
Patches of Arum at every
20village and cassava far
off on account of the pigs
which are now plenty - a
black ugly pig - crossed a rivulet &
the Lohemba -


25

  26th Went four miles and crossed the
Kabwe maji - the a mile beyond Kahembai
which flows into the Kunda and it
into Lualaba - country open and
low hills appear in the North - We
30met a party from the traders at Kasongo
chiefly Matereka's people - Salem & Seyd
bin Sultan
- They had eighty two captives
say they fought ten days to secure
them and two Malongwana & two of the
35Banyamwezi - they had about 20
tusks and carried one who broke
his leg in fighting - We shall be safe
only when past the blood shed -
and murder


40

[1 Nyangwe
Lokengo 3 Kilonda
Bagenya 2
rowers
Likele 4 far
45Bakuzz]



[Kibrinke R
is rocky
Lohike
poisoned
50arrows]

CIII

CIII 27th along a ridge of land over
looking a well cultivated lowland with
hills in the distance where the Bogharib
feat was performed - many villages come
5through rather tumble down ones 7 miles
a headman bothered [ ] this one to give
a goat and in fear he did it. Arum
Arum common -


28th The Banian slaves are again
10trying compulsion in I don't know
what - refused to take their bead
rations     and began an oration
by the mouth of Chakanja - I
could not listen to it as he has
15been concocting a mutiny against
me - It is excessively trying and
so many difficulties have been
put in my way I doubt whether
the Divine favour and will is
20on my side       We came six miles
today crossing many rivulets
running into the     Kunda
which also we crossed in a
canoe - It is about thirty yards
25wide and deep - Then near the
village where we sleep we crossed
the Liya about twenty yards and
going into Kunda & Lualaba


I am greatly distressed because
30no law here - they probably
mean to create       a disturbance
at Abeds place to which we
are near           The Lord look on it


[                ]


35

    29th March - the slaves demanded
double allowance and as usual
told me of what they got   near the
sea coast -     We crossed the river

CIV

CIV - The MolembeThe Moangor by two 27
well made wattle bridges - It is 20 yards & a
very strong current and is feared on that
account - the the Molembe in a canoe -
5swelled by rains to 15 yards & many rills and
much mud - Came about 7½ miles to
sleep at one of the villages of Nyangwe
Hope to reach Abed tomorrow     About
sixty market women came past us
10from the chitoka or market place
on the Lualaba -     they pass thither
by night and come away about midday
having disposed most of their goods
by Barter - country open & dotted
15over with villages -     Trees along the
watercourses chiefly - Grass not very
long - four to six feet - Pigs abundant
country low as compared with Tangan
-yika
- about 2000 feet above the sea


20

      The headmans house I am lodged
in contained the housewifes little
conveniences in the shape of forty
pots - dishes baskets - knives &c &c
mats   all which the wife removed
25to another house I gave     four strings
of beads and go on tomorrow



30th after seven miles we came
to Nyangwe market place where
Abed and Hassani have built
30and thence sent their people over
Lualaba as far as the Loeki or
Lomame - Hope they will not
shed blood - Abed says my
words against bloodshed stuck
35into him - and he ordered his
people to give presents to the chiefs
and not kill unless attacked

CV

30 CV - 31st March 1871 Went down to
take {figure} a look at Lualaba here - It is narrower
than it is above but still a mighty river
about 3000 yards broad and deep - Has
5many Islands of large size but at
these it is still over 2000 yards or
one miles    Banks here are steep &
deep -       The banks of the other
rivers are of gravel - It flows
10fast towards the   North - people
very numerous but tomorrow
we shall see the     great gathering
at market - This         is held for
two one days and then omitted for three
15slaves bought here are good as
tailors of grass cloth but their
tongue is     strange - they come
from far



Monday
201st April
1871


  Rain early every morn
-ing  I fear it will be
difficult to buy a canoe - The
25Manyema have learned to distrust
all strangers and think to buy
means   plunder and murder



2 Chitoka or market contained
over a thousand people carrying
30earthen pots and cassava
grass cloth fishes fowls - they
were alarmed at my coming
among them and ready to flee
many stood afar off in suspicion
35many came from the other side
of the river with their goods
tomorrow market is held up river

CVI

CVI 3d April 1871 tried to secure a         31
longitude by fixing a weight on the key
of the watch helping it on - Will try in a
quiet place tomorrow - People all fear
5us and they have good reason for
it in the villanous conduct of
many of the blackguard half castes
cannot get canoe so I wait to
see what will turn up


10

    River is said to over flow all
its banks annually as the Nile
further down does -       Here it is
over 3000 yards broad - or a mile
and a half - with large islands
15In the distance is is 2 miles or 4000
yards - I sounded across yesterday
Near the bank it is nine feet. The
rest 15 feet & one cast in the middle
was 20 feet - Between the islands
2012 feet and nine feet again inshore
Mologhwe Kahemba gave us a
small sheep - It is a mighty river truly
This morning 4th of avil time I
took distances and altitudes altern-
25nately with a bullet for a weight
on the key - They may give a relative
Longitude     soil stiff black loam and
very feverish      3d Arab month 4th
                                will appear in 2 or 3 days


30

5th - People cross over to buy
viramba's or grass cloths - Arabs
asked many questions about the
Bible - How many prophets -
They say they believe all - I believe
35all but Muhammad -         7


CVII

CVII - was ill all yesterday by taking 2
cups of very sweet malofu or beer made
from bananas - shall touch it no more


7th April 1871 made this ink with the seeds
5of a plant called by the Arabs Zingifure
It is known in India and here is used
by the Manyema to dye virambas and
ornament their       faces and heads
I sent my people over to the other side
10to cut wood to build a house for me
The borrowed one I live in hads mud
walls & floors which are damp foul
smelling and unwholesome -   I shall
have grass walls and grass & reeds
15on the floor - of my own house - the
free ventilation will keep it sweet
This is the season called Masika - The
finishing rains - We have rain
in large quantity almost every night
20and I could scarcely travel even if I
had a canoe - but still it is trying to
be kept back by suspicion and by
the wickedness of the wicked - The
Arabs are very kind to me [  ]nding cooked
25food every day - I taught Abed to
make a Mosquito curtain of thin
print - He endured the persecution of
these insects sleeping on a high stage
when they were very numerous -


30

    The Manyema are not trustworthy &
they bring evil on themselves often
Paid one yesterday to bring a large
canoe - He brought one capable only of
carrying three and after men waited
35some hours we have to put of crossing
till tomorrow -

CVIII

CVIII. 8th April 1871 Every headman of 33
four or five huts is a Mologhwe Begin or chief and
glories in being called so -    there is no political
cohesion - The Ujijian sla[   ]y is an accursed
5system but it must be admitted that the
Manyema too have faults the result of
ignorance of other peoples - Their isolation
has made them as unconscious of danger
in dealing with the cruel strangers as little
10dogs in the presence of lions -       their
refusal to sell or lend canoes for fear of
blame by each other will be ended by the
party of Dugumbe which has 10 head-
men taking them by force - they are
15unreasonable and bloodyminded to-
-wards each other - Every Manyema would
like every other headman slain - They are
subjected to bitter lessons & sore experience


        Abed went over to Mologhwe Kahemba
20and mixed blood with him - He was told
that two large canoes were hollowed out
and nearly ready to be brought for sale
If this can be managed peaceably it is a
great point gained and I may get one at
25an Arab's   price which may be 3 or 4
times the native price - Heavy rains
almost every night would prevent my
progress at   present even if I had a canoe
There is no love lost among the three Arabs here



30

    9th Rainy - but sent off people to cut
wood for house - The Loeki is said
by slaves to be larger than this
but we expect Abed's party back
from it in a few days with correct
35information on that & other
points - people said to be
very fierce & dangerous
to the       Ujijians

CIX

CIX. 10th April 1871 Market today -
over 700 market people passed my door
It seems a pleasure of life to haggle & joke
and laugh & cheat - many go away with
5care worn countenances - many are
old and carry heavy loads of dried
cassava earthenpots which they dispose
of for oil     fish and relishes for their
food -      The men go flaunting in
10gaudy lambas and carry little save
their iron wares fowls & grass cloth
Bought two fishes with long snouts
very good eating



12th    New ℂ last night of 4th Arab
15month
- New house to be finished
today - The affair of Mteza resolves
itself   into a a party of 25 Turks from
Suez under Ishmael coming up to
Lower Tanganyika & living on an
20island - Took ivory by force and
then - went away but five went to
visit Mteza - He was kind to them
                        when powder was     spent
Afterwards ^ all ran away leaving all
25their ill gotten ivory -     Mteza said
to be circumcised & to order his people
to undergo the rite but so many
lies are told one can believe nothing
The idea of a mission seems first
30to have entered the Arab mind by
the beginning of bp Mackenzies - but
tales very from Mteza walking in
white and reading the Koran in
Arabic to the missionary getting
35500 slaves & 500 frasilahs of ivory
                and nothing else being done

CX

CX. 13 April 1871 came into my new 35
house yesterday the first of the 4th Arab
a great comfort for the other was foul
full of vermin & bad smelling -    Bugs
5and Kapassi Arab accompaniements
made me miserable - Manyema huts
are all clean in comparison - Killed
a goat and gave the same beads that
were refused - These slaves require to
10know that they are not the masters -
Abed says if slaves think that you fear
them they climb over you = This is
true - I clothed mine for nothing     they
thought that my kindness was fear and
15tried to ride rough shod over me -



      Mologhwe Kahemba came over
and says that he will bring a canoe for
sale - Loeki due west of this is three
days off - Its confluence is four
20days down Lualaba and all declare
it to be bosoa very large indeed -



14th Market today - Kahemba gave to
Abed two slaves as a present = I
have been writing part of a Despatch
25in case of meeting people from the French
settlement on the Gaboon at Loeki
but the canoe affair is slow & tedious
The people think only of war - getting
up a war against some one else as
30price of it!     They are a bloody minded
race - our protests for peace are
considered false = and that war in
some way is meant by buying a canoe
or getting one at all         9

CXI

  CXI 15th April the river Lomamo enters
Lualaba a short distance below this but
on the Western bank - a spring of brine
rises in its bed & the people cook it
5down and sell the salt - The Lomamo
is deep and is crossed by canoes of
Rashid & people call it the Lofubu
Lofubu and not Lomamo -
Nganze is further down and a
10market is held on its Northern
bank



16th April - It is believed that
serampSerampela gave Rashid
one three ^ (4) slaves as a present to the Arab
15traders here and Rashid keeps two
of them and declares that these were
given to him by the chief - this is
the sort of dishonesty all practise if
they possibly can =     The evidence is
20not clear and Rashid will leave as
soon as possible and sell the slaves
ere the truth can be clearly known
This vitiates his evidence about the
cannibalism - but here they eat war captives
25# and say that some buy a slave
with   a   goat and eat him



17th Rainy


18th    Market here - The Lepidosiren alive
in pots of water - White ants roasted
30a chetina and another common snail
Lepidosiren is called Sembe - Abed
went a long way to see canoe but
it was still further and he turned


{figure}       19th Dreary waiting but Abed
35          proposes to come & trade along
          with me this will render
          the party stronger and he
            will not shoot people in
            my company - We shall
40              hear Katomba's peoples
              story too


{text description}
[[ ]gnao
[   ]ml]

CXII

CXII 20th April 1871[                  ]
chief was to visit us yesterday but failed 37
probably through fear - Rashid got four
slaves by promising to bring a large body of
5men to attack chipange - came here and
after a deal of wrangling went off South
and will sell the slaves quickly so as to
end the matter - no honour among these
half castes -


10

    The chief Mokandira says that Loeki
is small where it joins Lualaba but
another which they call the Lomame
is very much larger & joins Lualaba to
but further down - Rapids reported



15

  21st a common salutation here is
Ule hatsi - thou art on earth = Ua tala
thou lookest - Ua boka ^ or Uyoka thou awakest
Ule Koni - thou are here - U ri ho - thou
art here =


20

They deny cannibalism as common {figure} - they
eat only a man taken ^ or   killed in war - say
the meat is not good - and it makes
one dream of the man killed - some
West of Lualaba buy a slave with a
25goat in order to eat him and eat him
they do - yet they are a fine looking race


Kunzi ^ or Kusi is North - Mhuru = South
ñkanda West or other side Lualaba
Mazimba = East = Bagenya people
30of West of Lualaba -      (Kanayumbe R. & island)





  22nd Market here - The chief chimburu
came over but I did not see him - He is
said to be very handsome & light coloured {figure} {figure}
Moene Lualaba or Mologhwe Nyangwe
35came too but I was not told who
he was till too late to do him honour
There are so many chiefs who shake
hands as a privilege it is confusing - they
touch one hand then clap both theirs together on
40the chest - this is       repeated twice         10

CXIII

CXIII - 23d April 1871. Journal
            24 Do        Do Kamolondo is
about ^ twenty five miles broad   The Lufira at
Katanga is a full bowshot wide - It goes
5into Kamolondo - Lui means water
only       Kayumba chakoma is
East of Lufira junction   Kikonzi
Kalanza
is on the West of it and
Mkana of the underground dwellings
10still further West -     some are only 2
days from Katanga = Charwe people
are friendly - Kamolondo about ten
days distant from Katanga



  25th News have come of four men
15sent near to this to buy ivory - were
pressed to go to war and then a war
made when 2 were killed - We can go
no where but the people wish us   to go
to kill others - a dreadful state truly



20

They force on a war against others by getting
traders to go ostensibly for trade then
send word that war is coming and
call out here it is - They a fray takes
place inspite of all traders can do -
25The Manyema are bloodminded & no
mistake - I refused to send my men
to bring back Abed and Hassani's
people they would only add to the con
fusion being as bloodthirsty as the
30Manyema where no danger exists
Where the people can fight traders and
people are as civil as possible - At
Moenyempandes Bogharib left a
debt of 28 slaves and did not dare to
35fire a gun - Here his people bound
the headmen of villages till tusks were
brought for mere nothing - It is a
sad   sad tale to tell as this Manyem
villainy     The Lord look on it

CXIV

  CXIV note for   letter -
        In reading about the Fountains of the Nile 38
in boyhood the idea suggested by the words
of the ancient historian was that the head
5waters welled up out of one ^ "ain" or eye and therein
without visible cause parted ^ to the North and
        to the       As       a         mere conjecture         or trader
^ South - # Possibly the primitive traveller ^ who
visited these springs ^ described them corre
10ctly enough in ^ non scientific common language as
issuing from one spot without dwelling
                        which is not apparent to the eye
on the fact ^ that though from one place
they gushed forth ^ on to from opposite slopes
15of the watershed - The ancient priests who
heard his tale may have understood it
naturally but the supernatural agreed
best with all their notions or then The
                lifting up its head from the unseen abyss
20wonderful river ^ and the marvellous
was transmitted to the time of [     ]Herodotus
in preference to the plain - The two
conical hills Crophi and Mophi
between which the fountains were
25said to be situated seem to be later
embellishments of the primitive story



        I am tired and weary - Have had a
perfect surfeit of seeing the grand
panorama of nature unfolding itself
30in mountain valley woodland Buga
or prairie - The glorious tropical
vegetation in all is richness ^ beauty and
Majestic forms - peoples - beasts
Lakes and river and humanity in
35endless variety and of beautiful form
Winwoode Reade seems to have hit the
exact truth in say that the typical negroe is
not the West Coast African on whose
form & features an unhealthy climate
40has told injuriously for ages but the
ancient Egyptian is the true negro
though all our ideas of Africans [       ]
[   ]to[     ]                            of human[    ]         11

[figure]

CXV

CXV - 26 April 1871 - Journal Chitoka
called Abed's nine slaves and asked their
countries and tribes - one with his front
                                                when he        was
5upper teeth extracted ^ about ten years of age
belongs to the Malobo tribe on the
other side of the Loeki - another comes
from the river Lombadzo or
Lombazo on the West of Loeki This
10may be another name for the Lomame
His country is called Ñañga and
(Ñoñgo) the tribe Ñoñgo - His chief         Mpunzo


          The Malobo tribe is under Yuñga
& Lomadyo - another ^ toothless slave a mere boy
15said he came from Lomame but his
statement was made in fear - the other
two declared positively that no traders came
into their country - this promises ivory
for Abed who is now eager to embark
20but not more so than I am - We look
anxiously for the return of Katomba's
and Abeds people with news as to the
way





        27th waiting anxiously but we
25cannot hasten people far off - Even
the owners of the canoes cannot be
moved -"Yes Yes we shall bring them"
but they do not stir = they doubt us





  28th Sun - Abed sending off to other
30side to buy slaves - a pretty woman
for 300     cowries and 100 strings of beads
she can be sold again for ivory -     We
hear of a half caste reaching the other
side of Lomame - probably from
35Congo or Ambriz - but reporters had
not seen him -


  a man with ten slaves digging
malachite at Katanga for 3 months
gains a hundred frasilahs of copper {figure}
40It is very cheap - fountains
eight days from Katanga S =

CXVI

CXVI. note for letter These four fountains seem to be 12
what the Egyptians priests ^ learned men of remote antiquity 41
considered to be the chief sources of the ^ renowned river
of Egypt which five for its beneficial effects ^
5                                                # and mysterious source
they regarded devoutly viewed as an emblem of the Deity
In my letter from Ujiji in 1869 which
I fear has been destroyed I described
the structure of the Watershed and added
10information about Lake Lake Bangweolo
as a supplement to a letter of   July 1868
The copy is at Ujiji so I now give from
memory some idea of its contents as
explanatiery of the springs of the Nile
15which the      ancients may not have
known -
The watershed situated between
ten and twelve South Latitude is between
700 & 800 miles in length - the general
height is between 4000 & 5000 feet above
20the level of the sea but mountains rise
stand at various parts of it which
are between 6000 & 7000 feet above
[   ] ocean - These are what Ptolemy
put down for reasons ^ now unknown as
25"The mountains of the Moon"- Large flat
patches of the watershed elevation are
                                        with slightly depressed valleys
^ flat upland forest ^ the trees on which
        one or         two miles apart         on the stems
30shew by their branches and the lichens ^
that the prevailing winds & rains are
from the South East - Their are nNo
runnels to guide off the abundant
                        from             the flats
35tropical rains - The water sinks into
the somewhat sandy soil until it comes
to a stratum of prime white river sand su[  ]
ted on a bed of hardened soft yellow
sand^stone which being impervious   to
40water guides the fluid ^ it to the nearest
valley -   This structure was found
prevailing in the Kalahari Desert
when Mr Oswell and I digged for
water for our oxen in the sucking
45places of the     Bushmen and
Bakalahari



Fragment
      of
Original
50
of{Dr} Livingstones
Journal
in Africa

CXVII

CXVII note The valleys into which the water is 40
led are covered with a thick sward of wiry
damp loving grass & other aquatic plants up
to the verge of the forest - no bushes or trees
5can live on the oozing earthen mantle
which supports the long grass and is
itself supported on water and the pearl
white ^ river sand above mentioned - The
nearest approach to oozing earthen
10sponge is our "Bog" but here we have
no   peat nor yet the, in the sun, the
mosses or Heaths from which peat
is formed - The earthen sponge is a
great specific gravity and     though
15constantly pouring out clear what
water ^ [which] descends into the centre of the
valley & forms a perennial rill = it is
only when the rains have supersat[  ]ated
the     flats and the slopes of the valleys
20are so full as to lift up the whole
earthen sponge that the natural
valves by it weight was shut opens
especially the valves at         its lower end
and the water of innundation in
25all the upland streams is gently let
go - The ensuing floods happen
towards the close of the rainy season
and even after the rains have
entirely ceased     the water generally
30                Then [                        ]
is clear -     near the centre of all the
valleys on the watershed a rivulet
is formed whose perennial
flow is fed on each bank by 30
35or a hundred yards of oozing sponge
[ ]ranches ^ rills enter it on all its course
down and these rills & rivulets
are almost innumerable - that
is it would require more than half
40a mans lifetime to count them
a birds eye view of them     would
appear somewhat like the vegetation
[  ] frost on our window panes
or more closely the vegetation

CXVIII

CXVIII Note in Canada Balsam which mad 42 13
philosophical Instrument makers insist on
putting between the object lenses of the object
[ ]lasses of our Telescopes - These are the
5                                                        the great rivers of
primary or ultimate sources of ^ the Congo
Zambesi and Nile - By their union
streams of from 20 to 30 yards broad are
formed     and these again converge into
10three ^ or four great lines of drainage = Large
Lacustrine rivers = extant specimens
of those which in prehistoric times
abounded in Africa - The Lakes and
                no large river begins in a           Lake
15Lake rivers are not sources ^ but they
serve Bosoa = great somewhat the same end as
the cisterns made to regulate the supply
of water in our artificial canals
the natural valves of the watershed
20The Lakes and the lacustrine rivers
unite in the important object
of holding back the sudden flushes
which otherwise would follow the
Tropical rains - In other cases of this [country]
25[ ]mall insignificant rivers
suddenly swell = a perfect
wall of water rushes down without
warning and in the memory of
persons     still living whole car[ ]vans
30of slaves in the chains have been
swept away before they could escape
to higher ground in the immediate
vicinity - Without the determining restraining
machinery of natural valves and ^ Friction
35Riverein ^ to[    ]ns lakes broad above and
^ narrow below - a seven days Tropical
rain would make the grand old
Nile assume the character of a
mountain torrent and rush up
40with a "bore" compared to which

CXIX

  CXIX. Note The "bore" of the Hooeley at Calcutta 43
                                would - would carry
a mere bagatella ^ carrying destruction or
death on its roaring       waters, instead
5of as by the kind ^ arrangement hand of Providence
it has done for ^ ages bearing by its slow
majestic swell and overflow fertility
and life to the millions of upper and
lower Egypt - the arrangement
10which has from time immemorial
prevented the Nile from being a
curse always also detains a volume
of water tile ^ to   be slowly let off sufficient
to supply the enormous evaporation
15from a river which with remarkably
few influents in the more arid
part of its course and whose length
measured in Latitude and Longitude
from the sources to the sea is
20about three thousand miles -





    Beginning of Despatch which the Lord
grant I may have to write


        I have the pleasure of reporting to
your Lordship that ^ at last I have succeeded in
25reaching four remarkable fountains
on the watershed of this ^ inland country in -
each of which becomes at no great
distance off a large river - They rise
from the base of an earthen of        land swell of -
30mound which can scarcely be called
a hill as it is only about --- above
the general level     It is covered with
wiry grass but neither bushes nor
trees though the country adjacent is all
35covered with upland forest - In my letter
of November last year I mentioned
from hearing that the fountains were
not ten miles apart - I ought to have
said not a quarter of a mile apart
40for by pacing I found the two fountains
on the North side just about ---

CXX

note CXX - I was not aware of Mr Young's search trip up 39 the
Shire and Nyassa till February 1871 but feel
extremely thankful to H M Government and
all concerned in kindly inquiring after my
5fate - Musa and his companions are fair
average speciments of the lower class of
Muhamadans of Arab extraction on the in East





Africa - Surampela a chief near Loeki -
[ ]island Ibwe = chipange another gave
10    Syde bin Sultans people to attack Sura
Lofubu river 300 yards by canoe -
300 [     ]    at Kimburu ^ Chinungwe R      Ñanze
                  by canoe =             Kansari a
man             of Kimburu here today
15these             chiefs were visited by Rashid
who             returned today - country
extremely muddy & full of rills - The
Lofubu is a large river 300 yds & deep
crossed by canoes - The Nganze is
20another about 250 yds - canoes [   ]
The captives we met before crossing
here were Surampela people - He is
a great chief - good looking and kind
though he had suffered severely by the
25kindred of Rashid - He invited
Rashid to see a cannibal feast by some
of his people who had five victims all
cut up   some pieces roasted and some
boiled - saw human flesh actually eaten
30Recieved two slaves as a present and
plenty of provisions but no ivory - was
near the Loeki - the country is called
Ibwe





CXXI

    CXXI note. NKoñgolo = deity Manyema



          Hassani  has travelled much
but has a curious idea of the drainage
Lufira and Lualaba West begin ftns
5each 3 fathoms broad = Lunga is
2 fathoms Do  Hill between the four
fountains about a quarter of a mile
across without trees - He thinks
that Lufira and Lualaba both         go
10into Kamolondo which he says
is as broad as Moero - say 20          miles
His sketch confused enough is
{figure}


    He confuses the flow up
15and down = says that
another river rises in
Lunda which becomes
the Lomame West
of all Lualabas and it joins this
20Lualaba far down


  From Katanga to Luivi R 3 days
From Luivi to Charwe 7 days
From Mpweto's to Nyembwakunda    5 days
From Chisabi to Nyembwe Kunda 3 days
25Kipeta another Lekulwe River
Lofuvi Do



Usambe R to Lualaba West from East
Makara R Do Uyawa - Uyawa
Kirira a promontory enclosed
30Katapa


From Mpweto to Nyembe K 5 days
and 3 from Chisabi[ ] Moenye Do
Kayumbe to Nyembwe a[  ] 6 days

CXXII

CXXII - note
      I was not aware of Mr Youngs search
trip up Shire & Nyassa till February 1871         36
but feel am extremely thankful to H M Government
5and all concerned in kindly enquiring
after my fate - Musa and his companions
are fair average specimens ^ of the lower
classes of Muhamadans in East Africa
# for heartlessness and falsehood
10The Sultan who knows his people better
than anyone else cannot entrust any
branch of his revenue to even the better
classes of his subjects but places all his
customs ^ income and money affairs in the hands
15of Banians from India and his father did
the same before him - When the Muhama
dan gentlemen of Zanzibar are asked
why their Sultan places all his pecuniary
affairs in the hands of aliens they at
20once frankly assert that it is on account
of their almost universal falsehood
and dishonesty - In their case religion
and morality are completely disjoined
    ostentatious         promises dont imply decency
25 Hence the idea of making any sacrifice
[      ] to propagate Islam is to them a farce
and in all their long intercourse
with the natives on the mainland
they have propogated nothing but
30syphilis and the domestic Bug - With
the disease they have been unfort
unhappily ^ too successful and the wide
prevalence skin disease and bleared
eyes therefrom in their own offspring
35makes it apparent that unlimited
polygamy is no barrier to the spread
of this foul complaint - Neither
Portuguese nor Arabs have sold trade
brandy to the natives - the only reason
40I can discover for this great difference
between the East and West coasts is
that they are all too eager topers of it
themselves to carry it any distance

CXXIII

CXXIII. Journal = 29th April 1871 Abed
made some more red ink of Zingifure
for me - This is what I now write with





30th chitoka here = added up the Rain
5fall in Manyema of 1870-7[ ] chiefly at
Bambarre = 61-98 inches - at
Mamohela it was rather scanty this
year - at Bambarre very copious -


      Confused reports come of the traders
10men two days distant but on the other
side - Have remained two months -
though sent for a few days - Went to fight
got between two rivers the bridges of which
were cut and several were killed in the
15water - no dependance can be placed on
any one - I refused to send my slaves
because they would only add to the con-
-fusion and murder - If they go
anywhere I must go with them or
20murder is certain - The loss in this
case is part of the process of teaching
the Ujijians -"Thou shalt not kill"-


    - Saw pieces of a remarkable spotted
fish with scales and tail prolonged
25above {figure}                                            all those who
come to                                             the market
are eager traders and go off     with a little
oil - salt - pepper shell fish and snails
Eels - clarias capensis - Beans
30cloth - iron of fine quality worked
to shew its goodness {figure} #
into long thin spindles at each end of
a knob of metal = Red bananas
appear and the oil is only a string of
35beads for about a gallon - the old
women look careworn and anxious
The carry large loads to & from the
market The men wear a very
long lamba made up in folds
40like a kilt - the women have the
worst of it

CXXIV

  CXXIV Journal 1st May 1871 Wednesday - 34
# Katomba's people arrived having cossed
R. Lindi & reached the Babira where they got a[ ]
much ivory as could be carried away
5at 2 rings each tusk - The Babire kill
elephants now and brought tusks
for sale by the dozen - they dress the
hair like Bashukulompis upright -
and no quarrel occurred = My friends
10here are eager to be off and I am eager for
a canoe - Lualaba becomes very large
after recieving the Nyengere black
water - six miles at least and it has
forest on each side - From the Shamikw
15# Shamikwa it recieves probably Bakers
water -     another water still larger
falls into it from the South West - This
probably the Lomame to which black
traders come to buy oil - an animal
20with short horns and large body called
Bangala exists - horns brought =


2nd May - send a letter to Dr Kirk by
                Moenemokaia to buy no
more goods - but send letters to Ujiji
25I send three to bring away Abeds men
from Chipange but something hurried
up to shew war was meant and I refrain



      3rd Got names of sleeping places
from Mvarawa on to crossing Lualaba
30onto Abire - Good people all - no
quarrels with any one -


    Abed says confidentially that a canoe
will come in about 5 days - He is very
anxious to go himself to be first in
35the ivory market - says that word
came after me not to help me for I was
sure to die whither I was going - The
wish is father to the wicked thought
They hate me and it is well they do

CXXV

    CXXV. Journal       4th May 1871 -
Kasongo's people were struck of a great Friend
-ship with me came to the market of today &
brought 60 pieces of lambas = They go
5away and promise to bring me knives
and a sword for cloth - the metal is very
precious at the Babire - about 2000
people come to market - cassava dried
is exchanged for fish salt and oil = Iron
10for lamba's Brava went of yeter-
day with my letters to to Kirk & Agnes





      5th Heavy rains - Abed informed
me that men had come for goats to
enable them to secure people to drag a
15large canoe from the forest where it
has been cut & hollowed out to the
Lualaba - this so far is progress but
he needs one or two for himself and
will serve himself first though I
20shall have to pay an enormous price
for it





      6th Foggy morning - Men
returned from Chipange when
beads were done - Two killed
25slaves without honour or honesty





      7th Raining with rolling thunder
of Masika - a great body of
fleecy cloud drifts fast from the
North - The same often comes
30from the S=E-. Abed said that
he would give me the first canoe
he got and would tell me the price -





    8th I promised to lend Abed
half my people if he would come away
35as soon as we get the two canoes -
This would enable him to trade well
even before his own people returned
from the West - was glad of the offer
He has eighty frasilahs of the
40Matunda beads &c strings

CXXVI

CXXVI Journal = 8th Chitoka = bring a 32
tusk among the Babire - Zulampela's
people went off today homewards - [     ]


9th River rising steadily & covering an island


5

10th = the chief Pyanamomba came yesterday
from the other side South West - is of same
family as Kimburu - Abed bought two
and a half frasilahs of copper bracelets
with cowries =     many white birds pass
10 North = daily =   one is Ibis religiosa





          11th River rising fast and bringing
great quantities of aquatic grass & duckweed
colour of water a little darker than at Cairo
People leaving islands for the higher forest
15lands - men brought one canoe down to the
water yesterday = and the men off trading
on our West are heard of as near - When
they come we shall set off though with only
one canoe - Babire very friendly - they
20are on this side the Lindi - The Benya
on the other side use bows and arrows
They are not spoiled yet by the slaves =


            A man here told me that he was going
to fight on the West of Lualaba and eat
25those killed - Human flesh said he is better
than goats - saltish and even peppery - the
people here do not deny cannibalism save
as to people not slain in war - some say
it is not nice to eat their victims for they
30dream of them afterwards - they throw away
the heads = Women never partake of it
in any part of Manyema - nor the young -





            Afternoon Abed's people returned
at 2 PM from 2 days distance from
35Lomame - with a great number
of slaves and 16 tusks - "My soul is wearied
because of murderers
" Abed says they must
be shot down these people - They want
to fight and eat us - great crowds
40were slain as population is dense

CXXVII

  CXXVII Journal 11th May continued -
Lomame very large - Water black - goes into
Lualaba below this - People smelt copper
and it is very cheap = They were very civil &
5kind to the strangers but terrible fellows among
themselves   and at last provoked
an attack in which many of the Bakuss
were killed and eighty captives taken
the s[  ]angers losing not a man - or
10even being wounded - They redeemed their
friends with slaves - ! !





      12th a set in rain from Nor West
did not deter the market today - people
came singing and sheltered with mats
15as the copper is very cheap a supply is to
be sent for by the traders the day after to
morrow - 5 days to go 5 to trade and 5 to
return them down Lualaba - Abed
says he can put the one canoe all to
20rights in a few days that is put
thole pins and helm in - He melts
copper tomorrow - I have to submit
and do it as graciously as I can - fine
tastefully wrought virambas are
25made -     and coffee comes from
West bank of Lomame - The people
are very numerous and very handsome
all look better than Banyamwezi -
It is a perfect haul of slaves for all -





30

            13th people were shot down
though standing in amazement at
the guns as thunder & lightning -
great numbers fell - they refused
passage through their country -
35They have coffee plantations and
drink it after eating handing small
cupsful to all around - I send to
buy some - It seems good but
driled in the fruit rind -

CXXVIII

  CXXVIII Journal 13th May 1871 continued 30
I wrote to Moenemokaia to be sure & take all my
goods out of Shereefs hands & deliver them to Moenye
-ghere
& Syd bin Majid - and should Shereef prove
5troublesome to     beat him - and s[ ]nd him
off for not obeying consul's orders - [   ]afe too
and to send me by some one a sh[  ]t a
pair of trousers and one frasilah of
samsam beads = If I find them on coming
10from the fountains back to Lualaba
they will be a boon - If lost no great harm
is done - an armring of copper 1½ thick
for one string of beads - ! Dura Pennis-
-etum & maize grown largely - among
15the Bakuss - who make wale but not
porridge of them - they wash regularly
Houses of two stories - little clothing
used - women slaves here have rather
rounded compressed heads but very
20pleasant faces - & ancient Egyptian
round eyes = When they saw guns
they thought that they were the insignia
of the strangers chiefs - a long staff &
a knob on the lower end blackened
25with some medicine being the usual
official staff of chiefs = they feared
the Banyamwezi bows when drawn towards
them but guns taking aim were not
dreaded -       their effects aroused mute
30astonishment and looking up to the clouds
They use a very long handled spear darting
out from the long grass but keeping it
in hand - Their numbers are prodigious
The country literally swarms with people
35save a few patches of forest and great
pools of standing water waist chest and
neck deep which slowly drains off to the
Lomame - Many markets along their
route to which people come from far -
40Marketting is as great an Institution
perhaps greater than shopping among
ourselves -

CXXIX

CXXIX Journal - 14th May 1871 - Men
sent to buy copper on West of Lualaba and
one man to hasten the canoe - The ownrs
said to be sick


5

15th[  ] crossing the river Abed found
that [  ]ssani had played him false
with [ ]he canoes and turned right
about to go off down river to the
ivory - I approved of this and
10advised him to go and I would
help him to get copper by going up
Lomame from the confluence - He
will be nearer the copper mines
than we are now, and be buying ivory
15all the time I was up at the copper &
exploring -   the canoe is to come to
me today and Abed delivers it to me


      a row with two of my slaves
though they can employ Manyema
20to bring grass wood everything
with the beads I give - I offered
the two ringleaders their discharge
This damped them woefully =
It is their misfortune to be slaves
25and mine to be dependant on them -
the headman who sells the canoe and has
recieved 600 cowries of the price came
today - Karenga - It has not been
moved an inch towards the water
30though he got 3 goats to eat while dragging
it - !





16th a long talk with my mutineers
refuse to go unless Arabs were in
prow to go to - The loss of wages and
35prospective punishment had an effect
as explained by Hassani - I told him
that they were deserting me to be recieved
by him This alarmed him & made
him earnest in declaring that they
40should not remain with him - This
is now blown over -

CXXX

CXXX Journal - 16th May 1871 continued 26
Abed gave me a frasilah of Mantun[ ]a b[  ]ds
They alone pass current down riv[ ]r [          ]
have none - I gave him 7 dotis of [        ]
5American sheeting - i e 28 yar[ ] [  ]ich
is handsome payment -     an [   ]sually
large attendance at market today - 3000
at least - they catch the live Lepido siren
by the neck and lift him out to see his
10size - fish very abundant -   Earthen balls
such as is eaten in Safura were exposed
for sale and camwood ground and made
into small flat cakes -     There is quite a
roar of voices during all the time of haggling





15

    17th The disturbance about beads
was all a pretence in order to vex
me - I gave beads to buy provisions
this morning as canoe will certainly
come presently - they let it out that
20they wished to go home to Zanzibar
This has been uppermost in
their minds all the way to Bambarre
and from thence here - They asked a
writing of permission or a pass
25which I refused - I shall wait
for Dugumbe = here as the mud is
excessive in front to the Luira R.





      18th resolved to take the guns from
the mutineers as bought with my mone  y
30in this Abed and Hassani agreed
and said they were all at my servi  ce
did not make a noise about it bu  t
my demand was followed by several
wishing to go forward - they are
35senseless slaves with no honour

CXXXI

CXXXI - Note Journal - 18th May 1871 contin =
a goat so fat it could scarcely walk sold
for a treble string of beads {figure} fattened with
dura [ ] pennisetum & given in the village





5

[    ] Abed gave me 200 cowries
and [  ] strings of a greenish bead
very much admired by all here -
advises me to return to Ujiji as the
Banian slaves are sure to desert
10in front - spoke to them to give
up their guns and be gone but
all now professed willingness to go
on so being eager to finish my
work if possible I run the risk and
15gave beads to buy provisions - I shall
do a little work and meantime Dug-
-umbe
may arrive and I shall hire
men if he will at a thousand
dollars or £200 - When worried by
20these untoward circumstances the
bowels plague me too and discharges
of blood relieve headache and
are as safety valves to the system
which I should not have had if I had
25allowed Mr Syme to operate on me
Sir Roderick told me that his father
was operated upon by the famous
John Hunter and died at the early
age of forty in consequence
30He himself spoiled his saddles
when a soldier by frequent
discharges from the Piles but
would never submit to an operation
and he is now eighty years
35of age -
Turn to other sheet - CXXXII

CXXXII [v.1]

CXXXII Note - the Zingifure with which 29
this is written is declared to be a good remedy
for curing the itch which plagues very
many both Arabs and natives



5

        Near Lomame adultery is punished
by selling the culprit - his wife - Father-
children - a woman here was sold thus
for the crime of her husband =     She
was bought for ¾ lbs of beads -     They
10all wash regularly and are cleanskin
-ned in consequence - dont know
porridge - all their grain is cooked as
"wale" in which the grains do not
cohere as with rice properly boiled -


15

    The men are reckless fellows - one
was trying to sell a bracelet and it
being refused he lifted his spear and
made as if to plunge it into the
strangers chest - "Barter I say" said
20he in a brow beating way - This foolish
overbearing way was sometimes ans-
-wered by a ball in the chest and it
was scarcely to be wondered at for
pacific means were by Abeds orders fairly
25tried - presents to the chiefs - payment
of all guides - making friends with
influential men whose influence
was to be used on the strangers side but
generally in rain when far into this
30country and at last passage was
blocked up and much blood shed
they feared and fled from the drawn
bows of Wanyamwezi but looked at
guns as having no harm in them -
35looked up to see thunderclouds in mute
amazement - and did not attempt
to use their very long spears though they
do produce fearful havoc in long grass

CXXXIII [v.1]

CXXXIII     Note
  Thundu = an antelope on Lualaba: size of a
large goat = lokolia colour or skin - Horns
straight & tapering about 4 inches ---


5

Chobela a river which runs into
Kamolondo - 3 days from Mpneto's


Lualaba rises 10 feet above the
present level - [  ] At times but
generally about 15 feet - then with
10the water now 15 feet would be
30 feet of depth at flood --- which
is said to occur annually -



Maluñgwe a reddish skinned animal


Many white birds flying North 2 Ibis religiosa


15

10th May - 1871 = river falling fast -
people leaving islands and camping
in higher land of forest



11th Kiziwa said to be name of Lake
Albert


20

  Balegga first after leaving this
then Kasongo = a large tribe
then Baziri or Wazire
- R   Lira - ^ or Luira black water?
- Banayuba
25- Babire on this side Lolinde
Lolinde did not cross but
Benya with bows & arrows
                    are on other side





  Bagenya on other side of
30Lualaba & Lindi - Lualaba
makes so much Westing that when we
are on other side Lomame we shall be
about 6 weeks from mouth of Congo
but then both Lualaba & Lomame
35take a vast sweep back to the Eastward
to fall into or recieve L Albert water

CXXII [v.2]

CXXXII - Journal - # 20th May 1871 - Abed
goes off down river today wisely for ivory
I am hindered by owner of canoe being
sick - a mere excuse I suspect. He says
5that when he has sold all his goods he
will give me men and go himself too
to finish my work - I said "Haki a
Mungu" - and he said yes of a truth
I replied then I will give you a thousad
10dollars on the spot - this is £200 -





        21st Abed followed his people who
went off yesterday - White is rubbed on the
Manyema fare as token of joy at a birth
or other glad event - black as mourning
15It is difficult to realize the state of those who
are utterly ignorant of the world besides
and have heard no news save spearing
each other - Men cutting paddles





        22nd Headman refuses to bring the
20canoe without reason - River steadily
rising - colour darkening - wreck less[  ]


        a young woman slave passed the word
all the others from Kuss near Lomame to
save their porridge and meat and with it pay
25their passage across Lualaba and escape - It was
discovered and all are enchained this morn-
-ing - People came back from Abed for
some others who ran away - The slaves are
big strongly built men and women much
30aspersion to the Zanzibar freedmen -
Illicit intercourse is the general course that
reduced to slavery = and women tempt
men more openly than anywhere else
I have seen - save in the Haymarket





35

            23d a party came today from Mamohela
to get a fresh haul of the ^ Bakuss slaves Babire ivory - Dugumbe
is conjectured to be near to Kasongo's -
Hassani says that we shall get canoes
and seems confident - The party West
40[  ] this [ ]ill return 7 days hence - [         ]

CXXXIII [v.2]

  CXXXIII     Journal - 24th May 1871         23
Market or chitoka a busy scene - every one in
dead earnest = little time is lost in friendly greetings
Then the vendors of fish run about with potsherds
5full of snails or small fishes or clarias dried or
fresh and exchange for cassava steeped & dried -
potatoes - vegetables - grain - bananas - flour -
palm oil - fowls -     Each is intensely in
earnest for food or relishes as salt -
10pepper and all make strong assertions
as to the goodness or badness of the articles
for barter and makes the sweat stands
in beads on the face and body - ^ squeeling pigs & iron
^ knives are changed for cloths - some hide their
15wares in the large wicker funnel above
the basket but smile if I shake the finger
at them - a woman let fall a piece of
bassava which was shivered into twenty pieces
then demanded another piece I looked at
20her and it was so manifestly unjust that
she laughed as I told her to take up her load &
be gone - They appeal to each other in these
cases and have a natural sense of justice
About three thousand attended - many from
25far - and much benefit is derived
The men flaunt about in gaudy lambas
in many folds kilt fashion = The women
work hardest - The potters slap and sing
their wares all round and invite buyers
30to use their eyes as well as their ears in testing
their value - I bought two fine porous
earthen bottles of about a gallon each
for one string of beads - The women carry
huge loads on their backs strapped to the
35shoulders and forehead = hands full
besides - the roundness of the pottery
is wonderful seeing no machines
used - Girls sell cups of water for a few fishes





      25th making two shirts -


40

      26thSThe canoe bought by Abed
is not # the property of       the vendor
                and the real owner refuses the
slave of Kalenga so the affair stands still =
and excuses are made of sickness &c -
45Hassani recommends seizure of
[    ] canoes as no [      ]ing can [        ]

[CXXXIV]

[      ]
    Several headmen came with a present of
two slaves to prevent a war which they have
fancied to be impending - assured that
5no attack is intended they dont believe it
When we force them to land canoes they
will conclude that they were right in their
fancy - I have been two months trying to buy
a canoe and now bamboozled by this head
10man's false pretences of ownership no
other headman will even remonstrate - All
knew that the trader was plundered by Kalenga
but no one would let us know - a very
strange people - Katomba's slave buyers
15went off this morning across Lualaba



        28th Hassani declared that since
he came here not a banana or bit   of
cassava had even been presented to him
Market I generally visit to see the fish
20and people one man offered me a few
small fish - another a sweet potato &
piece of cassava - then a third 2 small
fishes - but manyema are not liberal
saw a man with ten human jaw bones
25strung over his shoulder - Asked if he eat
the flesh - yes and taking his knife he
said I cut up a man this way - I expressd
disgust at which he and others   laughed
see many strange people every time I go
30Two nice girls were selling Gumbe or
roasted     white ants -



        29th Mologhwe Dambo & two others
came to mix blood with Hassani - It is
simply a small incision made on the
35arm & blood from each rubbed on the spot
He says that he has promised him ten
canoes to be brought as soon as the copper
party under Manilla comes back to us



        30th      River has fallen four inches
40within the last four days - colour black or
very dark brown - considerable quantities
of wreck still float down -


  copper safari returned today as
was appointed = successful -
45brought a little coffee and vani

[CXXXV]

31st Manilla got fo[  ] frasilahs of copper
bracelets 35 + 4 = 140 lbs - brought specimens
of vanilla pods which the natives mix
with their coffee - How they know to
5manipulate the flowers - Wisdom
dwells not with us alone = conceit of it does



        1st June 1871 - Saturday = chitoka -
This being the Arab unlucky fifth
month
our departure is put off to the
10first of 6th month nine days hence
Manilla came yesterday from copper
bought 4½ frasilahs = Brought me
4 lbs of coffee unhusked or still in the
fruit find and dry - a day pot went
15for six plantains = small shrimps for sale


        2nd Hassani goes over Lualaba
today to speak about canoes - He is
confident of getting them - I am not -
Manyema are so untruthful it
20will come to seizure yet - But they
are very honest = we never lose an
article by them -


        3d    We had a discussion with
Hassani about these wretched Banian
25slaves
and he denies complicity with them -
He meant to speak only of canoes not going far
not them though he spoke distinctly of my
return in a short time with him when he
had got his ivory - The slaves too protested
30that they never refused to obey me!! = though
they asserted that all declined to go further
the threat to take the guns alone cowed them
apart from this they were pleased with the
prospect of plundering Manyema and
35getting slave by this means = Send
men to speak about the canoe -



        4th I send five men to speak to the
headman Kalenga and to demand either
the canoe he sold or two others or the
40thousand cowries - three goats and beads
they are ordered to speak only and speak
much then come away - Kalenga cooly
says "Wait till Abed comes back and I
shall return the goods to him - this is
45childish but like Manyema - He was
told by Abed in the presence of two
headmen that he had given the canoe to
me and Kalenga was at once to deliver it
[  ] them on my account - He had it not!

CXXXVI

  CXXXVI Journal = 5 June 1871
men delayed for want of a canoe to ferry them
across - chitoka today brings many - The
speak to him only but must I fear seize
5canoes for there is no honour among them
I have been here for two months negotiating
for one and after paying an exhorbitant
price find that I am the victim of deliberate
falsehood = Hassani was all day yesterday
10talking to those who promised canoes and
he will get none = No one can concieve how
they dawdle and lie to get goods they mean
not to pay - The feeling of   importance imparted
by haggling with strangers is dear to their hearts.



15

            6th Mokandira's child died so we
are again hindered from going = Market
people beaten and plundered I paid
some who were robbed by my men slaves
I am sick at heart in knowing of these
20outrages = Manyema are bad but slaves
ten times worse -



          7th hindered by canoe though paid for
being given to another - I fear that we must
march on land which in front is extremely
25wet and muddy -


          8th River rose again six inches and
then fell three = water very dark brown &
much wreck - duckweed & grassy islands
float down = Rain nearly ceased = Great
30masses of cloud float down from NorWest
but more frequently go up from NorEast -


            9th Men went yesterday afternoon
to Kalenga - He refuses to refund the price
of the canoe to anyone but Abed =     tries
35to draw the real owner into a scrape by
complaining that he refused his slave as
price of the canoe and goats too = We have
nought to do with that and Think it best to
retire and let Abed punish him ^ if he
40likes - Hassani's canoes not come =
so we go on foot day after tomorrow
It is very grievous   to be cheated after
losing nearly three months in the business
but Kalenga has no canoe and I must not
45be the first to do what may be called injustice
The Arabs would like to see me using force
Dugumbe delays strangely but probably
by his divination declaring all this month
to be most unlucky - Wends tonight =
50Arab fifth month - Lord help me

[CXXXVII]

[      ]
New moon not appearing last night
prevents safari from starting tomorrow - 20
It is dangerous for a small party to go if
5like mine cowardly & mutinous =   No
one visits villages three miles off on account
of floods [     ] which never end =       No canoe
can be got for love or money = mixing the
blood     makes no friendship so I decline
10it when invited - Arabs do it with all
who have power but the Manyema do it
to get presents of beads and perform no
other duty of friendship = Elsewhere one
becomes a member of the family and
15his safety is ensured by information
against all enemies in the country - Here
all knew Kalenga's falsehood but were
silent!





      11th New ℂ last night - Dugumbe will
20leave Kasongo today - we leave on the 14th
Hassani over river for canoes but probably
in vain - River fell three inches in
the last three days
- Much wreck floating
down - water colour of strong tea =



25

      12th Hassani has got 4 canoes and
hopes to get seven = the conduct of Kalenga
to me is not be endured - It is the most
childish impertinence because he thinks
nothing will be done to him but talk as
30Manyema do & have done for ages -
I send my men tomorrow to demand
either canoe or goods and to bind
him in case of refusal till he delivers
the one or the other - then buy a canoe
35and return with it = that the owner of
the canoe he sold without leave refuses
the woman he sent to buy with is to his
dark mind a sufficient excuse for
delivering neither money nor vessel
40I must wait for Dugumbe for I have
no powder and but few beads === He
will be here by the 20th currt =



      13th chitoka = men off to force Kalenga
to reason = if he refuses to refund to
45bind and give him a flogging - if It is
entirely lost then return and get
of my beads to buy another canoe
down the river - Kalenga fled -

CXXXVIII

CXXXVIII Journal 14th Hassani got nine
canoes - In 3 he put 63 persons - I   shall
send down the river on the left bank tomorrow
to try and buy one - Safari off this morning
5High winds have begun from South East and
shew cessation of the rains = Every thing
is drying as soap sugar mud &c



              15th canoe sent to get medicine for
a sick wife - detains us today - I paid for
10both medicine and canoe = and on


              16th got the men off very doubtful
if they will succeed in buying one for
all of them imitate the overbearing
manner of Zanzibar slaves


15

      Safari comes back from West with 2100
slaves 200 or   300 cowries per slave or 11-10
bunches of beards per head that is about 50
single strings about a foot long each =
River fallen a foot = Dugumbe near but
20detained by his divination



            17th stragglers come in from Dugumbe
large camp -     My people reached Tambu[  ]
yesterday and will get a canoe if they only have
a little common sense - a note from
25Palamotto says letters have come by Governor
for me and are at Ujiji = If I get a little
powder from Dugumbe & the canoe comes
I shall be ready to     run down the river



        18th The Arabs of Dugumbe's party saw
30Shereef flourishing   about my valuable
chronometer watch on his dirty body
This is like to break my heart - I have
no chronometer going - I suspect the
Longitude of Baker to be all wrong but
35cannot correct it - Dugumbe has
passed a short way down Lualaba to
build his Mosemba or dwelling place



        19th Heavy shower at 4 AM - last 19th
of June
finished the rains - Dugumbe goes
40West to Lomame and across it when
his station here is built = this will open
all Lake Lincoln for he has an immense
party = 500-600 guns as Ujijians count
and is fond of going into new fields

CXXXIX

CXXXIX Journal = 20th June 1871 - Two
of the party of Dugumbe brought presents of         19
four large fundos of beads each = I am
waiting   for my people and canoe. Katomba's
5people came back from the West yesterday
well satisfied with fine slaves cheap -
I look [ ] on the drove they brought un
chained with a sort of pleasure after
looking at many not traded for but
10murdered for -



          21st Dugumbe found it best to
come back to the chitoka here - He says
that he will buy me a canoe if my men
fail in getting one = This stirs up Hassani
15and Manilla = who might have
got a tenth for me with their nine



          22nd Visited Dugumbe = He sends
back to Ujiji two months hence and
I shall send then for goods - and
20make it a point to come back here



          23 = a touch fof fever first here



          24th better and thankful = the
Bakuss have flat Egyptian feet
women's round foreheads and the
25rest of the head slopes backwards
and upwards = a stout built
race both men and women good slaves





        25th Hassani's son circumcised
caused a feast



30

        26th Hassani's boat party foiled by narrows
4 days down - a canoe tilted over & 5 lives lost
Banian slaves come back - people all
fled and blamed Kolokolo's men for
killing and stealing their relations - p[     ]
35follow another [    ]te for Hassani's men
were shot at in the rapids with arrows
&
Kolokolo's deeds blamed - Oh horrible!!



      27th a cataract on North side of the
Luamo prevents my going up the
40river to Kamolondo -

CXL

CXL. Journal 27th June 1871 continued
It is in answer to my prayers that I have
been mercifully prevented from going
down river for I would have been the
5leading canoe into the narrows and it
is said cataract beyond the entrance
a dyke of rock cuts across country &
the two points of it a little ajar cause
the enormous mass of water to wheel
10behind one and make a whirlpool
in which canoes are carried round & round
helplessly - Had we gone down Luamo
as I wished the same danger would have
been incurred = I now go across to the
15Lomame - buy a canoe there and go up
to Katanga = It is probable that the Dyke
down river runs across into Lomame
so even if past the first narrows we
should have others to ascend in Lomame



20

        I wrote to Moenemokaia to take
my watch from Shereef and keep it till
a safe conveyance turned up - and
as Shereef used monthly 3 dotis calico
for himself - 2 Do for his woman 2 Do
25for each of his slaves besides beads and
knew he was breaking consuls orders - he
was to be delivered to the Governor for Seyed
Majid
= I dont know whether Syed bin
Majid
will do as I say but all will see that
30I feel very sore as to the watch and that
I am without one to measure distances
and position = Shereef brought 8 cases
of brandy for his own use and made
my porters carry it so I paid for the drunk
35ards swill = I asked also why he had
destroyed the consult's packet containing
the list of goods & notice of the watch -
I shall send by Dugumbe's people for my
goods and will come back here to recieve
40them


  River fallen 32 feet - dark brown water
and wreck still floating down

CXL [CXLI]

CXL. Journal = 27 June cont.ed Kauzene =         16
                              gave a Zouady of beads
Kisingite above as well as below this
so I go west to Lomame & probably
5escape the basaltic dyke if it goes so far
West



        28th eight villages in flames on the
other side Lualaba = The Bagenya
are seizing the country of Mohombo
10and all the straggling people of this
camp are over helping on the
begun by     Manilla Syde Habib's slave
work of destruction ^ and catching slaves
or rather free people to be made into
15slaves = nothing surprised me more
in England than the numbers of
persons met with who would
fain be slave owners - Persons
of the seedy scribe class asked
20with an air of concern   Will the
Africans work? Yes if you can
pay them = the lengthening of visage
caused by this answer told as
plainly as looks can tell that seedy
25had speculated on gratuitously
employing the labour of others
though it was evident that he
sorely needed to be employed him
-self in something else than penny
30a lining =             The Bagenya
are fishermen by taste and sell
the produce of their nets & weirs
to the other tribes who cultivate
the soil at the different markets





35

  29th Manilla's foray burns ten
village for a debt of 3 slaves
whose price he advanced =
The villagers are our market people

CXLII

CXLII. Journal 30th June 1871
1st July = Sunday = Went to Dugumbe and told
him my plan was to go with the safari he
sends West to Lomame - then buy a canoe
5and go up the Lake towards Katanga
visit the excavations and return to this
place if he would get his people to bring
some of my goods from Ujiji =   He
said that he would write out my order
10that the natives here and on the other
side had been poisoned against me
I know that this is the case but have
kept quiet - The Muhamadans are
unmitigated Liars and say that "I dont
15want slaves nor ivory but I want to
kill people
" and they persuaded them
not to sell a canoe to me but let them
have all = Hassani knows it all =
but swears that he does not join in the
20slander and did not know of Manillas
foray = pointing up to Heaven = &c &c
The falsehood of Muhamad has been
transmitted to his followers -


            2nd July 1871 = The upper stratum of
25clouds is from the NorWest = the lower from
the South East - When they mix or change
places the temperature is much lowered
Morning fogs shew river to be warmer
than the air



30

          3rd Safari of Hassani off down
river and on land entirely - Leaves the
unfortunates who turned back after;
actually reaching the ivory = gave him
and Abed hints as to meeting with Bakers
35to report themselves and me to the head
of Pasha Bakers expedition & not flee -



CXLIII

CXLIII Journal - 4th July 1871 = ill


5th Dugumbe promises assistance in         14
buying a canoe at Lomame = and
powder = says what I know otherwise
5that the Banian slaves have been
chief propagators of the slander
among the Manyema that I "wanted
no slaves nor ivory but only to
kill people
"- Susi - Chumah hear
10it all and remain quiet = Dugumbe
has nearly finished his house and
Safari is to be on 9th or 10th =
the seconday of the New ℂ Fungo 7 -
It is not open refusal now but secret
15villany and slander I have to
contend against in the Banian slaves





          5th [ ] River fallen
3 feet in all - that is one foot
since the 27th June = dark brown





20

          6th consult Dugumbe & offer
1000 dollars for other attendants =
kill a Tassa goat = I am unable to
buy any by Shereefs villainy =



6th con. Mokandira and other head
25men of Nyangwe came with a
pig - also goat as a present on
my going away - I refused
till I come back and protested
against the slander about my
30wishing to kill people = this will
be widely reported =





          7th woman reproved for
beating a slave frequently came and
apologized and we made friends
35again telling to speak softly as
she was now the slaves mother
slave came from beyond Lomame
and must have been a lady

CXLIV

CXLIV Journal - 8th July 1871 -
Kimburu comes to mix blood with Dugumbe
today and will give him 3 or 4 slaves -     He has
performed the ceremony with four traders and
5seems anxious for peace and friendship



        9th Dugumbe advised explaining
my plan of going to Lomame & thence to
Katanga and excavations to see what the
Banian slaves will object to - I did so
10this morning but no remarks were
made - these may come at River only
and stop me again = they only participate
in the Arab slander - I am the pioneer
say they others will follow and kill and
15take the country - What can the poor people
do but believe the Moslem lies - the Lord
open the way for me =


          River fallen three inches since 5th curt



        10th Manyema children do not
20creep as do others on their knees -
but begin by putting forward one
foot and using one knee = I have
seen a child use both feet and the
hands but never the knees = !!
25New ℂ last night = 7th month of Arabs
              Many guns fired at blood mixing



11th Chitoka = bought ten different
species of small fish and sketched
eight = most are the same as on
30Nyassa = a very active species of
glanis of dark olive brown colour
was not sketched but a spotted
one with offensive spine on back was
Sesamum seed abundant now =
35and cakes of pounded ground nuts as
on the West coast = the new comers
have been taught by the market women
to deal fairly and not overreach them
they are certainly clever traders and
40prefer dealing in the market to any
where else = there they are in countenance
by each other

CXLV

    CXLV - Journal 12th July 1871 -         13
The Banian slaves told me that they
would go to Lomame but no further
This I suspected would be the case -
5I report to Dugumbe and if he does not
help must go back to Bambarre and
send to Zanzibar for other people
I am fairly in the power of the
Ujijian slaves - Shereef destroys
10my letters = the Governor does
the same to prevent evidence of
his plunder going to the coast
Lord help me -       When told that
they would lose all their pay they
15said they would not lose their lives
and would be employed by others & get
more pay = Dugumbe will speak to
them -





    13th Dugumbe came and spoke to
20the Banian slaves = They profess to
wish to go back to Ujiji to bring
Shereef as a leader -     They have no
one to beat them say they or order
them = The upshot was that they refuse
25to go and it was well to let Dugumbe
hear them say we "Hawezi"     are
unable = non possumus =
I then said to Dugumbe I have goods at
Ujiji I dont know how many but
30they are considerable = Take them all
and give me men and if not enough
I will add to them = only dont let
me be forced to return to Ujiji so
near the end of my work -       He said
35that he would consult his company
and form a plan =



14th Dugumbe consulted his
Arab company and one Adie said
to me your slaves are very bad shewing
40that Dugumbe had given a truthful
account of them = I am distressed
& perplexed what to do so as not
to be foiled but all seems against me


CXLVI

CXLVI Journal = 15th July 1871
    The reports of guns on the other side
of Lualaba tell of Dugumbe's men
murdering Kimburu and another for
5slaves =     Manilla is in it again = and
it is said that Kimburu gave him
3 slaves to sack the ten villages we
saw in flames - He is meeting his doom
in spite of mixing blood and giving
10nine slaves for the operation =
Moenemgunga was his victim = & so
it goes on making me fear to go
with Dugumbe's people to be partakers
in their blood guiltiness


15

              Chitoka about 1500 people came
though many villages were burning
before us =     I saw three of Dugumbes
people with guns in the market place
with wonder but thought it ignorance
20and retired - when 50 yards off two guns
were fired and a general flight took
place - goods thrown away in terror
firing   on the helpless canoes took
place = a long line of heads in the water
25shewed the numbers that would perish
for they could not swim two miles
shot after shot followed on the terrified
fugitives = great numbers died -
and a worthless Moslem asserted
30that all was done by the people of the
English - This will spread though     the
murderers are on the other side plundering
and shooting - It is awful - terrible
a dreadful world this = as I write
35shot after shot falls on the fugitives
on the other side who are wailing loudly
over those they know are already
slain = Oh let thy kingdom come =

CXLVII

CXLVII Journal - 15th July continued         11
The canoes were all jammed in a creek at
the bottom of the market place
and the owners could not get them
5out - women threw away their
produce and scrambled for dear
life - men left their paddles in dread
as the merciless fire was rained
upon them by other men who must
10been cognisant of the plan of Murder
The women soon sank into their watery
graves - I counted 33 canoes afloat + 19 still in creek
one capsized - some overcrowded so as
to be logged in the stream without paddles
15one long canoe that could have held
30 was occupied by one man who
seemed to have lost his head - others
paddled fast to save the sinking till
in danger of swamping -     no one
20will ever know how many perished
in this bright summer morning
All the camp people set on the land
comers & plundered them = Women
were carrying loads for hours of what
25the water comers had thrown down
Manilla's brother was over at one
village of a friend - I sent men to
rescue him with our flag to
protect them for Dugumbe's
30people are shooting right and left &
without a flag they might have been
victims - I count twelve villages
burned this morning = this with
the previous ten makes twenty two -
35Dugumbe wisely objected to       my
men going to rescue the brother of
Manilla - He would send his own
men who were known to all the
fighting crew = -

CXLVIII

CXLVIII Journal 15th July continued
I went over to Dugumbe and       proposed to
catch the bloodhounds who fired in the
chitoka and on the canoes and put their
5heads on poles = He declared it was done
by Manilla's people to destroy the market
Eighteen women and a man had been
taken out of the water as they scrambled
along the long grass on the water's edge
10I got them to frank them back to their
friends and they slept at our camp waiting
for their friends to come and claim them
the other Manyema would charge for
their redemption so I manage all for
15them myself - Four came   and claimed
the saved ones and of course got their
relatives = In Manyema war the market
women are never molested - these
Moslems are inferior to them in sense
20of justice and right = I write names
of the women and the husbands who
claim them so that if deception is
practised we may know them





  [   ]      16th = liberating captured
25got them all into the hands of husbands
and friends - one had a ball shot through
the thigh - a pretty woman = the canoes
are to be delivered to the owners too -


        A manyema man said to be murdered
30by one of Dugumbe's people after finish-
ing a piece of work = said he was tired
and refusing to do more was killed by an
axe - friends came - cried over and burned
him -


35

          12 AM Dugumbe's people shooting
people on other     side Lualaba = set
fire to a village on bank = many
captives caught on other side river

CXLIX

CXLIX       Journal         10
1 PM The marauders are returning in
canoes and firing their guns beating
drums and doing all they can to say
5"see the conquering heroes come"
They are answered by the women
lullilooing and friends in Dugumbe's
camp firing guns of welcome = The
smokes of many villages ascend
10straight up and form clouds above
I count seventeen villages in flames
and these of our market people =
Dugumbe says that he did not send
this foray - and Tagamoio the head of
15it says that he went to punish the
friends of Manilla who being a slave
had no right to make war & burn
villages -       Manilla confesses to me
that he did wrong in that and loses
20all his beads and many friends in -
consequence



2 PM    an old man called Kabobo
came for his old wife - I asked   her
if this were her husband she went
25to him and put her arm lovingly
round him and said "yes" I gave
her five strings of beads   to buy food
she bowed down and put her fore-
-head to the ground as thanks and
30old Kabobo did the same = The tears
were in her eyes as she went off



Tagamoio has caught seventeen
women =     or say by his party
the captives by Arabs = 27 ----
35Dead by gunshot = 25 ----
2 heads of chiefs brought over
to be sold to relations

CL

CL Journal 16 July
drowned 5 men & women ^ of Ñomba numbers unknown
of drownd in river of the people generally
They can only be spoken of as by hundreds


5

      4 PM went over to Dugumbe
He had a number of headmen and made
them mix blood and promise to bri[  ]
market people - Tagamoio kept out
of sight - this open murder fills me
10with unspeakable horror = and I wish
to get away from it = I cannot go
in Tagamoios company and must
either go up Lualaba or down which
ever my Banian slaves choose - It
15is a great affliction to have such at all


          17th Went over to Dugumbe and
spoke of my plan = Muanamosunba
denied     that 27 people were captured
only ten but why ten? and of our
20best friends = the market people = I
spoke of my plan as he advanced no
other = I cannot go with Tagamoio's
murderers = the Banian slaves say
that they would go only to Lomame and
25then return - it would not be possible to
force them beyond that for whatever the
Ujijian slaves may talk they all
hate to have me a witness of their blood-
-shed and would connive at the desertion
30of my slaves =   Tried to go down Lualaba
and up Tanganyika      but that too was
objected to   It remained only to go up river
and on to Ujiji = Dugumbe asked them
why they refused to go = answer "Afraid"
35then you are cowards -"Yes we are" are
you not men = Ans -"We are slaves"
I said that I was glad that they

CLI

CLI - Journal 17th July 1871 continued         12
confessed it before Dugumbe = they
would lose all pay - I had entreated them
not to throw it away but if not theirs
5no wonder they care not for it - At
last I said that I would start for Ujiji
in three days on foot =   All asked here
[   ]t to be ashamed to ask beads or
[ ]nything else they possessed but
10[ ]aid that I had         enough for going
back to Ujiji to get other people -
It is a sore affliction     forty four
days back or 300 miles at least
45 days     and all after feeding the slaves {figure}
15for twenty one months -
but it is for the best - though
if I dont trust the riffraff
of Ujiji I must wait for
other men at least ten
20months - I shall go through
Rua - see the excavations
first and then the four
fountains and after
that Lake Lincoln


25

    18th the murderous
assault on the market people
was Hell without the fire
and brimstone = it brought
on headache which might
30have been serious had it
not been relieved by a
copious discharge of
blood - I was held up all
yesterday afternoon with
35[   ] impression which the
bloodshed made - It filled
me with unspeakable horror
Dont go away say the chiefs
but I cannot stay here in
40                agony -

CLII

CLII Journal 19th July 1871
Dugumbe sent me a fine goat         2
a maneh of gunpowder = 100     of
fine blue beads and 230 cowries
5as good in the way = I proposed
to leave a doti merikano &   one of
Kanike to buy specimens of
workmanship - He sent two
very fine large swords and two
10equally fine spears and said that
I must not send anything =
and would buy others with his
own goods = I sent one piece of Kanike
and one ^ doti of merikano as he has
15no cloth       and is very friendly
no action as to the captives =





{figure}



=       River fallen 4½ feet
in all = since 5 ult
20one and a half foot





    Few market people appear
today - formerly they came
in crowds - a few came from
the West bank with salt to buy
25back the baskets with which
they and others carried food
for sale =     about 200 came
in all chiefly of those who
have not lost relatives - seven
30canoes instead of fifty - an
old established custom has
great charms for this people
if no fresh outrage is committed
it will be re-established
35No canoes come into the creek of
death but land above it at
Ntambewe's = Pack up to start 20th

CLIII

CLIII Journal - 20th July 1871         15
Start back for Ujiji 300 miles -
off - One doti Kanike to Susi
          2 Dotis Merikano to Do for wife





5

   made but a short march
as I have been long inactive
and it is unwise to tire
oneself at beginning of a
journey - one does not
10get over it - one man
detained by sporadic
cholera which seems to
be serious



21st waiting to see what
15turn the sickness may
take = if favourable will
leave him with Dugumbe
Dugumbe came over to
advise me not to wait
20for the sick man but
leave him to his care =   It
was not altogether on the
sickness I waited - I
was told falsely about
25him while my slaves
were negotiating for
women with   whom
they cohabited - Dugumbe
advised haste which I
30am only too anxious     to
make and to travel in a
compact body as stragglers
are cut off - He lost   a
woman and his party
35seven people in the [    ]

CLIV

CLIV. Journal = 22nd July 1871 off
at daylight about six miles to
village of Mañkwara where I
spent the night in going - the
5chief Mokandira coveyed us
thither = promised him a
cloth if I came across from
Lomame = wonders much at
the underground houses -
10never heard of them before I told
him =   many of the rivulets
and rain gullies dried up
grass burning going on = I
heard sporadic thunder today
15and a few drops of cold rain
fell = same sprinkling yesterday


      23d Will reach R. Kunda
tomorrow = 24 crossed it = 50 yds
in two canoes then went up into
20LaBango[ ] = crowds followed all
anxious to carry loads for beads
several market women saluted us
In going from LoBango to the
Nyangwe chitoka and back they
25about 25 miles in one day
with heavy loads such as       no
slave would carry =


The most High speaking in Exekiel
of Jerusalem  says I put of my come
30liness upon thee =   If he does not put
of his comeliness on me I shall never
be comely in soul = If he does not
impart to me of his goodness I
shall never be good - but like
35these wretched Arabs in whom
Satan has full sway - the god of this
world having blinded their eyes -

CLV

CLV - Journal = 25th July 1871         17
we came over a beautiful
country yesterday - a vast
hollow     with much culti
5vation is intersected by a
ridge on which     the villages
are built - the path runs
along its top and we see the
fine country all spread out
10below with different shades
of green marking the plantations
this great hollow is drained
by the Kunda = into Lualaba
Today we descended into
15another hollow drained
by the fast flowing Ka-
hembai
into Kunda then
on to another ridge with
a great many villages
20burned off by Matereka's
foray - The We met the horde
climbing up on to the ridge
as we went N W. They
slept on the ridge and
25next morning in sheer
wantoness set their lodgings
on fire = The slaves had
evidently carried the fire
along and applied it to villages
30in their route - It was done
only because they could
do it without danger -
and it was such fun   to
make Mashenebe houseless

CLVI

  CLVI Journal 26th July 1871 -
came up out of the last valley of
denudation drained by the Kahembai
and then along a level country
5Met 4 men in hot haste   to
announce a woman's death.
Two died lately North & two South
of this of dysentery or some
disease of Abdomen = Pleurisy
10common from cold winds of the
North West -   Twenty two men
with large shields came to carry
the woman's body and all her
gear to her own home for burial
15about twenty women followed
them & the men waited under the
trees till they had wound up the
body - The women of Kama
in large numbers went to weep
20for her smeared their bodies
with clay - The relatives put
soot on their faces and shields



    27th left Kama's and soon
through many groups of villages
25of Kasongo welcomed by Matereka
Syde bin Sultan and another
bought two milk goats reasonably


28th rest 29th Sunday rest
Matereka sends a party to Ujiji
30with me for goods     this will
increase our safety among
the irritated people between
this and Bambarre = It is
colder here than at Nyangwe
35Kasongo is off in the forest N.
of this guiding a party & buying
ivory when he can for himself


CLVII

CLVII. Note Manyema Nyangwe = 18
12 July 1871 = our statesmen seem to have
come to the conclusion that Railways
and Telegraphs will be better managed
5by the Government than by private
companies - The reasons for that
seem to apply to the Great Newspapers
as the "Times" which are certainly
not so well managed for the safety
10of the nation by private anonymous
contributors as they would be
by the agents of Government
both angency and public official
being responsible to the country
15nothing could be more dangerous
to the welfare of the country   than
pigheaded effusions of a secret con-
        or               club frequenters
clave indulging in merciless vi-
20-tuperation against Louis Napoleon
who in spite of the extremest
abuse which could be raked up
against him in ^ specimens ancient & modern
railing has proved himself to be
25a wise and able ruler - a true friend
to France and a good ally to England
Then again the Times laboured to
misrepresent the Northerners in
th[ ]        great Black war - It was
30t[     ] our great misleading Journal
and the utmost efforts of our
statesmen were required to prevent
the b[  ]ghtful calamity of a war
with the United States which was
35imminent through the hole and
corner machinations of irrespons
ible penny a liners = Every Northern
victory was noticed with the in-
sulting insinuation that it must
40be remembered that the account
came through Northern channel[ ]

CLVIII

CLVIII Notes = Southern successes
were issued without any such damaging warning
Why were Englishmen kept in the dark as
to the steady crushing advances of the North
5ern army on Richmond while the
Journal Des Debats gave truthful
news of the War - Simply because
the ruling power has influence in
France which Government unfortu
10nately does not possess in England
them who can tell the harm done
to our name and arms by divulging
all the secrets of the Crimean war
This led to a compromise in the
15suppression of the Indian mutiny
by which the irresponsible con-
-clave brought the Indian command
to its knees - Is it for the honour
or dignity of England that this secret
20Inquisition should be tolerated
Is it not a fact that the Times of
late years is always in the wrong
always on the losing side - Nothing
could shew the need of guidance
25from a superior power than the late
affair in Jamaica - The Times
talked and railed but the Govt
aware of the outrageous legis-
lation that inevitably led to the
30outbreak applied the common
sense remedy by abolishing the
legislative assembly = We English
have been so accustomed to feel
proud that by the freedom of the
35Press our rulers could be bearded
that we we have allowed a secret
Inquisition to ride roughshod
over all law and order and
make itself supreme in defiance
40of dignity and common sense


CLVIX [CLIX]

CLVIX Note Journal Note The foregoing
Note to be amplified & sent to the 21
"Times" in laughing forebodings of his
awful-ire-Jupiter tonans


5

  Journal some Manyema are
going with us to Ujiji = Arabs
anxious to hear my opinion of the
Bloody massacre of Nyangwe
but I decling to enter on it - They
10know all about it already -



    30th July 1871 left and went
about 3 miles to a village
overlooking the Shokoye a man
a little ill refuses to march
15though the others carry his
bundle = - They send       thirty
tusks with us and are glad
of the opportunity to get more
goods from Ujiji - about a
20dozen Manyema go the
first that ever travelled so
far



            31st came yesterday to
village on hill and today
25went through the defile between
mt Kimazi and Kiyila
a cavern on the pass side
of the latter with a slatactite
pillar in entrance = came
30on to Mangala's numerous
villages and two being ill
on the     1st August = Wedens
day
= we rest - a large
market assembles in
35their midst -

CLX

[ ]ournal CLX 2 August 1871
Left Mangala's and came through 25
a great many villages all deserted at
our approach in consequence of the
5vengeance taken by Dugumbes party
for the murder of some of his {figure}
followers = Kasongo's men
eager plunderers of other Manyema
had to scold and threaten them
10and will set some to watch their
deeds tomorrow = Plantains {figure}
very abundant and good =
came to Kitette and lodged in a
village of Loembo = about thirty
15smithyies or rather foundrdies in {figure} the
villages we passed = they are
very high in the roof to avoid fires
and {figure} thatched with a sort of wild
plan-        tain leaf from which sparks
20and          rain run off equally well -



              Batata = ancients = Molenda
Mbayo
= Yamba = Kamoanga
Kitambwe = Ñoñgo = aulumba
Yeñgeyenge = Sim^baa = Mayañga
25Loembwe
recently dead = offer them
goatsflesh = Konḡolako kwa where
they came from - == effigies of in court


        3d = August three slaves escaped
by night and as all are enjoined to
30help us we are constrained to
wait so as not to abandon ivory
but it is vexatious to wait for
fugitives = Men sent in pursuit met
others coming from Kasongo to
35carry so we go on homeward
sacrifice[ ]      ar[ ] [ ]ffered to [     ]

[CLXI]

[    ] Journal         24
  4th came through miles of
villages burned because men
refused Abdullah lodging
5a goat speared by a lurking
revenge seeker -


5th


6th ^ came on to to Boma village through
many miles of palm or bananas [   ]


10

7th to village ill every step [    ] -
in pain


8th people shewed suspicion
by running away - In passing
along the narrow path with a
15wall of dense vegetation touch
ing each hand a large spear
was thrown at me from my
right and it glanced past my
back heavily into the soil about
2020 feet beyond me = the two men
from whom it came were about
30 feet off only & bolted - I dont
know how it missed except by
the man being too sure of his aim
25and God's good hand upon me
I was in front