Manuscript Citation and File Naming Practices

David Livingstone, Map of Central African Lakes, [1869], detail. Copyright National Library of Scotland: CC BY-NC-SA 2.5 SCOTLAND and Dr. Neil Imray Livingstone Wilson: CC BY-NC 3.0

Cite page (MLA): Wisnicki, Adrian S., and Megan Ward. "Manuscript Citation and File Naming Practices." Livingstone Online. Adrian S. Wisnicki and Megan Ward, dirs. University of Maryland Libraries, 2017. Web.

The 1870 and 1871 Field Diaries and other texts studied by the Livingstone Spectral Imaging Project can be difficult to cite due to Livingstone’s methods in composing his manuscripts and the complexity of our processed spectral images. This page outlines the standardized system that we have adopted for, first, citing specific manuscript pages and spectral images and, second, naming corresponding spectral image files.

Introduction    Top

The Livingstone Spectral Imaging Project has focused on the following manuscripts: the "Retrospect to be Inserted in the Journal" (10 Mar. 1870), the 1870 Field Diary (17 Aug. 1870-22 Mar. 1871), the 1871 Field Diary (23 Mar.-3 Nov. 1871), and a selection of six 1871 letters (5 Feb.-26 June 1871). Livingstone's practices in composing these texts resulted in a series of manuscripts that today make normalized citation difficult, particularly with the addition of multiple spectral images for each manuscript side.

To assist our users, we outline below the standardized system that we have adopted for, first, citing specific manuscript pages and spectral images and, second, naming spectral image files. In the appendices that follow, we provide all necessary supporting information, including overviews of each manuscript; author and date details, page numbers, and project file names for each page of each manuscript; and all processed spectral image names.

Bonus: Download a spreadsheet that sets out the relationship of Livingstone’s 1870 Field Diary and select 1870-71 manuscripts to their underlying source texts in detail.


Manuscript Citation and File Naming Practices    Top

We use a standardized citation system when referencing Livingstone’s manuscripts and our spectral images. The system draws on the information set out in the appendices (below). It is shaped by our two different citation practices: we use abbreviated details when citing in our critical essays and other paratextual materials, but include more expansive information when naming corresponding spectral image files.

Citing manuscripts and spectral images. We combine the author and date details with the Livingstone page number to cite any given manuscript page, as in the following examples:

Livingstone 1870a:[4]
Livingstone 1870d:{19}
Livingstone 1871f:CII

We use the natural light images (color) by default for all items and so do not call out these images individually. Otherwise, we add the spectral image short name to the regular citation when referencing processed spectral images, as in the following examples:

Livingstone 1870i:XXXII IC1
Livingstone 1871f:CLXIII ratio
Livingstone 1871i:[1] pseudo_v4_BY

Note: We draw on the relevant entries in our bibliography and, simply, shortened versions of the image numbers used in our digital catalogue but in square brackets (e.g., "0004" becomes "[4]," "0691" becomes "[691]," etc.) when citing the Unyanyembe Journal (1866-72) and the field diaries from Livingstone's last expedition (1866-73).

Naming spectral image files. We combine the project file name with the spectral image long name to create the names for the spectral images of each manuscript leaf, as in the following examples:

Citation: Livingstone 1870e:XI IC5
Corresponding image: liv_000202_0002_IC5_(liv_000204_0001_trans)

Citation: Livingstone 1870j:LXIV raking
Corresponding image: liv_000206_0003_raking_irdiff

Citation: 1871g:[2] PCA_pseudo_32
Corresponding image: liv_002569_0002_PCA_pseudo_(liv_000205_0034_stats)


Appendices    Top

1. Manuscripts Covered by the Livingstone Spectral Imaging Project    Top

As noted above, the Livingstone Spectral Imaging Project encompasses an assortment of manuscripts from the 1870-71 period. We provide detailed entries for each of the texts in our bibliography. Below we reference those entries using only author and date details.

"Retrospect to be Inserted in the Journal" (10 Mar. 1870). The "Retrospect to be Inserted in the Journal" consists of a single manuscript: Livingstone 1870a. The manuscript contains a total of eight pages (two per side of leaf).

1870 Field Diary (17 Aug. 1870-22 Mar. 1871). The 1870 Field Diary consists of a series of pages written over diverse undertexts. The pages may be divided by undertexts into gatherings and sub-gatherings (as in our six-part State of the Manuscript essay) or by a combination of undertexts and dates into fragments (as in our bibliography and here): Livingstone 1870b, 1870c, 1870d, 1870e, 1870f, 1870g, 1870h, 1870i, 1870j, 1870k, 1871a, 1871b, and 1871e.

The first fragment (Livingstone 1870b) consists of 35 leaves, each of which contains a page on the recto and verso, for a total of 70 pages. The remaining fragments together consist of 41 leaves that contain a total of 96 pages plus a printed map that we have not numbered.

There are also two sequences of pages (1870d, 1870g) taken from a transcription of the entire 1870 Field Diary manuscript made by Agnes Livingstone. These pages cover dates missing from the original manuscript pages and may indeed be transcriptions of lost original pages, although the evidence is inconclusive. We have treated these fragments as if they did form part of the original manuscript and include them in the relevant places below.

1871 Field Diary (23 Mar.-3 Nov. 1871). The 1871 Field Diary consists of two parts: the main Nyangwe segment (Livingstone 1871f) written across the pages of a single, eight-page issue of The Standard (London) and a fragmentary set of additional diary pages (Livingstone 1871k, 1871l, 1871m) written over various scraps of paper.

In creating the Nyangwe segment (1871f), Livingstone cut up the issue of The Standard into 16 smaller leaves, then assembled these into two 32-page "copy-books" (Waller, in Livingstone 1874,2:114n.). In other words, Livingstone composed two diary pages on each side of each leaf for a total of 64 pages. (Note: Livingstone or someone after him further cut one of the original diary leaves into two halves, with the result that there are today 34 folia and so 34 spectral image sets for this segment of the diary, rather than 32 as would be expected).

The fragmentary set of additional diary pages consists of three separate items. The first item (1871k) consists of two leaves with two pages on each side for a total of eight pages. The second item (1870k) is a single-leaf fragment. One side has two diary pages, the other just one, for a total of three pages. The last time (1870m) includes two leaves with one page per side for a total of four leaves.

1871 Letters (5 Feb.-26 June 1871). The 1871 letters include six separate letters: 1871c, 1871d, 1871g, 1871h, 1871i, and 1871j. The first letter (1871c) consists of two leaves, each of which contains one page per side for a total of four pages. The next three letters (1871d, 1871g, 1871h) consist of one leaf each, each of which has one page per side. The last two letters each occupy one side of the same single leaf.


2. Author-Date Details, Page Numbers and Project File Names    Top

The page numbers below come directly from Livingstone's manuscripts, except those in curly brackets (which we have taken from Agnes Livingstone’s transcription of the 1870 Field Diary) and those in square brackets (which we have supplied). Information regarding overall Livingstone Online file naming practices appears in our Practices, Standards, and Arrangements section and is not reiterated here.

Author and Date Livingstone No. Project File Name
Retrospect to be Inserted in the Journal" (10 Mar. 1870)
Livingstone 1870a [1] liv_000211_0001
Livingstone 1870a [2] liv_000211_0002
Livingstone 1870a [3] liv_000211_0003
Livingstone 1870a [4] liv_000211_0004
Livingstone 1870a [5] liv_000211_0005
Livingstone 1870a [6] liv_000211_0006
Livingstone 1870a [7] liv_000211_0007
Livingstone 1870a [8] liv_000211_0008
1870 Field Diary (17 Aug. 1870-22 Mar. 1871)
Livingstone1870b [1] liv_000200_0001
Livingstone1870b [2] liv_000200_0002
Livingstone1870b [3] liv_000200_0003
Livingstone1870b etc. etc.
Livingstone1870b [69] liv_000200_0069
Livingstone1870b [70] liv_000200_0070
Livingstone 1870c [I] liv_000201_0001
Livingstone 1870c II liv_000201_0002
Livingstone 1870c III liv_000201_0002
Livingstone 1870c IV liv_000201_0001
Livingstone 1870d {18} liv_000212_0018
Livingstone 1870d {19} liv_000212_0019
Livingstone 1870d {20} liv_000212_0020
Livingstone 1870d {21} liv_000212_0021
Livingstone 1870d {22} liv_000212_0022
Livingstone 1870d {23} liv_000212_0023
Livingstone 1870d {24} liv_000212_0024
Livingstone 1870e X liv_000202_0001
Livingstone 1870e XI liv_000202_0002
Livingstone 1870e XII liv_000202_0003
Livingstone 1870e XIII liv_000202_0004
Livingstone 1870f XIV [v.1] liv_000203_0001
Livingstone 1870f [XIV v.2] liv_000203_0002
Livingstone 1870g {29} liv_000213_0029
Livingstone 1870g {30} liv_000213_0029
Livingstone 1870g {31} liv_000213_0029
Livingstone 1870h XVII liv_000204_0001
Livingstone 1870h XVIII liv_000204_0001
Livingstone 1870h XIX liv_000204_0001
Livingstone 1870h XX liv_000204_0001
Livingstone 1870h [map] liv_000204_0002
Livingstone 1870i XXI liv_000205_0001
Livingstone 1870i XXII liv_000205_0002
Livingstone 1870i XXIII liv_000205_0003
Livingstone 1870i XXIV liv_000205_0004
Livingstone 1870i XXV liv_000205_0005
Livingstone 1870i XXVI liv_000205_0006
Livingstone 1870i XXVII liv_000205_0007
Livingstone 1870i XXVIII liv_000205_0008
Livingstone 1870i XXIX liv_000205_0009
Livingstone 1870i XXX liv_000205_0010
Livingstone 1870i XXXI liv_000205_0011
Livingstone 1870i XXXII liv_000205_0012
Livingstone 1870i XXXIII liv_000205_0013
Livingstone 1870i XXXIV liv_000205_0014
Livingstone 1870i XXXV liv_000205_0015
Livingstone 1870i XXXVI liv_000205_0016
Livingstone 1870i XXXVII liv_000205_0017
Livingstone 1870i XXXVIII liv_000205_0018
Livingstone 1870i XXXIX liv_000205_0019
Livingstone 1870i XL liv_000205_0020
Livingstone 1870i XLI liv_000205_0021
Livingstone 1870i XLII liv_000205_0022
Livingstone 1870i XLIII liv_000205_0023
Livingstone 1870i XLIV liv_000205_0024
Livingstone 1870i XLV liv_000205_0025
Livingstone 1870i XLVI liv_000205_0026
Livingstone 1870i XLVII liv_000205_0027
Livingstone 1870i XLVIII liv_000205_0028
Livingstone 1870i XLIX liv_000205_0029
Livingstone 1870i L liv_000205_0030
Livingstone 1870i LI liv_000205_0031
Livingstone 1870i LII liv_000205_0032
Livingstone 1870i LIII liv_000205_0033
Livingstone 1870i LIV liv_000205_0034
Livingstone 1870i LV [v.1] liv_000205_0035
Livingstone 1870i LV [v.2] liv_000205_0036
Livingstone 1870i LVI liv_000205_0037
Livingstone 1870i LVII liv_000205_0038
Livingstone 1870i LVIII liv_000205_0039
Livingstone 1870i LIX liv_000205_0040
Livingstone 1870i LX liv_000205_0041
Livingstone 1870i LXI liv_000205_0042
Livingstone 1870j LXII liv_000206_0001
Livingstone 1870j LXIII liv_000206_0002
Livingstone 1870j LXIV liv_000206_0003
Livingstone 1870j LXV liv_000206_0004
Livingstone 1870j LXVI liv_000206_0004
Livingstone 1870j LXVII liv_000206_0003
Livingstone 1870j LXVIIII liv_000206_0002
Livingstone 1870j LXIX liv_000206_0001
Livingstone 1870k LXX liv_000207_0001
Livingstone 1870k LXXI liv_000207_0002
Livingstone 1870k LXXII liv_000207_0003
Livingstone 1870k LXXIII liv_000207_0004
Livingstone 1870k LXXIV liv_000207_0005
Livingstone 1870k LXXV liv_000207_0006
Livingstone 1871a LXXVI [v.1] liv_000208_0001
Livingstone 1871a [LXXVI v.2] liv_000208_0002
Livingstone 1871b LXXVIII liv_000209_0001
Livingstone 1871b LXXIX liv_000209_0002
Livingstone 1871b LXXX liv_000209_0003
Livingstone 1871b LXXXI liv_000209_0004
Livingstone 1871b LXXXII liv_000209_0005
Livingstone 1871b LXXXIII liv_000209_0006
Livingstone 1871b LXXXIV liv_000209_0007
Livingstone 1871b LXXXV liv_000209_0008
Livingstone 1871b LXXXVI liv_000209_0009
Livingstone 1871b LXXXVII liv_000209_0010
Livingstone 1871e LXXXVIII liv_000210_0001
Livingstone 1871e LXXIX liv_000210_0001
Livingstone 1871e XC liv_000210_0001
Livingstone 1871e XCI liv_000210_0002
Livingstone 1871e XCII liv_000210_0002
Livingstone 1871e XCIII liv_000210_0002
Livingstone 1871e XCIV liv_000210_0002
Livingstone 1871e XCV liv_000210_0003
Livingstone 1871e XCVI liv_000210_0003
Livingstone 1871e XCVII liv_000210_0003
Livingstone 1871e XCVIII liv_000210_0003
Livingstone 1871e XCIX liv_000210_0004
Livingstone 1871e C liv_000210_0004
Livingstone 1871e CI liv_000210_0004
1871 Field Diary (23 Mar.-3 Nov. 1871)
Livingstone 1871f CII liv_000095_0001
Livingstone 1871f CIII liv_000095_0002
Livingstone 1871f CIV liv_000095_0003
Livingstone 1871f CV liv_000095_0004
Livingstone 1871f CVI liv_000095_0005
Livingstone 1871f CVII liv_000095_0006
Livingstone 1871f CVIII liv_000095_0007
Livingstone 1871f CIX liv_000095_0008
Livingstone 1871f CX liv_000095_0009
Livingstone 1871f CXI liv_000095_0010
Livingstone 1871f CXII liv_000095_0011
Livingstone 1871f CXIII liv_000095_0012
Livingstone 1871f CXIV liv_000095_0013
Livingstone 1871f CXV liv_000095_0014
Livingstone 1871f CXVI liv_000095_0016
Livingstone 1871f CXVII liv_000095_0017
Livingstone 1871f CXVIII liv_000095_0018
Livingstone 1871f CXIX liv_000095_0015
Livingstone 1871f CXX liv_000095_0014
Livingstone 1871f CXXI liv_000095_0013
Livingstone 1871f CXXII liv_000095_0012
Livingstone 1871f CXXIII liv_000095_0011
Livingstone 1871f CXXIV liv_000095_0010
Livingstone 1871f CXXV liv_000095_0009
Livingstone 1871f CXXVI liv_000095_0008
Livingstone 1871f CXXVII liv_000095_0007
Livingstone 1871f CXXVIII liv_000095_0006
Livingstone 1871f CXXIX liv_000095_0005
Livingstone 1871f CXXX liv_000095_0004
Livingstone 1871f CXXXI liv_000095_0003
Livingstone 1871f CXXXII [v.1] liv_000095_0002
Livingstone 1871f CXXXIII [v.1] liv_000095_0001
Livingstone 1871f CXXXII [v.2] liv_000095_0019
Livingstone 1871f CXXXIII [v.2] liv_000095_0020
Livingstone 1871f CXXXIV liv_000095_0021
Livingstone 1871f CXXXV liv_000095_0022
Livingstone 1871f CXXXVI liv_000095_0023
Livingstone 1871f CXXXVII liv_000095_0024
Livingstone 1871f CXXXVIII liv_000095_0025
Livingstone 1871f CXXXIX liv_000095_0026
Livingstone 1871f CXL liv_000095_0027
Livingstone 1871f CXLI liv_000095_0028
Livingstone 1871f CXLII liv_000095_0029
Livingstone 1871f CXLIII liv_000095_0030
Livingstone 1871f CXLIV liv_000095_0031
Livingstone 1871f CXLV liv_000095_0032
Livingstone 1871f CXLVI liv_000095_0033
Livingstone 1871f CXLVII liv_000095_0034
Livingstone 1871f CXLVIII liv_000095_0034
Livingstone 1871f CXLIX liv_000095_0033
Livingstone 1871f CL liv_000095_0032
Livingstone 1871f CLI liv_000095_0031
Livingstone 1871f CLII liv_000095_0030
Livingstone 1871f CLIII liv_000095_0029
Livingstone 1871f CLIV liv_000095_0028
Livingstone 1871f CLV liv_000095_0027
Livingstone 1871f CLVI liv_000095_0026
Livingstone 1871f CLVII liv_000095_0025
Livingstone 1871f CLVIII liv_000095_0024
Livingstone 1871f CLIX liv_000095_0023
Livingstone 1871f CLX liv_000095_0022
Livingstone 1871f CLXI liv_000095_0021
Livingstone 1871f CLXII liv_000095_0020
Livingstone 1871f CLXIII liv_000095_0019
Livingstone 1871k [1] liv_000096_0001
Livingstone 1871k [2] liv_000096_0002
Livingstone 1871k [3] liv_000096_0003
Livingstone 1871k [4] liv_000096_0004
Livingstone 1871k [5] liv_000096_0004
Livingstone 1871k [6] liv_000096_0003
Livingstone 1871k [7] liv_000096_0002
Livingstone 1871k [8] liv_000096_0001
Livingstone 1871l [1] liv_000097_0001
Livingstone 1871l [2] liv_000097_0001
Livingstone 1871l [3] liv_000097_0002
Livingstone 1871m [1] liv_000098_0001
Livingstone 1871m [2] liv_000098_0002
Livingstone 1871m [3] liv_000098_0003
Livingstone 1871m [4] liv_000098_0004
Six 1871 Letters (5 Feb.-26 June 1871)
Livingstone 1871c [1] liv_002564_0001
Livingstone 1871c [2] liv_002564_0002
Livingstone 1871c [3] liv_002564_0003
Livingstone 1871c [4] liv_002564_0004
Livingstone 1871d [1] liv_002568_0001
Livingstone 1871d [2] liv_002568_0002
Livingstone 1871g [1] liv_002569_0001
Livingstone 1871g [2] liv_002569_0002
Livingstone 1871h [1] liv_002570_0001
Livingstone 1871h [2] liv_002570_0002
Livingstone 1871i [1] liv_002571_0001
Livingstone 1871j [1] liv_002572_0001


3. Processed Spectral Image Names    Top

We have developed multiple processed spectral images of each side of each leaf of every manuscript included in the present critical edition. We define these processed image types in our Notes on Processed Spectral Images section. Below we offer a simple enumeration of all relevant processed spectral image short and long names.

Short Name Long Name
color color
color raking color raking
flipbook flipbook
IC1 IC1_(liv_000204_0001_trans)
IC2 IC2_(liv_000204_0001_trans)
IC3 IC3_(liv_000204_0001_trans)
IC4 IC4_(liv_000204_0001_trans)
IC5 IC5_(liv_000204_0001_trans)
ICA_pseudo_1 ICA_pseudo_(liv_000204_0001_trans)
ICA_pseudo_32 ICA_pseudo_(liv_000205_0032_trans)
intercept intercept
overlaid overlaid
PCA_pseudo_32 PCA_pseudo_(liv_000205_0032_stats)
PCA_pseudo_34 PCA_pseudo_(liv_000205_0034_stats)
pca###r_adapThresh pca###r_adapThresh
pca###r_multiply pca###r_adapThresh_multiply
pca###r_pcolor pca###r_pcolor
pcar###r pca###r
pseudo_v1 pseudo_0505-0780
pseudo_v2 pseudo_0780
pseudo_v3 pseudo_0780_by_0940
pseudo_v4 pseudo_0940_by_0592
pseudo_v4_BY pseudoBY_0940_by_0592
pseudoratio pseudoratio_0505-0780
RAIPratio RAIPratio
raking raking_irdiff
raking_mockup raking_irdiff_mockup
RAPRratio RAPRratio
red_green red_green
sharpie sharpie_0505-0780
sharpieratio sharpieratio_0505-0780
spectral_ratio ratio_by_940

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