Glossary of Key Terms in the Missionary Travels Manuscript

Cite (MLA): Livingstone, Justin D. "Glossary of Key Terms in the Missionary Travels Manuscript." In Livingstone's Missionary Travels Manuscript. Justin D. Livingstone and Adrian S. Wisnicki, dirs. Livingstone Online. Adrian S. Wisnicki and Megan Ward, dirs. 2019. Web. http://livingstoneonline.org/uuid/node/5ee3128d-7af1-42bd-9649-9b283e28ea0c.


This page offers a glossary of the people, groups, places, and geographical features cited in Livingstone's Missionary Travels manuscript (1857). The glossary serves as an integrated reference that complements the present edition’s annotated transcription of the same manuscript.

Introduction    Top

Livingstone’s early missionary period (1841-51) and his subsequent cross-continental journey (1852-56) took him through vast portions of southern and central Africa, including parts of present-day South Africa, Botswana, Zambia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola, and Mozambique. As a result, Missionary Travels includes numerous references to the people and groups Livingstone met and the places he visited over a sixteen-year period.

This glossary includes over 750 entries that identify and describe the many individuals; African ethnic groups; other groups, collectives, and organizations; settlements; regions; and geographical features that Livingstone cites in the Missionary Travels manuscript. The glossary thus supports contextual reading of the manuscript, as well as the published text of Missionary Travels and Livingstone’s vast correspondence from the same period.

The Falls from the East End of the Chasm to Garden Island. Illustration from Thomas Baines, The Victoria Falls, Zambesi River, Sketched on the Spot (London: Day & Son, 1865), plate 9. Copyright National Library of Scotland. Creative Commons Share-alike 2.5 UK: Scotland (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/scotland/).
The Falls from the East End of the Chasm to Garden Island. Illustration from Thomas Baines, The Victoria Falls, Zambesi River, Sketched on the Spot (London: Day & Son, 1865), plate 9. Copyright National Library of Scotland. Creative Commons Share-alike 2.5 UK: Scotland. Livingstone was taken to see Victoria Falls by members of the Makololo ethnic group in 1855. European contemporaries regarded Livingstone's sighting and description of the waterfall as one of his major contributions to geographical knowledge. This painting, which displays the falls as simultaneously picturesque and exotic, continues a Victorian practice of representing landscapes around the globe as devoid of indigenous human inhabitants and so open to ideological and actual appropriation by European imperial powers.

The author of this glossary has drawn on a wide range of primary and secondary sources in constructing the entries. These include various historical encyclopedias and dictionaries – notably Lipschutz and Rasmussen’s Dictionary of African Historical Biography (1986), Appiah and Gates’ Encyclopedia of Africa (2010) and Dictionary of African Biography (2012), and the online editions of the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography and the Encyclopaedia Britannica. The work of the anthropologist, Isaac Schapera, who edited a range of Livingstone’s journals and letters in the 1960s, also proved particularly important in identifying ethnic groups and geographical locations.

The notes below are organised according to the normalized spellings (when available) of names and terms as they appear in contemporary scholarship. For clarity, however, the entries also provide the spellings used by Livingstone when these differ notably in modern orthographical practice.

That said, although the glossary is comprehensive, it has not been possible to identify every individual and location with absolute certainty. Where there is doubt about a particular gloss, the author uses the term “reference uncertain.” Occasionally, when no information has been located about a given settlement or geographical feature, the entity is omitted from the glossary all together.

Bechuana Reed-Dance by Moonlight. Illustration from Missionary Travels (Livingstone 1857aa:opposite 225). Courtesy of the Internet Archive (https://archive.org/details/missionarytravel03livi/)
Bechuana Reed-Dance by Moonlight. Illustration from Missionary Travels (Livingstone 1857aa:opposite 225). Courtesy of the Internet Archive. Livingstone spent his first eleven years in southern Africa as a missionary to the BaTswana people, who are depicted in this image. The illustration represents the BaTswana as an undifferentiated and nameless group of individuals, and relies on racial stereotypes that circulated in nineteenth-century Britain. The present glossary (along with the glossary for the Spectral Imaging Project) aims to resist such representative practices by differentiating and providing information about the numerous individuals Livingstone recorded interacting with during his travels.

All entries below are also included as tooltips (i.e., mouseover popup boxes) in the project team’s transcriptions of the Missionary Travels manuscript. Providing the glossary as a separate reference tool, however, allows it to be consulted independently by those interested in Livingstone’s other manuscripts and in the records of other historical travellers to Africa.

Note: The author would like to acknowledge the support and advice of Adrian S. Wisnicki and Jared McDonald in compiling this glossary, and to thank Kate Simpson for integrating the relevant TEI links into the manuscript transcription files.

 

Individuals    Top

Abraham (fl. c.2000 BCE) – Hebrew Patriarch, who figures in the three major monothestic religions. In the biblical book of Genesis, he is the ancestor of the Israelites and the "father of many nations."

Abreu, Cypriano de – Afro-Portuguese soldier. He provides an autograph in Livingstone's journal, signing himself as "Cypriano de Abreu e Santos = Sargento da 4.a Compa movel do Districto de Ambaca" or Sergeant of the 4th mobile company of the Ambaca District. The purpose of the unit was to keep the local Mbangala population in check. Livingstone met him in April 1854 near Cassange on the banks of the Kwango (or Cuango) River and again in February the following year (Schapera 1963,1:127).

Adam – The first man, created in the image of God on the sixth day, according to the biblical account.

Adams, Henry Gardiner (c. 1811-1881) – Chemist and writer from Canterbury, Kent. He was a prolific author of popular works of natural history, particularly ornithology and botany. He also published volumes of poetry (sometimes under the pseudonym Nemo), particularly of a devotional nature. He was the author of Dr. Livingston [sic]: His Life and Adventures in the Interior of South Africa (1857) and The Weaver Boy who Became a Missionary (1867), the latter of which reached its 22nd edition by 1890 (Desmond 1994:4).

Adanson, Michel (1727-1806) – French botanist, who developed a system of classification for plants in his Familles des plantes (1763). He was the first botanist to examine the baobab tree in its natural environment. In 1749, on the Îles de la Madeleine off the coast of Senegal, he calculated two baobabas to be over 5000 years old and to have existed prior to the biblical flood (Wickens 2008:18, 154).

Aesop (c. 6th century BCE) – Ancient Greek fabulist. Numerous beast fables have been attributed to him, but it is probable that he is a legendary figure.

Amaral, José Rodrigues Coelho do – Governor-General of Angola from 1854-60 and 1869-70. His first term was characterised by ambitious efforts to expand into northern Angola and the lower Congo. His administration occupied significant towns in order to gain control of trade routes, and engaged in military operations that proved expensive and ultimately ineffective in extending Portuguese authority (Wheeler and Pélissier 1971:54-56).

Ananias and Sapphira – Members of the early Christian church, whose story is recorded in the New Testament. According to the Book of Acts, they sold some property to share the proceeds with other believers, but retained some of the funds for themselves. When confronted by the Apostle Peter for their deceit, they dropped dead for having "lied to the Holy Spirit" (Acts 5:1-11).

Andersson, Carl Johan (Charles John) (1827-1867) – Swedish explorer of southern Africa. Between 1850 and 1852, he travelled with Francis Galton in an attempt to establish routes from the south and west to Lake Ngami. He spent the remainder of his life travelling and trading in southern Africa and published several expeditionary narratives (Koivunen 2009:213, 217).

Arkwright, Lieutenant Robert (1822-1888) – Army officer in the 7th Dragoon Guards. He was a descendant of Sir Richard Arkwright (1732-1792), the Lancashire cotton manufacturer and inventor of the spinning machine. Arkwright met Livingstone at Chonuane in 1846 while on a hunting expedition (Anon 1995; Livingstone 1846b, 1846c).

Artistotle (384 BCE-322 BCE) – Greek philosopher, who studied at Plato's academy and subsequently established his own philosophical school, the Lyceum. His system of thought has had enduring influence on western arts, sciences, and ethics.

Atlas – Titan of Greek mythology. Following the Titans' defeat by the Olypmian Gods in the Titanomachy, Atlas was condemned to support the dome of the heavens on his back (Roman and Roman 2010:92).

Azevedo, Francisco Maria de (?-1860) – Called Azevído and Asevedo by Livingstone. Merchant, estate-holder, and judge in Quelimane, Mozambique (Boucher 1985:93).

Azevedo, Guilherme Telle Cacio de – Called William Tell (an anglicised version of the name) by Livingstone. Portuguese trader situated near the Kwango (or Cuango) River in north-central Angola, and formerly resident in Cassange. Livingstone met him on 1st March 1855 (Schapera 1963,1:222).

Babinet, Jacques (1794-1872) – Atronomer. From 1838, he was Professor at the Collège de France and from 1840, a member of the Académie des Sciences. He is best known for his work on the diffraction of light and on meteorological optics, and for his success as a populariser of scientific ideas (Nitschelm 2007:77).

Baleriling – Also called Balering by Livingstone. One of the wives of Sechele, the leader of the BaKwena, who were returned to their families. when he converted to Christianity and rencounced polygamy in 1848 (Jeal 2013:80).

Bango – Reference uncertain. Probably a Mbundu chief resident near Golungo Alto in north-western Angola. Not to be confused with the Lunda chief of the same name  (Schapera 1963,1:183n1, 2:485).

Bango – Reference uncertain. Probably a Lunda chief resident in north-eastern Angola.  Not to be confused with the Mbundu chief of the same name (Schapera 1963,2:246n3).

Baptista, Pedro João – Afro-Portuguese trader. Along with Amaro José, he succeeded in crossing Africa from Angola to Mozambique in the early nineteenth century. They were "pombeiros" or agents of Lieutenant-Colonel Francisco Honorato da Costa, the Director of the Fair of Mucary in north-western Angola. They reached the kingdom of Kazembe in present-day northern Zambia in 1806 and stayed there for four years before continuing to the east coast (Beadle 1873:167-69).

Barth, Heinrich (1821-1865) – German explorer of Africa. His travels between 1849 and 1855, first as part of the British government's Mixed Scientific and Commercial Expedition to Central Africa and subsequently alone, significantly enhanced the available information about west Africa and the Sahara. His published journals did not attract the wider public, but were received as important contributions to geographical scholarship (Ofkansky 2003:78-79).

Bedingeld, Captain Norman Bernard – Naval officer. He was promoted Captain in April 1862. When Livingstone met him in Luanda in June 1854, he was Lieutenant-Commander of the Pluto off the coast of west Africa, where he had been signatory to treaties "with the Chiefs and Headmen of Congo River." He joined Livingstone's Zambezi Expedition in 1858 as commander of the steamship, but he resigned in June following irreconcilable differences (Anon 1871:9, Hertslet 1859:17-18, Ross 2002:137-38).

Berry – A copy editor employed by John Murray.

Boston, Thomas (1676-1732) – Scottish theologian and minister of the Church of Scotland, involved in various ecclesiastical controversies in the early eighteenth century. He was a popular proponent of evangelical Calvinism, writing a range of homiletic works, many of which were published posthumously (Ryken 2004).

Botha, Andries – Veldcornet of Kat River, South Africa, sentenced to death for high treason in 1852 for allegedly playing a leading role in the Kat River Rebellion (1850-52). His sentence was subsequently commuted to hard labour (McDonald 2010:530, Lester 2001:159).

Bowdich, Thomas Edward (c. 1791-1824) – Traveller in Africa, and author of geographic and ethnographic literature. In 1816, he joined an expedition to the Asante (in present-day Ghana) organised by the Royal African Company, publishing A Mission from Cape Coast Castle to Ashantee (1819) on his return. Following time in Paris studying natural history, he set out in 1822 on another expedition but died soon afterwards while surveying the Gambia River. Livingstone refers to his history of Portuguese geography in Africa, An Account of the Discoveries of the Portuguese (1824) (Westby-Gibson 2011).

Bristow – A copy editor employed by John Murray.

Brongniart, Alexandre (1770-1847) – French geologist and mineralogist. He is known for his work on the Tertiary Period and his contributions to geological dating using the fossil record. He became Professor of Natural History at École Centrale des Quatre-Nations in 1797 and was Professor of Mineralogy at the National Museum of Natural History in Paris from 1822 (Augustyn et al. 2019a).

Brougham, Henry Peter (1778-1868) – First Baron Brougham and Vaux. Lawyer and Whig politician. He was an advocate of parliamentary, legal, and educational reform, and a supporter of the abolition of slavery. He was a key figure in founding the Edinburgh Review, the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, and the University of London. He was Lord Chancellor from 1830-34. An enthusiast of natural theology, he published a work on the subject in 1835 and, with Sir Charles Bell, an annotated edition of William Paley's Natural Theology in 1836 (Lobban 2008).

Bruce, James (1730-1794) – Scottish explorer of Africa. From 1763–65, he was Consul-General of Algiers, following which he travelled to Abyssinia with the aim of locating the source of the Nile. In 1770 he visited the "Nile Source" at Gish, which would ultimately prove to feed just one of several Blue Nile tributaries. On his return to Britain, Bruce was lionised but doubts about the reliability of his reports soon circulated. He published his 3000 page Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile (5 volumes) sixteen years later (Leask 2006).

Buckland, Dean William (1784-1856) – Geologist and Dean of Westminster Abbey. As a result of his research on fauna fossils in Germany and Britain, he acquired a major reputation. For much of his career he was a supporter of diluvian theory, arguing for compatibility between the Genesis account and the geological record. He moved away from the position of a universal flood in his later Geology and Mineralogy (1836). He was appointed to readerships in Oxford in mineralogy (1813) and geology (1818), became Canon of Christ Church in 1825, and Dean of Westminster in 1845 (Haile 2014).

Burchell, William John (1781-1863) – Naturalist and explorer. He began his career at Kew, but became a naturalist for the East India Company at St Helena in 1806. In 1810 he accepted a position in South Africa as the Cape Colony's botanist. Over the next four years, he made expeditions from Griquatown (present-day Griekwastad) that took him across the Cape and as far north as present-day Botswana. He collected over 60,000 specimens and published his two-volume Travels in the Interior of Southern Africa in 1822 and 1824 (Dickenson 2006).

Burns, Robert (1759-1796) – Scottish poet, regarded as Scotland's "national bard." He is known for his use of Scots language, developing the vernacular style, writing satirical verse, and for composing and collecting popular songs (Leask 2010).

Canto e Castro, Lieutenant Antonio do – Portuguese officer and colonial official. He was a Lieutenant in the Portuguese army, Commandant of Golungo Alto in the mid-1850s, and Governor General of Mozambique from 1864-67. Livingstone stayed with him at Golungo Alto, Angola, from mid-October to early December 1854, describing him as a "dear friend." He provides an autograph in Livingstone's journal, signing himself as "Antonio do Canto e Castro, Tenente de Exercito de Portugal, e chefe do Districto do Golungo=alto. (Angola)" (Schapera 1963,1:141n2, 202).

Carp – A copy editor employed by John Murray.

Carvalho, Commandant Joaquim Maria de – Portuguese officer and colonial official. He was appointed as Commandant of Tala Mugongo in north-central Angola in 1854 (Schapera 1963,1:201n2).

Carvalho e Mello, Sebastião José de (1699-1782) – Marquis de Pombal. Dominant figure in Portuguese politics between 1750 and 1777, during the reign of King Joseph (1714–1777). During his career, he implemented major administrative and commercial reforms. In the late 1750s, he persecuted the Society of Jesus in a bid to secure his power, imprisoning some of its members while deporting most of them to Rome. Following the death of King Joseph and the coronation of Maria I, he was tried for abuses of power and subsequently exiled from Lisbon (Domingues 2016).

Catende – Not a reference to a specific person. Rather, Livingstone cites the name as a generic example of one regularly recurring in Angola. Not to be confused with the Lunda-Luvale chief, Katende, whose name is spelled "Catende" in Livingstone's journals.

Cathcart, Sir George (1794-1854) – British General. He was appointed Governor and Commander in Chief at the Cape to succeed Sir Harry Smith in 1852, with a directive to establish a colonial parliament and curb the Basotho and AmaXhosa. He defeated the AmaXhosa under Sandile and Macomo, adopting an aggressive military course that Livingstone criticised in the manuscript of Missionary Travels (see Livingstone 1857bb:[197]-[227], excised prior to publication). Cathcart was sent to the Crimean War as Commander of the 4th Division in 1853 where he died during the attack upon Mount Inkerman (Stephens 2008a).

Chester – A copy editor employed by John Murray.

Codrington, Captain William – Army officer and sportsman. He was born in Wroughton, Winchester and attended Eton College. He met Livingstone at Kolobeng in 1851, while on a shooting trip in southern Africa with his future brother-in-law, William F. Webb (Schapera 1961:237, Fraser 1913:8).

Cook, Captain James (1728-1779) – Naval officer and explorer. He is best known for his pioneering navigations of the south and north Pacific in the late 1760s and 70s, in which he charted New Zealand and Australia, and circumnavigated Antarctica. He died on Kealakekua Bay in Hawaii in an encounter with local inhabitants during his third scientific expedition to the Pacific, in which he hoped to discover a north-west passage (Villiers 2017).

Coultait – A copy editor employed by John Murray.

Coulter – A copy editor employed by John Murray.

Cowan, Andrew (1778-c.1809) – Medical Officer and explorer. He served in the 83rd of Foot, an Irish regiment, and in 1808 led a southern African expedition which aimed to cross the subcontinent from the south-west of the Cape to Delagoa Bay (present-day Maputo Bay). Following a stop at the Klaarwater mission station, the expedition was not heard of again and in August 1809 its members were presumed dead (Crampton 2012:747-49).

Cross – A copy editor employed by John Murray.

Crusoe, Robinson – Title character of Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe (1719), which follows the protagonist's twenty-eight years as a castaway on a Caribbean island.

Culpeper, Nicholas (1616-1654) – Astrologer and physician. He practised as an apothecary in Spitalfields, devoting much of his time to translating Latin medical texts, such as the Pharmacopoeia, into English. He wrote a wide range of popular works on astrological medicine, which sought to make traditional rememedies readily available to the wider public. He was a religious radical and a fervent republican (Curry 2004).

Cumming, Roualeyn George Gordon (1820-1866) – Hunter and traveller in Africa. His early career was in the military, joining the 4th Madras cavalry in 1838. Between 1843 and 48 he devoted himself to African travel and big game hunting. Following the publication of his bestselling Five Years of a Hunter's Life in the Far Interior of South Africa (1850), he achieved celebrity as the most renowned "lion hunter" of his day (Stephens 2004).

D'Urban, Sir Benjamin (1777-1849) – British General and colonial Governor. He became Governor of Antigua in 1820 and then British Guiana in 1831. He was appointed Commander-in-Chief and Governor of the Cape in 1833, presiding during the Cape Frontier War of 1834–35. His actions against the AmaXhosa roused humanitarian opposition, leading to his dismissal in 1837. In Section IX of the Missionary Travels manuscript, removed prior to publication, Livingstone criticises what he calls the "D'Urban policy" on the frontier (Livingstone 1857bb:[201]-[203]). D'Urban came out of retirement in 1847 to command the military in Canada (Stephens 2008b).

Daintree – A copy editor employed by John Murray.

de Carpo, Arsénio Pompílio Pompeu – Portuguese merchant. In 1823, he was sentenced to five years' exile in west Africa for political antagonism, where he became a leading slave trader. He was dismissed from Angola for his activities in the mid-1840s but returned in 1849. After a period of exile in São Tomé, in 1854 he was elected to the Luanda municipal council and was briefly Commandant of Ambaca. Livingstone initially thought de Carpo had "enlightened views" but was subsequently disillusioned. He is discussed in detail in Livingstone's journals (Schapera 1963,1:134-35n5, 202-03; Corrado 2007:3-8).

Dennett – A copy editor employed by John Murray.

Dent, Edward John (1790-1853) – Watchmaker. He was one of Britain's most celebrated chronometer makers, and was issued a royal warrant in 1841. He made important experiments with balance springs, built regulator clocks for various observatories, and made improvements to the marine compass (Boase 2007).

Dew. W – A copy editor employed by John Murray.

Dingane (c.1795-1840) – Called Dingaan by Livingstone. Second AmaZulu King (r.1828–40). His brother, Shaka, presided over the AmaZulu kingdom from 1815, turning it into a major power. Dingane was one of Shaka's earliest supporters, but overthrew him in 1828 and inherited his unstable regime. Dingane's major problem was the increased European presence in Natal as a result of the Great Trek and he became embroiled in conflict with the Boers under Andries Pretorius. Dingane's half brother, Mpande, turned against him in 1840 and defeated him with Afrikaner support (Lipschutz and Rasmussen 1986:56-57).

Dombo Changamire (?-1696) – Called Changamera by Livingstone. Founder of the Rozvi empire, a Shona state that flourished from the seventeenth to nineteenth centuries in present-day Zimbabwe. He established the kingdom between 1684 and 1696, effectively restricting Portuguese authority and extending dominance across the Zimbabwe Plateau. The name Changamire subsequently became a hereditary title of the Rozvi dynasty. The state gave way in the 1830s with the ascendancy of Nguni groups (Msindo 2012:58-59, Lipschutz and Rasmussen 1986:46, Shillington 1989:204-06).

MacDonald, Donal – Not a reference to a specific person. Rather, it is cited by the editor as a generic example of a common name in the Scottish highlands.

Donovan, Lieutenant E. D. – Army officer and explorer. He served in the 83rd of Foot, an Irish regiment. In 1808, he was second-in-command of Andrew Cowan's southern African expedition, which aimed to cross the subcontinent from south-west of the Cape to Delagoa Bay (present-day Maputo Bay). Following a stop at Klaarwater mission station, the expedition was not heard of again and in August 1809 its members were presumed dead (Crampton 2012:747-49).

Duprat, Chevalier Alfredo (1810-1881) – Portuguese Commissioner of the Anglo-Portuguese Mixed Commission for the Suppression of Slavery in Cape Town. He was initially appointed as Arbitrator of the Mixed Commission in 1843 and rose to the rank of Commissioner. Later, Duprat served for many years as Consul-General for Portugal in London. He was elected a fellow of the Royal Geographical Society in 1856 (Niekerk 2004b:407, Anon 1881a:669-70, Anon 1881b:165).

Eliot, John (1604-1690) – Missionary and translator. He emigrated to America in the 1630s as part of the Puritan migration, and spent over forty years as missionary to the Native Americans of eastern Massachusetts. Known by contemporaries as the "Apostle to the Indians," he became proficient in the local Algonquian tongue and developed a corpus of religious works in the language as author and translator. His major achievement was the Massachusett Bible (not Choctaw, as Livingstone writes), published in 1663 (Fausz 2011).

Eve – The first woman, created in the image of God on the sixth day according to the biblical account.

Faria – Reference uncertain. Probably Feliciano da Costa Faria, who was appointed ensign of Golungo Alto, Angola, on 26th March 1850. He was given leave to go on a trading expedition in September 1853, which would account for his meeting with Livingstone in Cabango in north-eastern Angola in May 1855 (Anon 1850:140; Schapera 1963,2:241n1).

Ferrão, Anselmo Henriques (c.1812-1867) – Merchant and estate-holder in Mozambique. He was made colonel of the Sena militia in 1842 and later Brigadier of the Second Line. He was part of a major Afro-Portuguese family of Indian background, who had considerable commercial and political powerful in the lower Zambezi Valley for much of the nineteenth century. In his journals, Livingstone mentions "the very great kindness shewn to [him] ... by Mr Ferrão" in May 1856 (Anon 1843a:107, Anon 1867b:242, Newitt 1995:308, 337; Schapera 1963,2:465)

Fleming, George (c.1800-c.1880) – Trader and traveller in southern Africa. He was a member of William Cotton Oswell's retinue during the journey to Lake Ngami in 1849. He accompanied Livingstone independently as a trader in 1852, travelling from Cape Town to Linyanti to investigate the scope for commerce with the Makololo. He is generally thought to have been an escaped slave of West Indian origin, although some commentators have suggested he was African American (Ross 2002:79; Morton, Ramsay, and Mgadla 2008:116).

Franklin, Benjamin (1706-1790) – American author, statesman, and scientist, known for his research into electricity. He was one of the authors and signatories of the Declaration of Independence, and a representative of the United States to France during the American Revolution. His experiment on the drowned flies, which Livingstone references, is recounted in his letter to the physician M. Dubourg, "Observations on the Generally Prevailing Doctrines of Life and Death" (Wood and Hornberger 2007, Franklin 1793:221-23).

Gabriel, Edmund – Commissioner in the British Portuguese Mixed Commission for the Suppression of the Slave Trade at Luanda, Angola. He began his career in the British Navy, serving for seven years in the West African Squadron. He was appointed as Arbitrator to the Mixed Commission in 1845 and was subsequently promoted to Commissioner. Livingstone stayed with him in Luanda from 31st May to 20th September 1854 (Murchison 1862-63:135; Schapera 1963,1:145, 158)

Galton, Sir Francis (1822-1911) – Geneticist and eugenicist. From the 1860s he studied human heredity, arguing that the improvement of the human species depended on selective breeding. This idea underpinned the social philosophy he named "eugenics." Galton was also interested in exploration, travelling in southern Africa with Carl Andersson (1850–52) in search of a route to Lake Ngami from the south and west. His travelogue, Tropical South Africa (1852), received an RGS gold medal while The Art of Travel (1855) became an expeditionary handbook (Cowan 2005).

Gando – Reference uncertain. A chief of either the Mbangala or the Shinji, resident on the bank of the Kwango (or Cuango) River near Cassange in north-central Angola.

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Étienne (1772-1844) – French naturalist. He was appointed Superintendent of the Cabinet of Zoology at the Jardin des Plantes in 1793, before becoming Chair of Zoology at France's National Museum of Natural History and later Professor at the University of Paris. He was an important figure in nineteenth-century anatomy, developing the principle of the "unity of composition" of vertebrate organisms. Saint-Hilaire also collected specimens in Egypt as part of a large-scale scientific expedition, when Napoleon invaded in 1798 (Charton 2003:71-72).

Goodby – A copy editor employed by John Murray.

Graça, Joaquim Rodrigues – Portuguese trader and explorer, who travelled widely in central Africa. He made an expedition to the central Lunda kingdom of the Mwant Yav (or Mwata Yamvo) between 1846 and 1848 (Burton 1873:36n, Rego 1972:165, Abshire 1969:62).

Grant, Charles, Baron Glenelg (1778-1866) – Politician and Colonial Secretary. He was Irish Secretary from 1818-23, privy councillor from 1819-21, President of the Board of Trade from 1827-28, and President of the Board of Control from 1830-34. While Colonial Secretary (1835-39), he collided with the Cape governor, Benjamin D'Urban, over policy in South Africa. As part of British humanitarian circles he disapproved of D'Urban's conduct in the Cape Frontier Wars, refusing to approve the annexation of AmaXhosa territories in the Eastern Cape (as "Queen Adelaide Province") and removing the governor from his post (Martin 2008, Etheringon 2001:245).

Grey, Sir George (1812-1898) – Colonial politician. He held governorships in South Australia (1841-45), the Cape Colony (1854-61), and New Zealand (1845-53, 1861-68), and was later elected as New Zealand's premier (1877-79). He was an ardent imperial expansionist, advocating colonial settlement and the acculturation of indigenous peoples through contact with European culture. In South Africa, he took office following the Eighth Cape Frontier War, where his goal was to consolidate British authority over Kaffraria, the recently annexed AmaXhosa territory in the Eastern Cape (Belich 2008, Laband 2009a:100).

Guericke, Otto von (1602-1686) – German physicist and engineer. He invented the air pump in 1650, which proved foundational to the study of vacuums. In 1663 he invented an electric generator, which used friction to produce static electricity and electroluminescence (Krafft 2000:277-79, Augustyn et al. 2018a).

Hanno the Navigator (c.500 BCE-450 BCE) – Carthaginian explorer. He was reportedly sent by the Carthaginians to explore and establish settlements on Africa's Atlantic coast. The record of his travel fuelled the appetite for African exploration, from the Renaissance to the nineteenth century (Kaplan 2012:24-26).

Harvey, William (1578-1657) – Physician and anatomist. He made one of the major medical avancements of the modern era, discovering the circulation of the blood and that the heart functioned as a pump driving it around the body. As a radical departure from the theories of Galen, his ideas were initially met with a mixed reception and only gradually accepted (French 2004, Jones 2016:372).

Hay, George (1787-1876) – Eighth Marquess of Tweeddale. Army officer and colonial Governor. He joined the army in 1803, and fought in the Peninsular War (1807-14) and the Anglo-American War of 1812 (1812-15). From 1842 to 1848, he was the Governor of Madras and the Commander-in-Chief of the Madras army. He reached the rank of Field Marshal in 1875 (Keene 2008).

Hecker, Justus Friedrich Karl (1795-1850) – German physician. He has been credited as the founder of historical pathology. In works such as History of Medicine (Geschichte der Heilkund) (1822), he approached the development of epidemic diseases with a new comparative and historical perspective. He was appointed Professor Extrordinarius at the University of Berlin in 1822 (Huisman and Warner 2004:7).

Hercules – Also Heracles. Hero of classical mythology, appearing in Greek and Roman traditions. He is most famously associated with the twelve "Labours" assigned to him by King Eurystheus. The "Pillars of Hercules" refer to promontories on either side of the Strait of Gibraltar, reputedly established by Hercules in commemoration of his success in appropriating the cattle of the giant, Geryon. The Rock of Gibraltar is regarded as one pillar, while the other is variously identified as Jebel Moussa or Mount Hacho (Roman and Roman 2010:208, 210; Augustyn et al. 2012).

Herodotus (c.484 BCE-c.430 BCE) – Greek author, whose history of the Greco-Persian Wars is considered to be the first attempt at an expansive historical narrative in the ancient world.

Herschel, Sir John Frederick William (1792-1822) – Astronomer. He was one of nineteenth-century astronomy's most distinguished figures, publishing his important Treatise on Astronomy in 1833 and helping to found the Royal Astronomical Society. From 1834–38 he directed his research to the southern hemisphere, making extensive observations and catalogues from the Cape Colony, which led to his major Results of Astronomical Observations [...] at the Cape of Good Hope (1847). His work contributed to the development of stellar astronomy, extending contemporary knowledge of nebular phenomena and double stars (Crowe 2009).

Hogge, William S. (?-1852) – One of two British Commissioners who negotiated the Sand River Convention (1852) with Andries Pretorius, which recognised the independence of the South African Republic (also known as the Transvaal) (Etherington 2001:319).

Hooker, Sir Joseph Dalton (1817-1911) – Botanist. He is known for his extensive work on botanical taxonomy and the geographical distribution of flora, and for developing the profile of botany as a discipline. He was one of the first public supporters of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection. He was Assistant Director of Kew gardens from 1855 and Director from 1865. Livingstone regularly consulted him on botanical questions while writing Missionary Travels. Hooker also provided instructions on botanical observation and collection to members of the Zambezi Expedition (Endersby 2008, Dritsas 2010:71-72; Livingstone 1857y, 1857z).

Horace (65 BCE-8 BCE) – Roman lyric poet and satirist, active during the rule of Emperor Augustus. In the nineteenth century, classical literature occupied a central role in British education, particularly among elites.

Horoye – A member of the Khoesan people, who Livingstone met in 1851 on his first journey to visit Sebitwane and again in 1853 (Schapera 1960a:9-10).

Horsburgh, James (1762-1836) – Hydrographer and sailor. Most of his sailing career was spent working shipping routes between India and China, during which time he developed expertise in surveying and collating charts for navigation. In 1810, he was appointed as the East India Company's hydrographer. His major work was the two-volume Directions for Sailing to and from the East Indies [...] and the Interjacent Ports (1809-11), later known as The India Directory. Revised editions were published by the admiralty into the 1860s (Cook 2008).

Hoskins, Sir Anthony Hiley (1828-1901) – Naval officer. He spent his early career off the east coast of Africa, and during the Eighth Frontier War ("War of Mlanjeni," 1850–53) was Naval Aide-de-Camp to Sir Harry Smith. He later served in China, North America, Australia, and the Mediterranean, reaching the rank of Admiral and Senior Naval Lord. Livingstone wrote to Hoskins on 5th Jan 1857, asking him to provide an outline of his opinion on the "safety or otherwise of the ports at the mouths of the Zambesi" (Laughton 2004a, Livingstone 1857e).

Humboldt, Alexander von (1769-1859) – Prussian explorer and naturalist. In 1797 he travelled to South America with the French botanist Aimé Bonpland to trace the Orinoco, before publishing his findings in twenty-three volumes over the next thirty years. A second expedition to central Asia in 1829 was followed by the five volumes of the Kosmos, again over thirty years. Humbolt's work ranged across geology, climatology, botany, and zoology and was instrumental to the development of the geographical discipline (Kirk 2005:203).

Imasiku – Called Masiko by Livingstone. Lozi chief. When the Makololo conquered the Lozi kingdom in the 1840s, he became an exile and settled north of the Kabompo river. He continued to be involved in skirmishes with the Makololo, the southern Luvale, and southern Lunda. Livingstone identifies him as the son of the Lozi king Mulambwa Santulu (called Santuru by Livingstone), but he was actually the son of Mubukwanu and therefore the grandson of Mulambwa Santulu (Oppen 1993:60, Caplan 1970:10; Schapera 1963,1:9n3).

Ionga Panza – Chokwe headman, resident near the Luachimo River in north-eastern Angola.

Isaac (fl. c.2000 BCE) – Hebrew Patriarch. In the biblical book of Genesis, he is the son of Abraham and Sarah, promised to them by God, and the father of Jacob and Esau. In Genesis 22, God commands Abraham to sacrifice Isaac as a test of faith, before instead instructing him to substitute a ram for his son.

Isaiah (fl. 800 BCE-700 BCE) – Prophetic book of the Old Testament, which receives its name from the prophet Isaiah. Isaiah was a messenger to the people of Israel and Judah in a perod of Assyrian expansion, warning of a coming judgement, prophesying the survival of a remnant, and looking forward to the coming of a Messiah.

Ishmael – Son of Abraham by Hagar, Sarah's servant. In Genesis 21, Ishmael and his mother are driven into the desert as a result of Sarah's resentment. In some traditions, Ishmael is regarded as the ancestor of Muhammad, the prophet of Islam. Livingstone refers to the efforts of some nineteenth-century commentators (such as John Appleyard) to trace the AmaXhosa to a Semitic origin and incorporate them into a biblical genealogy (Gilmour 2006:100-02).

Jenner, Edward (1749-1823) – Surgeon and physician. He developed the use of vaccination to inoculate against smallpox, one of the most virulent infectious diseases in the eighteenth century. He published his initial findings as Inquiry into the Causes and Effects of the Variolae Vaccinae [...] Known by the Name of Cow-Pox (1798). Although his investigations were initially subject to some reservations, vaccination soon gained the support of the medical community and was widely implemented (Baxby 2009).

Jesus c.8-4 BCE-30 CE) – Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, the central figure of Christianity.

JM – These are the initials of a copy editor, or possibly of Livingstone's publisher, John Murray.

José, Amaro – Afro-Portuguese trader. Along with Pedro João Baptista, he succeeded in crossing Africa from Angola to Mozambique in the early nineteenth century. They were "pombeiros" or agents of Lieutenant-Colonel Francisco Honorato da Costa, the Director of the Fair of Mucary in north-western Angola. They reached the kingdom of Kazembe in present-day northern Zambia in 1806 and stayed there for four years before continuing to the east coast (Beadle 1873:167-69).

Iscariot, Judas (?-c.30) – One of Jesus' twelve disciples in the New Testament, who betrayed him to the Jewish authorities in return for thirty pieces of silver (Matthew 26:14)

Caesar, Julius (c.100 BCE-44 BCE) – Roman statesman and General. Between 58 and 50 BCE, he conquered Gaul and considerably extended Roman territory. He was the victor of the civil war (49–45 BCE), and was appointed as Dictator and Tribune of Rome. In 44 BCE, he was assassinated at the height of his power by a party led by Brutus and Cassius (Toynbee 2019).

Kabinje – Lunda headman.

Kaisa – Kalanga chief.

Kakenge – Called Kangenke by Livingstone. Official title of an important Luvale chieftainship. By the 1850s, Kakenge had established considerable connections with Ovimbundu traders (also known as Mambari) and was a major supplier of slaves to Angola (Oppen 1993:73).

Kamboela – Mbangala headman, resident between the Kwilu and Kwango (or Cuango) rivers in north-central Angola. He is dismissed in Livingstone's journals as "a stupid sort of man" (Schapera 1963,1:121).

Kangenke – Lunda headman (not to be confused with the major Luvale chieftainship, Kakenge).

Kangombe – Official title of an Ovimbundu chieftainship, based in the Bié region of central Angola (Schapera 1960a:162n1).

Kanyata – Member of the Makololo, who was one of the leaders of Livingstone's retinue during his expedition from Linyanti to Mozambique (1855–56). When Livingstone returned to the Lozi capital in 1860, Kanyata acted as principal leader of the party since Sekwebu had drowned on the crossing between east Africa and Mauritius (Livingstone and Livingstone 1865:156).

Kaonka – Batonga chief, resident near the Kalomo River in present-day Zambia's Southern Province.

Kapende – Also Capende. Lunda headman, under Shinde's authority.

Kasimakate – A Lunda figure who, according to Livingstone, appeared in local traditions about the origin of Lake Dilolo in eastern Angola.

Katema – Official title of a Lunda chieftainship, near Lake Dilolo in eastern Angola. Livingstone was warmly received by Katema on his journey to the west coast in February 1854 and again on his return to Linyanti in June 1855 (Schapera 1963,1:82-83, 2:259-60; Oppen 1993:364).

Katende – Chief, of Lunda and Luvale affiliation, resident near the Kasai River in eastern Angola. He was later based in Dilolo territory in what is now Democratic Republic of the Congo. In Livingstone's journals, his name is also spelled Catende (Oppen 1993:197; Schapera 1963,1:98).

Kawawa – Lunda chief, resident near the Kasai River in eastern Angola.

Kazembe – Called Cazembe by Livingstone. Hereditary title of the chief of the eastern Lunda. During the cross-continental expedition (1852-56), Livingstone gathered reports about this kingdom. He later visited Muonga Sunkutu, Kazembe VII (r.1862-72), at his capital Kanyembo (in present-day northern Zambia) in 1867 and again in 1868. On the latter visit, the chief provided Livingstone with key geographical information about the Congo River system (Macola 2002:4).

Kebopetswe – Called Kibopechoe by Livingstone. A member of the BaKwena, who was part of Livingstone's retinue in 1853 on his journey from Kolobeng to Linyanti (Schapera 1960a:104n2).

Keir – A copy editor employed by John Murray.

Keith, Rev. Dr. P. H. – Church of Scotland minister in Hamilton, Scotland, and President of the Hamilton "Orphan and Charity School Association." Livingstone made him a gift of manuscript pages of Missionary Travels as well as a signed copy of the published book (Macpherson 1862:85, 87; Livingstone 1857b:[6], 1857ee).

Kerr – A copy editor employed by John Murray.

Ketch, John (Jack) (?-1686) – Public executioner. He was well-known in his own day as London's hangman, and was the subject of extensive satire. His name often serves to connote a generic image of an executioner (Wales 2004).

Kgakgê – Called Kāke by Livingstone. BaKwena chief. He was the successor to Sechele's uncle, Bubi, who led a rival portion of the BaKwena. Sechele attacked and defeated Kgakgê in 1846 (Livingstone 1846a, Schapera 1960a:303n5, 1961:15n3).

Kgari – Called Khari by Livingstone. Eldest son of the BaKwena chief, Sechele, and his wife Mokgokgong. Although he was the eldest son, Kgari's half-brother Sebele became heir to Sechele. After Sechele died in 1892 and Sebele took the throne, Kgari spilt from his brother taking a portion of the BaKwena with him (Morton 2012b:315).

King Pedro V (1837-1861) – King of Portugal. He assumed the throne in 1853, following the death of his mother, Queen Maria II. His father ruled in his stead as regent for two years, until he was eighteen. He was a politically engaged monarch, with interests in the development of Portugal's African colonies. Livingstone wrote to him on 24th February 1856 to make suggestions for their improvement, and to propose the construction of a road into the African interior (Wheeler and Opello Jr. 2010:208, Wallis 1956:xv-xvi).

King Solomon (fl. c.975 BCE-c.926 BCE) – Third King of Israel, appearing in I Kings and II Chronicles. He is celebrated in the biblical account for his wisdom and for extending the kingdom of Israel, and is traditionally regarded as the author of the Song of Solomon and various sayings in the Book of Proverbs.

Kobus Hae – Possibly a relation of the Griqua trader Hans Hae, whom Livingstone refers to several times in his journals and letters (Livingstone 1849b, 1849c).

Kolimbota – A member of Livingtone's retinue on the journey from Linyanti to the west coast, but who remained at Shinde's in January 1854 purportedly to establish a relationship between the Makololo and southern Lunda.

Krapf, Johann Ludwig (1810-1881) – German Lutheran missionary in east Africa. He trained at the Basel Mission seminary in Switzerland, before joining the Church Missionary Society and beginning work among the Oromo people in Ethiopia in 1837. Facing resistance from the Ethiopian Orthodox church, he moved to Mobasa in 1844 and then established a mission at Rabai. Krapf made several exploratory expeditions in east Africa. He was the first European to sight Mount Kilimanjaro, with his colleague Johannes Rebmann, and to sight Mount Kenya (Pirouet 1999:375, Lipschutz and Rasmussen 1986:115).

Kruger, Gerrit Johannes – Called Gert Krieger by Livingstone. Commandant of the Boers at Magaliesberg. Livingstone came into conflict with Kruger and Andries Potgieter while he was stationed at Kolobeng, as hostilities intensified between the Transvaal Boers and the BaKwena. When Livingstone met them in 1848 to propose a new mission school, they threatened him and wrote to the London Missionary Society to request his recall. Gerrit Kruger was the uncle of Paul Kruger, the future President of the South African Republic (Livingstone 1849a, Morton 2010:31-32; Schapera 1959,2:9-10n10).

Labouchere, Henry (1798-1869) – First Baron Taunton. Whig politician and Colonial Secretary. He was elected MP for St Michael's in 1826, and was then MP for Taunton from 1830 until retiring from parliament. His major cabinet appointments were as President of the Board of Trade (1839-41, 1847-52), Chief Secretary for Ireland (1846-47), and Secretary of State for the Colonies (1855-58). He was made Baron Taunton in 1859 and took a seat in the House of Lords (Barker 2008).

Lacerda e Almeida, Francisco José Maria de (1753-1798) – Brazilian explorer of Africa. He was appointed Governor of the Rios de Sena in Mozambique by the Portuguese government. In 1798 he organised a transcontinental surveying expedition, hoping to establish communication between the Portuguese settlements on the east and west African coasts. Encountering an envoy at Tete from the Lunda King Kazembe, he journeyed towards his capital in the Luapula Valley in an effort to commence trade. He died as he approached Kazemebe's town (Macola 2002:2, Lipschutz and Rasmussen 1986:117).

Lebeole – An important member of the Makololo. He assisted Livingstone in preparing for the eastward leg of his transcontinental journey, from Linyanti to Mozambique, in October 1855. He later quarelled with Sekeletu and fled to Lake Ngami, where he was killed by Letsholathebe. In Livingstone's journals he is also known as Motoñka (Schapera 1960a:36n5, 130).

Ledy – A copy editor employed by John Murray.

Lerimo – Makololo headman, under the authority of Sebitwane's brother, Mpololo.

Letsholathebe I (c.1830-1874) – Called Lechulatebe by Livingstone. Chief of the BaTawana. The BaTawana had been conquered by Sebitwane and the Makololo. When Letsholathebe became chief, he consolidated the BaTawana around Lake Ngami and established trade with the west coast. As Livingstone records, the Makololo attacked the BaTawana in 1854. Letsholathebe remained under pressure from Sekeletu until the Makololo were overthrown by the Lozi in 1864 (Lipschutz and Rasmussen 1986:121; Schapera 1963,2:277, 290).

Liula – Member of the Lunda, resident at Cabango in north-eastern Angola. Livingstone suggests that he was a son of the previous Mwant Yav of the central Lunda, Nawej, who had died in 1852.

Livingstone, David (1813-1873) – Famous Victorian explorer, missionary, and abolitionist. Renowned for his travels across Africa and extensive manuscript corpus.

Livingstone, Mary (1821-1862) – Missionary in southern Africa. In SeTswana, she was known as Ma-Robert, which means "mother of Robert." The daughter of missionaries, Robert and Mary Moffat, she was born in Bechuanaland and grew up in Kuruman. With David Livingstone, her husband, she established missions at Mabotsa, Chonuane, and Kolobeng and made an expedition to Lake Ngami (1850). During Livingstone's cross-contintental expedition, Mary spent several unhappy years in Britain. She travelled to central Africa to join the Zambezi Expedition in 1862, but died shortly afterwards (Davidson 2012:XIII-XV).

Livingstone, Robert (1846-1864) – Eldest child of David Livingstone. He spent his early years in southern Africa, and did not adjust well to life in Britain when sent there with his mother and siblings in 1852. During Livingstone's Zambezi Expedition, Robert failed to sustain a good relationship with his guardians and refused to pursue higher education. Later, he sailed to Boston and fought in the Union Army during the American Civil War. He was taken prisoner in Virginia and died at a prisoner of war hospital in North Carolina (Ross 2002:53, 114, 188-91).

Loyanka – Also called Loyanke by Livingstone. A member of Livingstone's retinue, during the expedition between Linyanti and Angola (1853–55).

Macaulay, Thomas Babington (1800-1859) – First Baron Macaulay. Historian and politician. He is best known for his five-volume History of England, which proved important in shaping the "Whig" narrative of national history. He was also a poet, publishing Lays of Ancient Rome (1842), and a major essayist. His contentious "Minute on Indian Education" (1835) argued that all "native" education in India should occur in English. Macaulay entered parliament in 1830 and the peerage in 1857. He served in the Supreme Council of India from 1834-38, as Secretary at War from 1839-41, and as Paymaster-General from 1846-48 (Thomas 2015).

Maclear, Sir Thomas (1794-1879) – Astronomer. He was appointed to the Royal Observatory in the Cape of Good Hope in 1834, which he established as a major observatory over the next thirty-six years. He was interested in African exploration, training Livingstone in 1852 to take latitudinal and longitudinal readings and correcting the observations from his cross-continental expedition. Livingstone considered dedicating Missionary Travels to Maclear (alongside Roderick Murchison) in gratitude for his assistance (Elliott 2007:722-23, Evans 2009, Livingstone 1857w).

Mahale – Makololo headman.

Maher – Called Mahar by Livingstone. Traveller in southern Africa. He accompanied Joseph McCabe on his expedition across the Kalahari to Lake Ngami in 1852. He remained at the lake while McCabe travelled further north (McCabe 1963:413-24).

Mahura – Also called Mahure by Livingstone. BaTlhaping chief, resident at Taung (in present-day South Africa's North West province). Livingstone records meeting him at Kuruman in September 1852 (Livingstone 1852, Schapera 1960a:96n8).

Mai Munene – Called Mai by Livingstone. Official title of a Lunda chieftainship in the region of the Mai Munene waterfall on the Kasai River (in present-day Kasai Province of Democratic Republic of the Congo) (Oliver and Atmore 2001:186).

Majane – Najwa headman, resident in the Mababe Depression of present-day northern Botswana.

Makaba II (c.1760s-1824) – Called Makabe by Livingstone. Chief of the BaNgwaketse. He was a dominant military leader in the southern Kalahari, and successfully extended the strength and influence of the BaNgwaketse state. He was defeated and killed by the Makololo led by Sebitwane, who had recently migrated north (Morton, Ramsay, and Mgadla 2008:206-07; Lipschutz and Rasmussen 1986:132).

Makoma – Although Livingstone refers to Makoma as a personal name in Missionary Travels, his journals suggest that he may mean the Makoma people, a group resident on the Luanginga River (in present-day Zambia's Western Province) and absorbed by the Lozi (Schapera 1963,1:19, 23).

Maleke – Acting BaKwena chief (r.1803-1805) prior to the chieftainship of his nephew, Motswasele II (Sechele's father) (Schapera 1960a:99n7).

Mamidi Bogatsu – Called Mamire by Livingstone. Makololo aristocrat and the maternal uncle of Sekeletu. After Sekeletu's death in 1863, he was a contender for the throne, supported by elders among the Makololo. Defeated by those backing Mpololo's claim, he and his party fled to Lake Ngami were he was killed by the BaTawana chief, Letsholathebe (Kalusa 2009:69, 73, 76; Schapera 1960a:236n1).

Manchunyane (c.1843- ?) – Identified in Missionary Travels as Sebitwane's daughter, though the same name is given to an individual described as Sebitwane's sister in Narrative of an Expedition to the Zambesi (Livingstone and Livingstone 1865:276).

Manenko – Lunda chief and niece of Shinde, the paramount chief of the southern Lunda. She met Livingstone in January 1854 and provided him with an escort to Shinde.

Mankopane – Langa chief, resident in the north-western Transvaal. From the 1840s, the Langa and the Kekana came into conflict with Boers who had arrived in the region. Following a collision in 1854 in which almost thirty Boers were killed, Boer commandos advanced first against the Kekana and then the Langa. Mankopane escaped on this occasion but continued to be assailed by the Boers over the next decade (Stapleton 2017,1:197-08).

Marimba – Probably a Toka-Leya headman. He was resident to the north-east of Victoria Falls, near the Ngwezi River in present-day Zambia's Southern Province.

Marques, José Lourenço – Called Laurence Jose Marquis by Livingstone. Portuguese officer in Angola. He was Commandant of Icollo e Bengo, near Luanda, before being appointed Commandant of Ambaca in north-western Angola in 1854. He had a long military career, attaining the rank of Colonel, and was the Chief of Police in Luanda for over a decade (Figueiredo 1864:6; Schapera 1963,1:160n4).

Mary, Queen of Scots (1542-1587) – Also known as Mary Stuart. Queen of Scotland from 1542–67. Many Roman Catholics in Britain, who did not recognise Henry VIII's marriage to Anne Boleyn and consequently held Queen Elizabeth to be illegitimate, viewed Mary as the rightful claimant of the English throne. Regarded by Elizabeth as a threat to her sovereignty, Mary was held prisoner for eighteen years before being tried and executed in 1587 (Fraser 2017).

Mashawana – Called Mashauana by Livingstone. A member of the Lozi people, who was part of Livingstone's retinue during the expedition between Linyanti and Angola (1853–55) (Schapera 1963,1:11n1).

Mathew, Father Theobald (1790-1856) – Capuchin priest and temperance campaigner. He was ordained in the Capuchin order in 1814, and became a public supporter of total abstinence in 1838 when he became leader of the Cork Teetotal Society. He was a major figure in the temperance movement, conducting many "crusades" around Ireland in response to social problems exacerbated by drinking. He also conducted crusades in Scotland (1842), England (1843), and America (1849–51), where he mainly succeeded with Irish immigrants (Kerrigan 2004).

Matiamvo – Not to be confused with the paramount chief of the central Lunda whose royal title was Mwant Yav. This individual was a Chokwe chief, using what Livingstone called "a favourite title" which was "appropriated by many aspirants" (Schapera 1963,1:111).

Matlatle – Reference uncertain. Presumably a member of the BaKgatla community resident near Livingstone's Mabotsa mission station.

McCabe, Joseph (1816-1870) – Trader and explorer of southern Africa. In the 1840s he established himself as a hunter and trader near Potchefstroom. In 1852, he made an expedition across the Kalahari to Lake Ngami and continued north for 250 miles, meeting Livingstone on his return journey. He collected botanical specimens from Ngami and the Chobe which were subsequently sent to W. J. Hooker at Kew Gardens (Gunn and Codd 1981:236).

McClune, Commander James P. (?-1856) – Called MacLune by Livingstone. Naval officer. He was the Second Master of H.M. Brigantine Dart, a ship commissioned for the coast of Africa in 1847. Tasked with enquiring after Livingstone at Quelimane, Mozambique, he took command of the cutter on Tuesday 29th April 1856 to sail over the bar of the Cuacua River and upriver to Quelimane. Overturned by heavy waves, five members of the crew made it to shore but McClune, Lieutenant Woodruff, and the others drowned (Anon 1848:101, Nolloth 1857:5, Anon 1856a:813).

McWilliam, Dr James Ormiston (1808-1862) – Called MacWilliam by Livingstone. Epidemiologist and naval doctor. From 1832-36 he served on the west coast of Africa as Surgeon to H.M.S. Scout. He joined the Niger expedition (1841-42) as Senior Surgeon to the Albert, the steamer that progressed furthest upriver. On his return, he published a detailed examination of the tropical fever that decimated the party, Medical History of the Niger Expedition (1843), and soon afterwards was commissioned to report on an epidemic of yellow fever in Boa Vista (1845-46). He became Medical Officer of Custom House in 1847 and fellow of the Royal Society in 1848 (Greenhill 2004).

Mead – A copy editor employed by John Murray.

Mebalwe – BaTswana evangelist. He had been converted at Kuruman and subsequently joined Livingstone as a teacher, first at the Mabotsa mission and then at Chonuane and Kolobeng. Mebalwe's work was supported by funds secured by Livingstone from an Independent congregation in Cambuslang, Scotland (Blaikie 1880:56; Schapera 1959,1:90n4).

Merere (?-1860) – Called Moaroro and Moarore by Livingstone. Official title of the Sangu (also known historically as the Rori). Livingstone refers to Merere I Mwahavanga, who borrowed Ngoni patterns of warfare and established the Sangu as a major presence in the southern highlands of present-day Tanzania (Iliffe 1979:56).

Miranda (?-1869) – Reference uncertain. Probably Joaquim Romão de Miranda, Ensign in the Portuguese army at Mozambique, promoted Lieutenant in March 1855. He was appointed by Major Tito Augusto d'Araujo Sicard to escort Livingstone from Tete to Quelimane between 22nd April and 20th May 1856. He later became a trader and was killed in action fighting Bonga (António Vicente da Cruz), a powerful Afro-Portuguese estate-holder in the Zambezi Valley (Anon 1867a:132; Schapera 1963,2:455n4).

MmaBogosing – Called Mabogosing by Livingstone. Wife of Mahura, chief of the Tlhaping. The name MmaBogosing means "mother of Bogosing," who was Mahura's eldest son (Schapera 1959,2:203n16).

MmaMotsisane – Called Mamochisane by Livingstone. Governor of the central province of Makololo territory and daughter of the Makololo chief, Sebitwane. She succeeded her father when he died in 1851, but abdicated the chieftainship in favour of her half-brother Sekeletu (Sheldon 2016:171, Schapera 1960a:28n2).

Mmanku – Called Maunku by Livingstone. Wife of the Makololo chief, Sebitwane. Livingstone records that she was from the AmaNdebele (Schapera 1960a:16n3, 132).

MmaSebele – Also known as Selemeng. Called Masebele by Livingstone. Wife of the BaKwena chief, Sechele. When Sechele converted to Christianity and renounced polygamy in 1848, MmaSebele was the wife he retained. The name MmaSebele means "mother of Sebele" (Parsons 1998:39, Urban-Mead 2002:66n32).

MmaSekeletu – Also known as Setloutlou. Called MaSekeletu by Livingstone. Wife of the Makololo chief, Sebitwane. The name MmaSekeletu means "mother of Sekeletu" (Schapera 1960a:29n2).

MmaSina – Called Masina by Livingstone. Reference uncertain. Presumably a member of the southern BaTswana community at Kuruman mission station.

Moffat, Mary (1795-1871) – Missionary in southern Africa and mother-in-law of David Livingstone. Alongside her husband, Robert Moffat, she worked to establish Kuruman station as a major hub of missionary activity. She participated in public evangelism, and worked with women and children in education and bible study. Her relationship with Livingstone was sometimes strained, as a result of his treatment of her daughter Mary. She was a prolific correspondent, whose letters provide insight into nineteenth-century missionary life (Elbourne 2007).

Moffat, Robert (1795-1883) – Missionary and father-in-law of David Livingstone. In 1816, he was sent to southern Africa by the London Missionary Society to work among the BaTswana. He was appointed to lead the Dithakong mission (known by contemporaries as Lattakoo) to the BaTlhaping, which he moved in 1824 to New Dithakong (or New Lattakoo). Renamed Kuruman, this station became the centre of southern African missionary activities. Moffat made the first efforts to transcribe SeTswana, producing a spelling book (1826), and translations of the New Testament (1838) and complete Bible (1857) (Elbourne 2007).

Mogogo – Livingstone's use suggests this is a title held among the Gogo people, of what is now central Tanzania. However, the title actually used by Gogo clans is mtemi (Maddox 2015:140).

Mohorisi – Member of the Makololo, who acted as one of the two leaders of Livingstone's retinue during his expedition between Linyanti and Angola (1853–55).

Mokantsa – Member of the Khoesan people, whom Livingstone met in 1853.

Mokgari – Called Mokari by Livingstone. Reference uncertain. He may have been an early leader among the Makololo (Schapera 1963,2:364n3).

Mokgokong – Called Mabalerileng by Livingstone. Wife of the BaKwena chief, Sechele, and daughter of the BaNgwato chief, Kgari. She was one of the wives rejected when Sechele renounced polygamy in 1848, although she fell pregnant by him the following year. Mokgokong later returned to the BaNgwato at Shosong and remarried. Although the name Livingstone uses, Mabalerileng, means "mother of Balerileng," Schapera notes that there is no record of a child by this name and suggests that it may be another name for her daughter, Bantshang (Schapera 1960a:88n7, Parsons 1998:39, Urban-Mead 2002:69n64).

Monahin – Also called Monahing by Livingstone. Member of the Makololo, who was part of Livingstone's retinue during his expedition from Linyanti to Mozambique (1855–1856). He joined the party at Victoria Falls with the responsibility of leading the Toka-Leya members of the group, but disappeared without trace during the night of 21st February 1856. In Livingstone's journals he is known as Monageñ (Schapera 1963,2:411).

Monenga – A Lunda figure who, according to Livingstone, appeared in local traditions about the origin of Lake Dilolo in eastern Angola.

Monze – Important title amongst the Batonga in south-central Zambia, whose holders were known as prophets and rainmakers. Livingstone probably met Monze Mayaba, a widely celebrated rainmaker in mid-nineteenth century southern Zambia. The extent of the authority that the Monze title had amongst the Batonga is subject to debate (Vickery 1986:17-18; Colson 2006:67, 121).

Mulanziane – Also known as Morantsiane. Called Moriantsane by Livingstone. Official Makololo title for the headman or viceroy of Sesheke. When Sekeletu contracted a degenerative skin condition around 1860, he put the Mulanziane to death on the charge of "bewitching the Chief with leprosy" (Kalusa 2009:75, Schapera 1960a:39n3, Livingstone and Livingstone 1865:270).

Moremi – Makololo headman, whose village on the Chobe River was north-east of the Makololo capital, Linyanti. Not to be confused with Moremi I, the chief of the BaTawana.

Moremi I (?-1830) – Chief of the BaTawana. He was the son of the group's founder, Tawana I, who had split with the BaNgwato following a succession dispute in the 1790s. Moremi came to power about 1820, having conflicted with his father and usurped him. He was defeated around 1830 by the Makololo under Sebitwane, who then established dominance over the BaTawana during the next decade. Not to be confused with the Makololo headman, also named Moremi (Tlou and Campbell 1984:98-99; Morton, Ramsay, and Mgadla 2008:325).

Morison, James (1770-1840) – Creator of the "Universal Vegetable Pill." The tablet was a strong purgative, which he advertised as a general remedy for ill health. He developed what he called the "Hygeian system," which attributed all sickness to pollutants in the blood that could only be eradicated by purging. Although opposed by the medical community, and widely satirised, Morison marketed his pills relentlessly and they sold widely (Corley 2010).

Moroa Majane – Acting headman of a Najwa settlement in the Mababe Depression of present-day Botswana.

Mosantu – Member of the Batonga people, who was part of Livingstone's retinue during the expedition between Linyanti and Angola (1853–55).

Moshoeshoe I (c.1786-1870) – Called Moshesh by Livingstone. Founder and King of the Basutho nation. Originally a minor chief in the Caledon valley, he attracted Sesotho-speaking refugees dispersed during the Mfecane. He became one of the most effective leaders in nineteenth-century southern Africa, establishing a major state in the area of present-day Lesotho. From the 1840s he clashed with the Boers, which escalated following the creation of the Orange Free State. Border disputes with the Orange Free State compelled him to appeal to Britain for protectorate status, which was introduced in 1868 (Lipschutz and Rasmussen 1986:153-54, Saunders 2012:268).

Mosisinyane – Member of the Makololo, who was part of Livingstone's retinue during the expedition from Linyanti to Mozambique (1855–1856). He was responsible for leading the Najwa members of the party.

Mosogo – A Lunda figure who, according to Livingstone, appeared in local traditions about the origin of Lake Dilolo in eastern Angola.

Motswasele II (c.1785-1821) – Called Mochoasele by Livingstone. Chief of the BaKwena between c.1807 and 1821. He was a tyrannical leader, who was eventually assassinated by his brothers. His overthrow precipitated the fragmentation of the BaKwena, who were later reunited by the efforts of Motswasele's son, Sechele (Morton 2012c:318-19; Morton, Ramsay, and Mgadla 2008:237).

Mozinkwa – Lunda headman. Livingstone records meeting him in Feburary 1854 and June 1855. In his journals, Livingstone refers to him as Zamozingwa (Schapera 1963,1:76).

Mpepe – Makololo chief and governor of Naliele. He was Sebitwane's nephew, and part of the generation who had made the journey to the Zambezi Valley. From Naliele, he established military and economic dominance, becoming the most powerful member of the Makololo after Sebitwane. Mpepe resisted Sekeletu's claim to the throne, depriving him of inherited wealth (in the form of cattle), and defying him by extending unauthorised trade and raiding expeditions. In 1853, Mpepe attempted to overthrow Sekeletu but was outmanoeuvred and executed (Kalusa 2009:74-75).

Mpololo – Makololo chief and younger brother of Sebitwane. He was an important ally of Sekeletu, and rose to the governorship of Naliele after the execution of Mpepe in 1853. Following Sekeletu's death in 1863, Mpololo took the Makololo throne but was overthrown in 1864 by the Lozi who had been subject to the Makololo for over twenty years (Kalusa 2009:76-77).

Mr Feltao – Reference uncertain. Livingstone probably means Joaquim Pinheiro Falcão, who was appointed Commandant of the Samba area of Ambaca in north-western Angola in 1854 (Schapera 1963,1:203n3)

Mr Mellot – Reference uncertain. Livingstone is possibly referring to Jacintho da Costa Mello, an individual known to be resident in north-western Angola in the mid-1850s (Schapera 1963,1:137n5).

Mr Miland – Reference uncertain. Livingstone calls this person both Miland and Miranda in his journals. He may be referring to Antonio Gomes de Miranda, an individual known to be resident in north-central Angola in the mid-1850s (Schapera 1963,1:133n2, 212).

Mrs Caudle – Title character of "Mrs Caudle's Curtain Lectures," a comedy serial by Douglas William Jerrold published in Punch in 1845. In her "lectures," Mrs Caudle berates her husband for his shortcomings as they prepare for bed (Henkle 1980).

Muanzanza – Lunda chief resident in Cabango in north-eastern Angola. According to Livingstone, he was closely affiliated with the Mwant Yav of the central Lunda.

Muhammad – Prophet or founder of Islam.

Mujala – Called Moyara by Livingstone. Headman of a Toka-Leya village near Victoria Falls (Mubitana 1975:64; Schapera 1963,2:334n2).

Mukuni – Called Mokwine by Livingstone. Official title of a Leya chiefdom near Victoria Falls. The Mukuni dynasty claims Lenje origins, tracing its antecedents to the Kabwe area in central Zambia. The first Mukuni probably migrated south and settled around Victoria Falls at the start of the eighteenth century, but some Leya traditions claim a date as early as the fifteenth century (Mubitana 1975:60-62; Schapera 1963,2:328n2).

Mulambwa Santulu (c. 1780-1835) – Called Santuru by Livingstone. Lozi king, who came to power in 1790 having usurped his brother Musananyanda. He centralized the Lozi nation, consolidating control over neighbouring groups and extending the state's territory. Following his death, the Lozi entered a period of internal disunity which continued until the Makololo invasion in the 1840s (Lipschutz and Rasmussen 1986:161; Schapera 1963,1:9n3).

Murchison, Sir Roderick (1792-1871) – Famous geologist and President of the Royal Geographical Society 1843-45, 1851-53, 1856-59 and 1862-71. He is best known for his work on the Silurian period of geological history, published as The Silurian System in 1839. As President of the RGS, he popularized African exploration and geography, and promoted imperial expansion. He met Livingstone in 1856, and they became close friends (Bonney 2009). See also central African basin.

Murray, Mungo – Hunter and explorer. He spent the year 1845 hunting in southern Africa with William Cotton Oswell, during which time he also met Livingstone. He returned to Africa again in 1849 to participate in the expedition to Lake Ngami (Oswell 1900:viii, ix; Livingstone 1845).

Mutibe – Called Motibe by Livingstone. Important member of the Makololo and advisor to his son-in-law, Sekeletu. Livingstone reports that Mutibe was involved in the execution of Raunkwe, whose son Mpepe had contested Sekeletu's accession to the Makololo throne (Kalusa 2009:66, 69; Schapera 1960a:200-01).

Mwant Yav – Also known as Mwata Yamvo. Called Matiamvo by Livingstone. Official title of the paramount chief of the central Lunda (also known as the Ruund). Other Lunda polities traced their origin to the Ruund state and derived status from its royal title. During Livingstone's cross-continental expedition, the long reign of Mwant Yav Nawej (r. c.1820–52), which had extended central Lunda power, had recently come to an end. His brother Mulaj (r.1852–57) had begun a short rule characterised by internal struggle. Livingstone gathered reports about the Mwant Yav but did not visit him (Macola 2016a:34, Vellut 1989:316-18).

Moena Kikanje – Chokwe chief, resident on the Kwilu River in north-eastern Angola. In Livingstone's journals, he is referred to as Moana-a-Cange (Schapera 1963,1:234).

Mzilikazi (c.1795-1868) – Called Mosilikatze and Mosilikatse by Livingstone. Founder and king of the AmaNdebele nation. His father was chief of a Khumalo clan, but he spent his youth with the Ndwandwe led by his grandfather, Zwide. When Zwide was defeated by Shaka in 1818, Mzilikazi joined the AmaZulu empire. Splitting with Shaka around 1820, he migrated north, conquering and assimilating a range of groups. Following collisions with Afrikaners in the Transvaal, he founded his kingdom, Matabeleland, in present-day Zimbabwe around 1840. Mzilikazi consolidated his state using military and political methods learned from the Ndwandwe and AmaZulu (Musemwa 2012:277-78, Lipschutz and Rasmussen 1986:167-68).

Napier, Sir Charles – Livingstone refers to two cousins of this name. Sir Charles James Napier (1782–1853) fought in the Peninsular (1808–14) and Anglo-American (1812–15) wars, was Military Resident on Cephalonia (1821–30), and commanded the troops in Sindh (1842–47) where he also became Governor. Sir Charles Napier (1786–1860) fought in the Napoleonic (1799–1814) and Anglo-American (1812–15) wars, commanded fleets in the Miguelite (1828-34), Egyptian-Ottoman (1839-41) and Crimean (1853–56) wars, and served as Liberal MP (1841–46 and 1855–60) (Embree 2008, Lambert 2011).

Napier, Sir George Thomas (1784-1855) – Military officer and colonial Governor. He was Commander-in-Chief and Governor of the Cape Colony from 1837 to 1843, where he was faced with the gathering pace of the Great Trek and the task of enforcing the recent abolition of slavery. In 1838, he oversaw the creation of a new education department in the colony, on the advice of Sir John Herschel and the Cape government's Chief Secretary, Sir John Bell. Napier was promoted Major General in 1837, Lieutenant General in 1846, and full General in 1854 (MacKenzie and Dalziel 2007:185, Chicester 2008; Olson and Shadle 1996,2:778).

Need, Captain Henry – Naval officer. He was Captain of H.M.S. Linnet, a vessel employed in west Africa in suppressing the slave trade. In 1855, he was signatory to a treaty with the "chiefs of Ambrizette" in Angola, whose articles guaranteed free trade for Britain and outlawed slave traffic. From 1852-56, Need produced a collection of 143 watercolours now held by the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich. He provided Livingstone with sketches of African scenes for Missionary Travels and Narrative of an Expedition to the Zambesi (Hertslet 1859:27-28, Koivunen 2009:152).

Neves, Captain Antonio Rodrigues – Portuguese merchant, resident in Cassange in north-central Angola. Livingstone met him in April 1854 and again in January 1855 and was hospitably entertained on both occasions. Neves wrote a book about a Portuguese excursion against the Mbangala in 1850, entitled Memoria da Expedição a Cassange em 1850 (1854), and is described in Livingstone's journals as "Capitão Movel" or a Captain of the militia (Schapera 1963,1:128-29, 213-14).

Newman, John (c.1783-1860) – Scientific instrument maker. He had a reputation for quality workmanship and received commissions from many scientists and travellers. He was also the official supplier of instruments to the Royal Institution (Dawes 2004).

Newton, Rev. John (1725-1807) – Anglican clergyman and hymnodist. He was press-ganged into the navy in 1743, transferring shortly afterwards to a merchant vessel involved in the Atlantic slave trade. He suffered virtual enslavement under one of his early masters while resident in Sierra Leone. Newton captained several slave-trading vessels between 1750–54, but under the influence of the evangelical revival became an abolitionist. He entered the Church of England in 1764, and was regarded as one of Britain's leading evangelicals (Hindmarsh 2010).

Ngola Mbandi (?-1624) – Called Gola Banndy by Livingstone. King (or ngola) of Ndongo, a Mbundu kingdom in Angola. Assuming the throne in 1617 during a period of escalating warfare with the Portuguese, he was soon forced to retreat to the Kindonga islands on the Cuanza River. He sent his sister, Nzinga, on a successful diplomatic mission to Luanda in 1622 to sue for peace, but when the treaty failed shortly afterwards he committed suicide (Thornton 2010:247-48).

Nimrod – Biblical figure, described as a "mighty man" and "mighty hunter" in Genesis 10:8-9.

Njambi – Chokwe chief. In his journals, Livingstone also refers to him as "Jambi" (Schapera 1963,1:105).

Nkwatlale – Identified by Livingstone as an important member of the Makololo, although seldom mentioned in his journals.

Nokwane – Called Nokuane by Livingstone. Makololo headman and ally of Sekeletu (Schapera 1963,2:283n2).

Nolloth, Captain Matthew Stainton (c. 1810-1882) – Naval officer. He was Captain of H.M.S. Frolic, under the command of Commodore H. D. Trotter at the Cape of Good Hope. Nolloth was commissioned in 1855 to enquire about Livingstone at Quelimane and to leave him a packet of information from the astronomer, Thomas Maclear. In July 1856, the Frolic called again at Quelimane and transported Livingstone to Mauritius. Nolloth attained the rank of Vice-Admiral. Port Nolloth in South Africa's Northern Cape is named after him (Maclear 1856:78-80, Anon 1882:751).

Ntemese – Guide from the southern Lunda people, appointed by Shinde to lead Livingstone to Katema.

Ntlaria – Also called Ntlarie by Livingstone. Identified by Livingstone as an important member of the Makololo, although seldom mentioned in his journals.

Nunes, Colonel Galdino Jose – Portuguese officer resident in Quelimane, Mozambique. He served as Commandant and Governor of Tete on a number of occasions. Livingstone stayed with him on reaching Quelimane at the end of the transcontinental journey in May 1856 (Schapera 1963,2:472n3).

Nyakalonga – Member of the Lunda, whose village was near Cabango in north-eastern Angola. Livingstone suggests she was the sister of the previous Mwant Yav of the central Lunda, Nawej, who had died in 1852.

Nyamoana – Lunda chief, mother of Manenko, and sister of Shinde. Her name means "mother of Moana" (Schapera 1963,1:37n3).

Nzinga a Mbandi (1583-1663) – Also known as Dona Ana de Sousa. Queen of Ndongo, a Mbundu kingdom in Angola. In the early seventeenth century, Ndongo became embroiled in conflict with the Portuguese who were extending their territory. In 1622, Nzinga was sent to Luanda by her brother, Ngola Mbandi, to broker an armistice. She was baptised there as Ana de Sousa. Assuming the throne in 1624 following her brother's death, she began a reign marked by political exile and collisions with the Portuguese (Pantoja 2012:527-28).

Oatutu – Livingstone's use suggests this is a title held among a group of Ngoni, known to contemporaries as the Watuta. An absence of references to this title by other travellers and by later scholars suggests it may be of Livingstone's own devising. He is presumably referring to the mid-nineteenth century Watuta leader, Mpangalala. In the published Missionary Travels, the title appears as Moatutu (Rockel 2012:224).

Oswell, William Cotton (1818-1893) – Hunter and explorer. He studied at the East India College and in 1837 joined the East India Company in Madras. In the late 1840s, he spent two years hunting in southern Africa, having established a reputation as a big game hunter in India. In 1849, he and Mungo Murray joined Livingstone in the cross-Kalahari journey to reach Lake Ngami. Oswell funded and helped manage the expedition. In 1851, he joined Livingstone on the journey to the Makololo chief, Sebitwane, and to the Zambezi river (Seccombe 2004).

Owen, Charles Mostyn – One of two British commissioners who negotiated the Sand River Convention (1852) with Andries Pretorius, which recognised the independence of the South African Republic (also known as the Transvaal) (Etherington 2001:319).

Paley, William (1743-1805) – Theologian and Anglican clergyman. He was one of the eighteenth century's principal theologians, publishing wide-ranging works including Principles of Moral and Political Philosophy (1785), a utilitarian ethical treatise; A View of the Evidences of Christianity (1794), a defence of the authenticity of divine revelation in the New Testament; and his famous Natural Theology (1802), which developed the "argument from design," inferring the existence of God from observation of the natural world (Crimmins 2008).

Park, Mungo (1771-1806) – Explorer of Africa. He made two major expeditions, with the aim of tracing the Niger to its source. Commissioned by the African Association, his first journey (1795-97) began in the Gambia and progressed as far as Silla in present-day Mali. On his return, he published Travels in the Interior Districts of Africa (1799) to wide acclaim. In 1804, he led a larger expedition on behalf of the British Government, reaching Bussa in present-day Nigeria where he was killed in conflict with local inhabitants (Fyfe 2004).

Parker, Captain Hyde (1824-1854) – Naval officer. He came from a family with a long naval tradition, his father, grandfather, and great-grandfather all having reached the rank of Admiral or Vice-Admiral. In the early 1850s, he made a hydrographic survey of the lower Zambezi from the east African coast. He was killed in action in July 1854 at the Sulina Channel, during the Crimean War (Lambert 2004).

Parsons, William (1800-1867) – Third Earl of Rosse. Astronomer. His major interest was in developing large reflecting telescopes, and between 1841 and 1844 he constructed a major Newtonian reflector for his own observatory. He was President of the Royal Society from 1848 to 1854, during which time the Society formed a committee to establish a large reflector in the Southern hemisphere. The Cape Observatory was considered as a destination, but plans were waylaid by the Crimean War. When the idea was revisited in 1862, the telescope was instead built in Melbourne (Bennett 2004, Steinicke 2010:417).

Patrick, William – Botanist and Church of Scotland minister. He was the author of A Popular Description of the Indigenous Plants of Lanarkshire (1831) and a series on essays on the "Plants of the Bible" published in The Scottish Christian Herald (1840).

Pepys, Samuel (1633-1703) – Public official and diarist. He was a Member of Parliament in the 1670s and 80s, and served as Secretary of the Admiralty Commission from 1673-79 and 1684-89. He is best known for his diary from the 1660s, which was deciphered and published in the 1820s. It contains personal reflections on his domestic arrangements, as well as a detailed and colourful record of the major events and public life of the mid-seventeenth century (Jones 2016:653, Knighton 2015).

Pereira, Isidoro Correa – Called Isidore by Livingstone. Portuguese officer. He was a Colonel of the Portuguese militia in Mozambique, Commandant of Sena, and a Knight of the Order of Christ. His father, José Correa Pereiria, had been Lieutenant-Colonel in the militia and his grandfather, Manuel José Correa, had ranked as Colonel (Sanches de Baena 1872:258-59; Schapera 1963,2:458n1).

Pereira, Pedro Caetano (?-1858) – Also known as Chissaca. Called Kisaka by Livingstone. Head of the Caetano Pereiras, a powerful Afro-Portuguese commercial family in east Africa, who built a trading empire centred on ivory and slaves that extended from the Shire River to the Luangwa River. In the published Missionary Travels, Livingstone provides Choutama as an alternative name for Chissaca. However, Chissaca was actually Choutama's son and became head of the family on his father's death in 1849. Both father and son were also named Pedro Caetano Pereira. See also Pereira, Manuel Caetano (Newitt 1995:283, 310; Schapera 1963,2:428n1; Livingstone 1857aa:632).

Pereira, Manuel Caetano – Afro-Portuguese trader of Indian background, who made an expedition to the Kingdom of Kazembe (in present-day northern Zambia) in 1796 where he stayed for six months. In the early nineteenth century, the Caetano Pereiras became a powerful commercial family in east Africa, building a trading empire centred on ivory and slaves that extended from the Shire River to the Luangwa River (Burton 1873:40, Newitt 1995:305-06).

Pingola – Unidentified raider, who apparently invaded the Zambian plateau from the north-east shortly before the Makololo invasion of the 1840s. Livingstone learned of this recent conquest either from the Makololo or from the Batonga of south-central Zambia. Pingola's descent might have been triggered by disturbances in the north caused by the caravan trade, but no reports of his activities exist besides Livingstone's (Vickery 1986:27, Colson 1962:209).

Pinto, Joaquim – Coffee plantation owner and slaveholder in Cazengo in north-western Angola (Birmingham 1999:98).

Pires, Colonel Manuel Antonio – Portuguese merchant, resident in Pungo Andongo in north-western Angola. According to Livingstone, he had "been in Angola 30 years" and was the "greatest trader in the Interior," owning "700 slaves and a great number of concubines." Livingstone stayed at several of Pires's properties in the vicinity of Pungo Adongo in December 1854 and January 1855. His name is also spelled Piriz and Piris in Livingstone's journals (Schapera 1963,1:182, 205, 212).

Pitsane – Member of the Makololo, who acted as one of the two leaders of Livingstone's retinue during the expedition between Linyanti and Angola (1853–55).

Ponwane (?-1860) – Called Ponuane by Livingstone. Member of the Lozi, who had been integrated into the Makololo and had become an important headman under Sebitwane and Sekeletu (Schapera 1960a:16n2).

Potgieter, Andries Hendrik (1792-1852) – Chief Commandant of the Transvaal Boers. During the Great Trek, he led a group of Voortrekkers from the Cape Colony to settle in the Transvaal. He was suspicious of the missionaries who were working among the BaTswana and who were critical of his activities. Potgieter clashed with Livingstone as hostilities intensified between the Transvaal Boers and the BaKwena. When Livingstone met Potgeiter in 1848 to propose a new mission school, Potgieter threatened him and wrote to the London Missionary Society to request his recall (Laband 2009b:219-20, Lipschutz and Rasmussen 1986:193, Morton 2010:31).

Powell – A copy editor employed by John Murray.

Pretorius, Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus (1799-1853) – Major leader of the Boers. He rose to prominence during the Great Trek, settling in Natal in 1838 where he became Commandant General. When the British annexed Natal, he relocated to the Transvaal. There, he played an important role in establishing Transvaal independence (as the South African Republic), which was recognised in the Sand River Convention of 1852 (Jones 2016:680).

Proclus (c.410-c.485) – Greek philosopher of late antiquity. As head of Plato's Academy in Athens, he developed and disseminated Neoplatonic philosophy. He was a notable critic of Christianity, and an advocate of Greek paganism and other religious traditions. Livingstone refers to Proclus's claim, as reported by Marinus, that "the philosopher should not just practise the cults of one single city [...] but he should be in common the hierophant of the whole world" (qtd. in Steel 2012:22, Helmig and Steel 2015).

Ptolemy (c.100-c.170) – Astronomer and geographer of antiquity. As an astronomer, he is best known for the "Ptolemaic system," a geocentric cosmology in which a stationary earth is circled by the regular movements of celestial objects. As a geographer, he is best known for his Guide to Geography, which developed cartographic principles and collected geographical information about the known world. Ptolemy's map of Africa included the sources of the Nile, which became the subject of a major search in the nineteenth century (Jones 2017, Jones 2008).

Queen Victoria (1819-1901) – Queen of the United Kingdom (r.1837–1901), and the last monarch in the house of Hanover.

Quendende – Lunda headman. He is described as Katema's father-in-law in Missionary Travels and as Katema's uncle in Livingstone's journals (Schapera 1963,1:79).

Rachosi – Reference uncertain. This may be the same individual referred to in a letter from Livingstone to Robert Moffat as Rachose and identified by Schapera as Ratshosa Motsomi, a member of the BaTaung who had journeyed from the south with Sebitwane but had remained in BaKwena territory (Livingstone 1847; Schapera 1959,1:220n31).

Ramothobe – Called Ramotobi by Livingstone. Member of the BaNgwato, who guided Livingstone across the Kalahari in 1849. His name means "a person who frequently goes away" (Wilmsen 1989:82).

Rebeiro – Reference uncertain. Possibly Ensign Joaquim Gomes Ribeiro. In his journals, Livingstone identifies the "rebel" who Rebeiro attacked as Marian, or Paul Mariano II (also known as Matekenya), a major estate-holder and trader who dominated the Shire Highlands in the mid-nineteenth century and regularly collided with Portuguese authorities (Schapera 1963,2:470n2; Kalinga 2012:286).

Renton, Rev. Henry – Minister of the United Presbyterian Church. In 1850-51 he visited and inspected the Glasgow Missionary Society stations in South Africa, during which time the Eighth Frontier War broke out. He met the Ngqika AmaXhosa paramount, Sandile, and on his return disseminated a speech in which Sandile aired grievances against the Cape Colony (Anon 1851:4, Ross 2002:70).

Richards – A copy editor employed by John Murray.

Rider, Alfred (?-1853) – Traveller and artist. He died shortly after visiting Lake Ngami in 1850. The engraving of Lake Ngami in Missionary Travels, based on one of his sketches, records his name as Ryder but Livingstone consistently spells it elsewhere as Rider. This is probably also the A. Rider who published a volume of drawings in collaboration with John Phillips, entitled Mexico Illustrated (1848) (Livingstone 1850b, 1851b).

Rieg – A copy editor employed by John Murray.

Rip Van Winkle – Title character of a short story by Washington Irving. In "Rip Van Winkle" the protagonist drinks a spirit that sends him to sleep for twenty years before awakening to find a much-changed world. Livingstone likens public defenders of the Voortrekkers to Rip Van Winkle, suggesting that they too are an anachronism, holding onto the past and resisting change.

Robert I (1274-1329) – Also known as Robert the Bruce. King of Scotland from 1306 to 1329. His victory over the English at Bannockburn in 1314 was important in establishing Scotland's independence. He is generally regarded as one of Scotland's key national heroes (Barrow 2008).

Robinson – A copy editor employed by John Murray.

Rramosinyi – Called Ramonsinini and Ramosini by Livingstone. Reference uncertain. He may have been an early leader among the Makololo (Schapera 1963,2:364n3).

Russell, Sir William Howard (1820-1907) – Reporter for the London Times. He was one of the first modern war correspondents, achieving prominence by reporting from the front during the Crimean War (1853-56). Russell covered a range of conflicts over the next thirty years, including the Indian Rebellion, the American Civil War, the Austro-Prussian War, the Franco-Prussian War, and briefly the Anglo-Zulu War (Stearn 2006).

Syde ben Habib – Arab merchant and leader of a Zanzibari trading caravan. Livingstone first met him in December 1853 at Naliele, and learned that he had previously crossed Africa from Mozambique to Angola. In September 1855, Habib made an agreement with Sekeletu to lead members of the Makololo to Luanda. Habib also transported some of Livingstone's letters. In Livingstone's journals, he is also called Rya Syde and Tsaeré (Schapera 1963,1:13, 2:296, 301)

Saint Anthony of Egypt (c.251-356) – Christian saint and early figure of monasticism. He spent long periods in retreat, living in isolation in a fort on Mount Pispir for around twenty years and later occupying a moutainside cell on Mount Kolzim. Having acquired followers who sought instruction in his way of life, he established several of the earliest monastic communities (Guiley 2001:26-27).

Saint Hilarion (c.291-371) – Christian saint, regarded as the founder of Palestinian monasticism. Having come under the influence of Saint Anthony of Egypt in his early years, he adopted a life of ascetic isolation and established a monastery in 329. Hilarion was the patron saint of an abandoned convent Livingstone encountered near Golungo Alto, which had been established by the Discalced Carmelite Order in 1659 (Augustyn et al. 2019e; Schapera 1963,1:184n2).

Saint Paul (c.4 BCE-c.62-64 CE) – Apostle of Christianity and early church leader. His letters, canonised in the New Testament, are central documents of the Christian faith

Sakandala – Mbangala headman, resident on the Kwilu River in north-eastern Angola.

Sambaza – Husband of the Lunda chief, Manenko. The name is a title given to the husband of the chief's sister, or to the husband of a woman from a royal family (Schapera 1963,1:39n2).

Samoana – Father of Manenko and husband of the Lunda chief, Nyamoana. His name means "father of Moana" (Schapera 1963,1:37n3).

Sandford, Sir Daniel Keyte (1798-1838) – Professor of Greek at the University of Glasgow. While Livingstone was studying medicine at Anderson's College in the 1830s, he also attended Sandford's Greek class (Mullen 2012:24).

Sandile (c.1820-1878) – Called Sandillah by Livingstone. Paramount chief of the Ngqika AmaXhosa. A dominant figure in AmaXhosa politics, he played a central role in the Seventh Frontier War ("War of the Axe," 1846­-47) with the Cape Colony, following which he was imprisoned and forced to acknowledge British sovereignty. He was also a leader in the Eighth Frontier War ("War of Mlanjeni," 1850-53), which again ended in defeat. He was killed during the Ninth Frontier War (1877-79), a conflict he had only supported reluctantly (Lipschutz and Rasmussen 1986:204).

Sansawe – Shinji chief, resident between the Kwilu and Kwango (or Cuango) rivers in north-central Angola. In Livingstone's journals his name is also spelled Zanzaue (Schapera 1963,1:227)

Sarah (fl. c.2000 BCE) – Wife of Abraham and mother of Isaac. In the book of Genesis, she receives a promise from God when she is ninety years old that she will have a son and become a "mother of nations" (Genesis 17:16).

Scholtz, Piet – Boer Commandant. Following the Sand River Convention in 1852, he was ordered by Andries Pretorius to lead a commando against the BaTswana groups in Bechuanaland. During the six-month conflict, known as the BaTswana-Boer War (1852-53), Scholtz's party took many captives before being repelled by Sechele and returning to the Transvaal. The invasion had the result of uniting the southern BaTswana, extending Sechele's alliances, and inciting retaliatory attacks (Morton, Ramsay, and Mgadla 2008:43-45).

Schut, Albert – Dutch merchant resident in Luanda, Angola. He acted as occasional interpreter for hearings of the British and Portuguese Mixed Commission for the Suppression of the Slave Trade at Luanda (Anon 1862a:32).

Scott, Sir Walter (1771-1832) – Poet and historical novelist. He was perhaps the best selling and most celebrated author of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. He made his reputation as a collector of ballads and author of extended narrative poems. He turned to fiction as a means of investigating the past, pioneering a new form in the historical novel. Scott's innovation was highly influential on European fiction, and his vast corpus proved significant in shaping ideas of Scottish national identity (Hewitt 2008).

Sebitwane c.1790/1800-1851) – Called Sebituane by Livingstone. Founder and chief of the Makololo nation. He originally led a branch of the Basotho in southern Africa before being displaced during the Mfecane in the 1820s. Sebitwane and the Makololo settled in the Zambezi Valley in the 1840s where they conquered the local Lozi. He died shortly after meeting Livingstone in 1851, when the Makololo state was at the height of its power (Kalusa 2009:60-61).

Sechele (c.1810-1892) – Chief of the BaKwena. He rose to leadership around 1833 and built power and prestige by trading with visiting Europeans and extending commercial routes. He converted to Christianity soon after Livingstone arrived among the BaKwena in 1846 and later became an important figure in the Christianisation of southern Africa. Sechele was also instrumental in the formation of the Bechuanaland Protectorate and in contesting the efforts of Transvaal Boers to appropriate his lands (Parsons 1998:37-42).

Sedgwick – A copy editor employed by John Murray.

Sekelenke – Mbundu chief resident around the conflux of the Zambezi and Kabompo rivers in present-day western Zambia, but who was originally from Angola.

Sekeletu (c.1835-1863) – Chief of the Makololo and son of Sebitwane. Sekeletu's reign was troubled by inter-Makololo rivalry and developing resistance from the Lozi community under his dominion. He supported Livingstone's transcontinental expedition (1852-56) in the hope of extending trade routes. A London Missionary Society mission to the Makololo in the 1860s resulted in the majority of the members dying from fever, with Sekeletu wrongly suspected of having poisoned the party. The Lozi overthrew the Makololo and restored their independence shortly after his death (Lipschutz and Rasmussen 1986:208-09).

Sekgoma Kgari I (c.1815-1883) – Called Sekomi by Livingstone. Chief of the BaNgwato. He rose to power in 1834, after a succession dispute with his brother Macheng. Following the Makololo invasion, he reunited the divided BaNgwato. In 1857, he was deposed by Macheng but was restored the following year. Sekgoma was removed in favour of his brother again in 1866, briefly resuming rule in 1872 before his son Khama III secured the leadership three years later. Khama was an enthusiastic Christian convert, and his beliefs proved a source of major conflict with his father (Parsons 1998:45-46, Lipschutz and Rasmussen 1986:209).

Sekhosi – Subiya headman, resident near Sesheke on the Zambezi River in present-day south-western Zambia.

Sekobinyane – Reference uncertain. Livingstone describes this as the "nickname" of a Makololo headman but does not provide the individual's given name.

Sekonyela (c.1804-1856) – Called Sikonyele by Livingstone. Chief of the BaTlokwa, in the area of present-day Lesotho. He rose to leadership in 1824, following a period of seven years in which his mother, Mmanthatisi, ruled as regent. He consolidated the strength of the BaTlokwa, but from the 1830s increasingly came into opposition with Moshoeshoe, the founder of the Basutho nation, who eventually defeated his state in 1853 (Lipschutz and Rasmussen 1986:210).

Sekute – Called Sekote by Livingstone. Official title of a Toka-Leya chiefdom near Victoria Falls on the Zambezi River. The Sekute royal family traces its origin to the Nzanza, a group related to the Subiya, who probably settled in the Victoria Falls region in the eighteenth century. Sekute Siansingu had been defeated and his people scattered by Sebitwane around 1836, but they returned to the area under Sekute Mungala after the Makololo were overthrown in 1864 (Mubitana 1975:62-63).

Sekwebu – Member of the Makololo, who led Livingstone's retinue from Linyanti to Mozambique (1855-56). He performed an important role as intermediary with local groups, having travelled the routes extensively. He was probably AmaNdebele, since he is described in Livingstone's journals as "Letibele Mokololo." Sekwebu sailed to Mauritius with Livingstone, but drowned himself towards the end of the crossing. Livingstone was deeply affected by Sekwebu's death, experiencing "the sorrow of the loss of a very good friend" (Schapera 1963,2:331; Livingstone 1856).

Selkirk, Alexander (1676-1721) – Scottish sailor, who was marooned alone in the Juan Fernández Islands in 1704 before being rescued in 1709. His story is generally taken to have influenced Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe (Augustyn et al. 2019b).

Semalembue – Either a Batonga or Ila chief, resident on the banks of the Kafue River just south of present-day Lusaka in Zambia.

Pascoal, Senhor – Afro-Portuguese trader. He was employed by Captain Antonio Rodrigues, a merchant at Cassange in north-central Angola. Livingstone travelled with Pascoal from Sansawe's village to Cabango between March and May 1855 (Schapera 1963,1:231-35, 2:237-42).

Shakatwala – A Lunda emissary and guide, who led Livingstone to Katema's residence in eastern Angola and then onwards to Lake Dilolo.

Sheakondo – Lunda headman, referred to in Livingstone's journals as Sheashoñko (Schapera 1963,1:37)

Shelley, Captain Edward (1827-1890) – Army officer and sportsman. He entered the army in 1844, reaching the rank of Captain before resigning his commission in 1849 to travel in southern Africa. While journeying across the Kalahari desert with Richard Orpen in 1852 he lost his way, but eventually reached Kuruman. Shelley also visited Natal and went hunting in Zululand. On leaving Africa he travelled widely and visited South America. He later served in the Crimean War (Tabler 1977:95, Woods 2005:1-3).

Shinde – Also called Shinte by Livingstone. Official title of the chief of the southern Lunda. According to Livingstone he was also known as Kabompo. Livingstone was given a major reception by Shinde and resided with him for over a week in January 1854, in part to recover from fever. Livingstone took the opportunity to show biblical slides using his magic lantern and recorded the local reaction (Macola 2016a:63; Schapera 1963,1:38n1, 52-64).

Shobo – Member of the San, who acted as a guide in the Makgadikgadi Pans (of present-day north-eastern Botswana) on Livingstone's journey to Sebitwane in 1851.

Silva Rego, João da – Captain of the militia in Ambaca, north-western Angola, from 1849. He was Commandant of Tala Mungongo from January 1854 to the end of the year, when he was replaced by Joaquim Maria de Carvalho. In April 1854, he provided Livingstone with "a letter of recommendation" and an Angolan soldier as escort from Cassange to Ambaca (Anon 1850:139; Schapera 1963,1:129, 131, 213n3).

Sina – Presumably a member of the southern BaTswana community at Kuruman mission station.

Sinamane – Batonga chief, resident on the Zambezi River downstream from Victoria Falls. Livingstone heard reports about him in December 1855 while undertaking the transcontinental journey, but did not visit him until October 1860 during the Zambezi Expedition (Livingstone and Livingstone 1865:315).

Smith, Sir Andrew (1797-1872) – Naturalist and army medical officer. His specialism was the zoology and ethnography of southern Africa, which he developed while in the Army Medical Service at the Cape Colony. His publications include his four-volume Illustrations of the Zoology of South Africa (1838–49) and detailed ethnographic records on people groups including the San and the Khoekhoe. Later in his career, he was the Director-General of the army's medical department (Kennedy 2006).

Smith, Sir Henry George Wakelyn (1787-1860) – Military officer and colonial Governor. He was posted to the Cape in 1828 where he served as Sir Benjamin D'Urban's second in command during the Sixth Frontier War. They annexed AmaXhosa territory to form Queen Adelaide Province, which was soon revoked by the Colonial Secretary Lord Glenelg. Smith became Cape Governor in 1847 and quickly annexed British Kaffraria, proclaimed himself "supreme chief" of the AmaXhosa, and extended British territory to form the Orange River Sovereignty. He was replaced by Sir George Cathcart during the Eighth Frontier War (Vetch 2008).

Solomon, Rev. Edward (1820-1886) – Missionary in southern Africa with the London Missionary Society. He was ordained in Cape Town in October 1841. His Two Lectures on the Native Tribes of the Interior, Delivered Before the Mechanics' Institute, Cape Town, which Livingstone references, was published in 1855 (Anon 1841:210, Schapera 1961:102n2).

Somerset, Lieutenant General Henry (1794-1862) – Army officer and eldest son of the former Governor of the Cape of Good Hope, Lord Charles Somerset. He entered the army in 1811 and joined the Cape Mounted Rifles in South Africa in 1818. He was regularly involved in the Cape Frontier Wars over the next thirty-five years. As commanding officer, Somerset's military excursions made him controversial with evangelical humanitarians. Following the Eight Frontier War (1850–53), he left the Cape and was stationed in Bombay (Anon 1862b:499, Lester 2001:41-42).

Sorell – A copy editor employed by John Murray.

Sowels – A copy editor employed by John Murray.

St. John, James Augustus (1795-1875) – Author, journalist, and traveller. In 1832 he embarked on a two-year trip to Egypt, publishing a travelogue on his return entitled Egypt and Mohammed Ali (1834). In this book, he describes the "siksak" bird that Livingstone cites. St. John was a prolific author who contributed widely to contemporary periodicals. He wrote a column for the Sunday Times from the 1840s, and played a leading role in the political department of the Daily Telegraph in the late 1850s (St. John 1834,1:177-79; Spilsbury 2004).

Steele, Sir Thomas Montague (1820-1890) – Army officer and sportsman. Following Sandhurst, he was commissioned in 1838. He met Livingstone at Mabotsa on a hunting trip in 1843, while on leave from his post as Aide-de-Camp (1842-48) to the Governor of Madras (present-day Chennai). He remained Livingstone's friend and was a pall bearer at Livingstone's funeral in Westminster Abbey. Steele had a decorated career, reaching the rank of full General in 1877 (Lloyd 2004, Ross 2002:57).

Stockenstrom, Sir Andries (1792-1864) – Colonial politician and vocal critic of policy towards the AmaXhosa on the Cape's eastern frontier. He was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of the Eastern Cape (1836–39) by the Colonial Secretary Lord Glenelg, who was persuaded by his criticism of settler violence and his advocacy of treaties to recognise AmaXhosa sovereignty. When Glenelg left office, Stockenstrom was dismissed. Stockenstrom led troops during the Seventh Frontier War (1846–47), but opposed the annexation of AmaXhosa territory and the punitive measures of the Cape Governor, Sir Harry Smith (Trapido 2008).

Stuart, Charles Edward (1720-1788) – Stuart claimant to the British throne, known as the Young Pretender or the Bonnie Prince Charlie. He led the Jacobite Rebellion of 1745–46 and was defeated in the battle of Culloden. He was memorialised in literature and legend, not least in Walter Scott's Waverley (1814), and became a national hero in Scotland (Augustyn et al. 2019c).

Swana Mulopwe – Called Soana Molopo by Livingstone. Lunda title for a direct heir, which means "appointed successsor" (Oppen 1993:364; Schapera 1963,1:75n2).

Tantalus – Figure from Greek mythology. King of Sipylus, and the son of Zeus and the nymph Pluto. Having committed a crime against the gods, Tantalus was condemned to eternal punishment in Taratus where his sentence was to stand in a pool of water near a tree of fruit, while continually unable to reach either to satisfy his thirst and hunger (Roman and Roman 2010:458).

Thomas, Dr Dick (1774-1857) – Philosopher and theologian. He is best known for his engagements with natural history, which he argued possessed the capacity to enrich understanding of God and his works. In his 1823 Christian Philosopher, Dick represented science as the pursuit of God's revelation as found in nature, arguing that, correctly understood, natural history was a means of worship. His later works extended both his theology of nature and his theology of scientific enquiry (Astore 2006).

Thomson, Captain David (1789-1834) – Mariner in the Royal Navy. He developed a "longitude scale" or "lunar corrector" in 1816, an instrument designed to determine longitude from lunar observations. His Lunar & Horary Tables (1824) provided a series of methods to simplify making longitudinal calculations on the basis of lunar readings (Taylor 1966:407-08, Anon 1824:630).

Thorns – A copy editor employed by John Murray.

Thoth – Egyptian deity, whose worship dates from the Early Dynastic period. He had wide-ranging functions, and was variously connected with the natural order, cosmology, writing, and life after death. He was represented as either a baboon or ibis, and most commonly as a human body with an ibis's head (Doxey 2001,3:398-400).

Tlapane – Makololo prophet, who influenced Sebitwane.

Trindade, Father Pedro de (?-1751) – Dominican Friar and missionary. He arrived in Portuguese east Africa in the early 1700s and became the first Vicar of Zumbo and the Portuguese Crown's representative in 1726. He involved himself in the region's politics and became an authority on mining, reportedly making a fortune in gold. He was known locally for developing an effective antidote for poisoned arrows, which Livingstone references in Missionary Travels. Livingstone incorrectly calls him a Jesuit (Denis 1998:51-54).

Trotter, Admiral Henry Dundas (1802-1859) – Naval officer. In his early career, he served in both the East Indies and West Indies, and later on the west coast of Africa. In 1840, he commanded the three river steamers of Thomas Fowell Buxton's short-lived Niger Expedition, which sought to open trade and establish treaties along the Niger River. Trotter was Commodore at the Cape of Good Hope from 1853-56 and retired as Rear Admiral in 1857 (Laughton 2004b).

Tuba Mokoro – Member of the Makololo, who was part of Livingstone's retinue during the expedition from Linyanti to Mozambique (1855-56). He was responsible for leading the Subiya and Lozi members of the party. He travelled with Livingstone again on the return journey to the Lozi capital in 1860 (Livingstone and Livingstone 1865:175).

Vardon, Captain Frank – Army officer in the 25th Madras Light Infantry. He visited Mabotsa on a hunting trip in 1846 and befriended the Livingstones. While writing Missionary Travels, Livingstone sent Vardon portions of the manuscript for comments and consulted him about various illustrations (Livingstone 1857f, 1857l; Ross 2002:57).

Villiers, George William Frederick (1800-1870) – Fourth Earl of Clarendon. Politician and diplomat. He was Minister to Spain from 1833-39, joined the cabinet as Lord Privy Seal in 1840, and became President of the Board of Trade in 1846. He was Viceroy of Ireland from 1847-52 and Foreign Secretary from 1852-58, 1865-66, and 1868-70. Following the transcontinental expedition, Clarendon appointed Livingstone as "roving consul" in east Africa and secured governmental support for the Zambezi Expedition. Livingstone named Mount Clarendon (east of the Shire River) after Villiers, and they remained correspondents during Livingstone's final journeys (Steele 2009).

Virgil (70 BCE-19 BCE) – Roman poet and author of the Aeneid, an epic on the legendary founding of Rome. In the nineteenth century, classical literature occupied a central role in British education, particularly among the elites.

Wahlberg, Johann August (1810-1856) – Swedish explorer and naturalist. He went to South Africa in 1839 under the auspices of the Swedish Academy of Sciences, where he spent the next six years gathering specimens. He made several extended expeditions, first to the Transvaal (1841-42), then to Zululand (1842-43), and then again to the Transvaal (1843-44). Following Livingstone's Ngami expedition, Wahlberg returned to southern Africa in 1854 to attempt a cross-continental journey, but was killed by an elephant north of the Thamalakane River (Gun and Codd 1981:367-68).

Wallace, Sir William (c.1270-1305) – Scottish military commander. When Edward I of England proclaimed himself King of Scotland in 1296, Wallace became leader of the rebelling Scottish forces. After victories in 1297, Wallace was established as "Guardian" of Scotland but was defeated by Edward in 1298 and was hanged, drawn, and quartered on capture. Wallace is remembered as a national hero and has been widely mythologised (Augustyn et al. 2018b).

Walsh, J. C. – Naval surgeon. He was appointed as Surgeon to H.M.S. Frolic in 1853, having previously served as Assistant-Surgeon on the Illustrious (Anon 1853:625, Anon 1843b:141).

Wardlaw, Ralph (1779-1853) – Congregational minister and abolitionist. He was minister of the Congregational chapel on Glasgow's North Albion Street from 1803, Professor of Systematic Theology at Glasgow Theological Academy from 1811, and a founding member of the Glasgow Anti-Slavery Society in 1823. He rejected the gradualist notion that slavery should be eradicated over time and advocated immediate abolition instead. He was heavily involved with the voluntary movement in the 1830s and with issues of protestant church union in the 1840s (Brown 2004).

Washington, Captain John (1800-1863) – Naval officer and hydrographer. He was a founding member of the Royal Geographical Society, serving as Secretary from 1836-41. Following work surveying Britain's rivers and coastlines, he was elected to the Royal Society in 1845. He became Assistant to the Admiralty's Hydrographer in 1854, assumed the post of Hydrographer the following year, and reached the rank of Rear-Admiral in 1862 (Laughton 2009).

Waterboer, Andries (c.1790-1853) – Leader of Griqua Town (r.1820-53). His rule was supported by the London Missionary Society, who saw him as a civilising presence north of the Cape Colony not least for his Christian faith and opposition to cattle raiding. In 1823, he intervened to protect the mission settlement at Kuruman from being overwhelmed by a group of Basotho-BaTswana migrants. He was the major figure in Griqua politics during the 1820s and 30s (Lipschutz and Rasmussen 1986:246).

Webb, William Frederick (1829-1899) – Army officer and landowner. Following Eton, he entered the 17th Lancers but resigned his commission soon afterwards. In 1851, he embarked on a two-year expedition in southern Africa. Falling ill in the Kalahari, he received medical treatment from Livingstone and thereafter became Livingstone's lifelong supporter. In 1864-65, Livingstone spent seven months at Webb's stately home, Newstead Abbey, writing Narrative of an Expedition to the Zambesi (1865). Webb was a pallbearer at Livingstone's funeral in Westminster Abbey (1873) (Fraser 1913:1-7, 16-17; Ross 2002:193-94, 237).

Welwitsch, Friedrich Martin Josef (1806-1872) – Called Walweitsch and Welweitsch by Livingstone. Austrian botanist. Following studies in Vienna, he travelled to Portugal in 1839 for the Unio Itineraria of Württemberg to examine the flora of Azores and Cape Verde. From 1853-61, he undertook a botanical exploration of Portuguese west Africa. He became well acquainted with Livingstone at Golungo Alto, in north-western Angola, in 1854. Officials in Luanda proposed that they undertake a joint expedition to the Makololo, but Livingstone rejected the plan. Welwitsch's botanical collection was among the most extensive to have been gathered in tropical Africa (Boulger 2004; Schapera 1963,1:151, 163, 191).

Wheeler – A copy editor employed by John Murray.

Wienand, John H. B. – Resident Magistrate of the Kat River settlement, and witness at the treason trial of Veldcornet Andries Botha. Wienand's testimony did not rule out the possibility of Botha's involvement in the Kat River Rebellion, but he attested to the accused's loyalty in the early stages of the conflict, and described him as "a very effective officer" who "after the breaking out of the war ... continued to do his duty usefully and faithfully" (Anon 1852:72).

Wilberforce, William (1759-1833) – Politician, abolitionist, and member of the Clapham Sect. He was elected MP in 1780, a position he held until retirement in 1825. From 1787 he led parliamentary opposition to the slave trade, which culminated in the successful bill of 1807. As a committed evangelical, he was deeply concerned with national morality and spiritual life. In 1797 he published Practical Christianity, a critique of contemporary religious practice and an appeal for revival that proved highly popular in evangelical circles (Wolffe 2009).

Wilkes – A copy editor employed by John Murray.

Wilson, J. H. – Trader based at Kolobeng, who participated in Livingstone's and William Cotton Oswell's expedition to Lake Ngami in 1849 (Livingstone 1850a, Ross 2002:57).

Woodruff, Lieutenant Henry (?-1856) – Called Woodruffe by Livingstone. Naval officer. He was 2nd Lieutenant of H.M.S. Castor, the flagship of the Cape of Good Hope station. He was taking passage on the Dart to Simon's Bay when he volunteered to join a crew sailing the cutter over the bar of the Cuacua River and upstream to Quelimane, Mozambique, to enquire after Livingstone. Along with Commander McClune, he drowned when the cutter was overturned on 29th April 1856 (Anon 1856b:142, Anon 1885:320).

Xavier, St Francis (1506-1552) – Jesuit missionary. He was one of the earliest members of the Society of Jesus, founded by Ignatius of Loyola. In 1541 he became a missionary in Goa, India, where he helped make the College of Holy Faith into Asia's primary Jesuit training institution. He established missions in the Malay Archipelago (1545) and Japan (1549), and died attempting to enter China in 1552. Xavier emphasised the importance of indigenous priests and urged missionaries to adjust their methods in response to local context (Bireley 2018).

 

African Ethnic Groups    Top

AmaMpondo – Called Amapanda by Livingstone. African ethnic group based primarily in present-day South Africa's Eastern Cape (Appiah and Gates Jr. 2010:195).

AmaNdebele – Called Matibele and Makonkobi by Livingstone. African ethnic group of present-day Zimbabwe, South Africa, and Botswana. The group was founded by Mzilikazi, who established the AmaNdebele state, Matabeleland, around 1840 (Young 2010b:222-23).

AmaXhosa – Called Amakosa by Livingstone. African ethnic group (and part of the Nguni linguistic group) based primarily in present-day South Africa's Eastern Cape (Heath 2010e:555).

AmaZulu – Major African ethnic group (and part of the Nguni linguistic group) of present-day South Africa. In the early nineteenth century, the military leader Shaka developed a powerful military state (Zululand, in what is now KwaZulu-Natal), which conquered and incorporated many other peoples. AmaZulu expansion played a key role in the widespread warfare, migrations, and political transformation of southern Africa, known as the Mfecane. Today, the AmaZulu are South Africa's largest ethnic group (Heath 2010f:579-80).

Baakhahela – Reference uncertain. According to Livingstone, an African ethnic group living to the north of the Basotho nation (present-day Lesotho).

Babimpe – Reference uncertain. According to Livingstone, an African ethnic group based in present-day southern Zambia near the confluence of the Kafue and Zambezi rivers. However, a group by this name is not recorded in more recent sources (Schapera 1960a:49n1).

Babindele – Reference uncertain. In his journals, Livingstone describes the group as "servants of the Portuguese" residing on the west African coast (Schapera 1960a:31).

Babiriri – Reference uncertain. Possibly the same group referred to in Livingstone's journals as the Babirikwe, who apparently lived near the confluence of the Lungwebungu and Zambezi rivers in present-day Zambia's Western Province (Schapera 1960a:31).

BaFokeng – Called Bahukeng by Livingstone. African ethnic group based in present-day South Africa's North West province, who are part of the larger BaTswana group. Today, their ancestral lands in South Africa are known as the Royal Bafokeng Nation (Schweitzer 2015:36).

BaHurutshe – African ethnic group based in present-day South Africa's North West province, who are part of the larger BaTswana group (Bammann 2016:3).

BaKaa – African ethnic group (and part of the larger BaTswana group) who split from the BaRolong kingdom in the early eighteenth century, to settle near the Shoshong hills in present-day eastern Botswana. They were eventually destroyed as an independent group by the BaNgwato (Otlogetswe and Chebanne 2018:191-92).

BaKalanga – Called Makalaka by Livingstone. African ethnic group based primarily in present-day north-eastern Botswana and western Zimbabwe, who speak a variant of Shona. The SeTswana term for this group, which Livingstone uses (Makalaka), is often considered pejorative (Morton, Ramsay, and Mgadla 2008:158).

BaKgalagadi – Called Bakalahari by Livingstone. African ethnic group based in present-day Botswana. The name refers to peoples living in the Kalahari Desert and who speak the SeKgalagadi language (a language related to but distinct from SeTswana). In the nineteenth century, the BaKgalagadi played a significant part in Kalahari trade but were increasingly subjugated by BaTswana groups (Morton, Ramsay, and Mgadla 2008:165-66).

BaKgatla – Called Bakatla by Livingstone. African ethnic group based in present-day Botswana and South Africa, who are part of the larger BaTswana group. There are multiple branches of BaKgatla, including the Mmanaana Kgatla and the Kgafela Bakgatla (Morton, Ramsay, and Mgadla 2008:164-65, 222).

BaKgatla-Mosetlha – Called Bamosetla by Livingstone. African ethnic group based in present-day South Africa's North West province, who are part of the larger BaTswana group. They are traditionally considered to be the most senior polity of the BaKgatla (Schapera 1961:97n1, Otlogetswe and Chebanne 2018:194).

Bakoni – Collective term used by the southern BaTswana to refer to SeSotho-speaking groups living to the east and north of the Marico (or Madikwe) River (Schapera 1961:54n4).

BaKurutshe – Called Bakurutse and Bakurutze by Livingstone. African ethnic group based in the eastern part of present-day Botswana, who are considered to be a branch of the Bahurutshe. They are part of the larger BaTswana group (Schapera 1961:137n2; Morton, Ramsay, and Mgadla 2008:179).

BaKwena – Also called Bakwains by Livingstone. African ethnic group primarily based in present-day Botswana. They are traditionally considered to be the most senior of the BaTswana polities in Botswana. MoKwena (Mokwain to Livingstone) refers to an individual of this group. Livingstone became a missionary to the BaKwena in 1846 (Morton, Ramsay, and Mgadla 2008:185-86).

Bamakakana – Reference uncertain. Nineteenth-century records indicate this was one of various groups who settled in the Highveld of present-day central South Africa in the late eighteenth century. According to Livingstone, this group was part of the Basotho nation (present-day Lesotho) founded by Moshoeshoe I (Etherington 2001:22, 41n70).

BaNgwaketse – Also called Bangwaketze by Livingstone. African ethnic group based in present-day Botswana, and part of the larger BaTswana group. They are one of the larger polities of BaTswana and trace their origin to an early split with the BaKwena (Morton and Ramsay 2018:220).

BaNgwato – Also known as Bamangwato. African ethnic group based in present-day Botswana who are part of the larger BaTswana group. The BaNgwato originated as an offshoot of the BaKwena that became independent in the late eighteenth century (Morton and Ramsay 2018:221).

Banoga – Reference uncertain. According to Livingstone, a previous BaTswana group of which he found evidence but had ceased to exist by the time of his arrival in southern Africa.

BaPedi – Called Baperi by Livingstone. African ethnic group primarily based in present-day South Africa's Limpopo province, but also in southern Zimbabwe and eastern Botswana (Appiah and Gates Jr. 2010:295; Morton, Ramsay, and Mgadla 2008:265).

BaPhaleng – Called Bapalleng by Livingstone. African ethnic group based in the Kalahari region of present-day Botswana, who are part of the larger BaKgalagadi group (Morton, Ramsay, and Mgadla 2008:165)

BaPhuthi – Called Baputi by Livingstone. African ethnic group based in present-day Lesotho, who were integrated into the Basotho nation in the 1820s under the rule of Moshoeshoe I (Eldredge 1993:43, Rosenberg and Weisfelder 2013:46).

Bapiri – Reference uncertain. Possibly a reference to the Bapedi, whom Livingstone also calls Baperi.

BaPo – African ethnic group based in present-day South Africa's North West province, who are part of the larger BaTswana group (Morton 2010:24).

BaRolong – African ethnic group based primarily in present-day South Africa's North West province. They are one of the largest BaTswana polities with among the longest recorded histories (Schapera 1961:42n6, Legassick 2010:29, Eldredge 2015:245).

Basotho – Called Basuto, Basutu, and Basuta by Livingstone. One of the largest ethnic groups of southern Africa. The Basotho nation was founded by Moshoeshoe I in the early nineteenth century and became present-day Lesotho, gaining independence from British colonial rule in 1966 (Olson 1996:534, Appiah and Gates Jr. 2010:406).

BaTaung – Called Batau by Livingstone. African ethnic group based primarily in present-day Lesotho, who are part of the larger Basotho group. Having been displaced from the region between the Vaal and Sand rivers by the AmaNdebele, the BaTaung settled in the territory of the Basotho nation in the 1830s (Rosenberg and Weisfelder 2013:74).

BaTawana – Called Batauana by Livingstone. African ethnic group based primarily in present-day Botswana, who are part of the larger BaTswana group. The BaTawana originated as an offshoot of the BaNgwato in the late eighteenth century (Morton, Ramsay, and Mgadla 2008:325).

BaTeti – Called Batletli by Livingstone. African ethnic group based in the Boteti Floodplains of present-day Botswana, who are part of the larger Khoesan group. The BaTeti once spoke Deti, an eastern Khoe language, but this was gradually replaced by SeTswana (Cashdan 1987:125-26, Wilmsen 2002:834).

BaTlhaping – Called Batlapi by Livingstone. African ethnic group based in present-day South Africa's Northern Cape and North West provinces, who are part of the larger BaTswana group. They are the southernmost of the BaTswana (Schapera 1961:16n1).

BaTlharo – Called Bamatlaru by Livingstone. African ethnic group based in present-day South Africa's Northern Cape, who are part of the larger BaTswana group (Schapera 1961:97n2, Comaroff and Comaroff 1997:53).

BaTlokwa – Called Batlokua by Livingstone. African ethnic group based in present-day Lesotho, Botswana, and South Africa who are part of the larger BaTswana group (Olson 1996:561).

Batlou – Reference uncertain. Probably the Batloung, an African ethnic group based in present-day Lesotho (Eldredge 2015:226-27).

Batonga – Also called Batoka by Livingstone. Major African ethnic group of the Zambezi basin, based primarily in southern Zambia but also in Zimbabwe, Botswana, Malawi, and Mozambique. The Tonga-speaking peoples living in the vicinity of Victoria Falls are known as the Toka-Leya (Nave 2010c:484, Vickery 1986:14).

BaTswana – Called Bechuana by Livingstone. Major African ethnic group based in present-day Botswana, Namibia, and South Africa, consisting of numerous subgroups. BaTswana polities of present-day Botswana include the BaKwena, BaNgwaketse, BaKgatla, BaLete, BaNgwato, BaRolong, BaTawana, and BaTlkowa (Nave 2010d:498-99).

BaYeyi – Called Bayeiye and Bakoba by Livingstone. Ethnic group based primarily in the Ngamiland region of present-day north-western Botswana. The BaYeyi had been based in the Chobe and Linyanti regions, but began to relocate to Ngamiland in the mid-eighteenth century to escape Lozi expansion (Larson 1989:23-25).

Cassanges – Name sometimes given to the Mbangala of northern Angola. It derived from the name Kasanje, an early Mbangala leader who founded the Kasanje Kingdom in the upper Kwango (or Cuango) River Valley in the seventeenth century (Schapera 1963,1:55n2; Birmingham 1981:79).

Chokwe – Called Chiboque by Livingstone. Major African ethnic group of Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Zambia. In the nineteenth century, they had significant involvement in the wax, ivory, and rubber trades, and became one of the wealthiest trading groups of the Congo basin before the advent of Belgian colonialism (Heath 2010b:266-67).

Damara – African ethnic group based primarily in present-day north-western Namibia, who are one of southern Africa's Khoesan peoples (Barnard 1992:11).

Gogo – Called Bagogo by Livingstone. African ethnic group based in the central highlands of present-day Tanzania (Appiah and Gates Jr. 2010:524).

Haco – Also called Ako by Livingstone. African ethnic group based in Angola, who form part of the larger Mbundu group (James 2011:164).

Ila – Called Bashukulompo by Livingstone. African ethnic group based in present-day southern Zambia's Kafue Valley (Rijpma 2015:104, Olson 1996:238).

Jinga – Name sometimes used for the Mbundu. It was derived from the name of the seventeenth-century Queen of the Ndongo Kingdom, Nzinga a Mbandi (Schapera 1963,1:159n5).

Kanyika – Reference uncertain. Livingstone is presumably referring to inhabitants of the Nyika Plateau, which is largely in present-day northern Malawi and partly in north-eastern Zambia.

Kasabi – Reference uncertain. Livingstone appears to use the term to refer to peoples settled around the upper Kasai River in Angola (Schapera 1963,1:101, 105)

Kisama – Also called Quisamas by Livingstone. African ethnic group based in Angola's present-day Quiçama region, who are part of the larger Mbundu group (Schapera 1963,1:170).

Landeens – Term used by the colonial Portuguese in south-eastern Africa to refer to groups of Ngoni who had arrived on the southern banks of the Zambezi River from the 1830s during the Mfecane (Dritsas 2010:9)

Langa – Called Balaka and Bamapela by Livingstone. African ethnic group based in present-day northern South Africa, who are part of the larger AmaNdebele group (Schapera 1961:97n5, Morton 2010:31).

Libolo – Called Libollo by Livingstone. African ethnic group based in north-central Angola, who are part of the larger Mbundu group (James 2011:164, Olson 1996:335).

Lozi – Called Barotse by Livingstone. African ethnic group based primarily in present-day Zambia. They established themselves in the Zambezi Floodplain in the seventeenth century where they developed an expansionist state. The Lozi were conquered by the Makololo in the 1830s, but re-established their independence through an uprising in 1864. The Lozi traditionally called themselves the Luyi or Luyana, which accounts for Livingstone's alternative names: Baloiana and little Baloi (Nave 2010b:87).

Lunda – Called Balonda, Balunda, and Baloi by Livingstone. African ethnic group of present-day Democratic Republic of the Congo, Zambia, and Angola. The Lunda established a kingdom in central Africa in the fifteenth century, which eventually developed into a powerful commonwealth of interlinking states. The Lunda became increasingly involved in long-distance commerce in the seventeenth century, and played an important role in the slave and ivory trades of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries (Heath 2010d:91-92, Macola 2016b:1320-22).

Luvale – Called Balobale by Livingstone. African ethnic group based primarily in north-western Zambia and in eastern Angola. Luvale traditions connect the group closely with the Lunda people (Olson 1996:351).

Makatla – Reference uncertain. According to Livingstone, this group was part of the Basotho nation (present-day Lesotho) founded by Moshoeshoe I.

Makolokue – Reference uncertain. According to Livingstone, this group was part of the Basotho nation (present-day Lesotho) founded by Moshoeshoe I. It is also possible that Livingstone is referring to inhabitants of Makolokwe in present-day South Africa's North West province.

Makololo – African ethnic group based primarily in present-day Zambia's Western Province, who are part of the larger Basotho group. The Makololo's founder was initially a BaFokeng leader based in present-day South Africa's Free State. Displaced by the political upheaval in the early nineteenth century (known as the Mfecane), the group migrated north and came to settle in the Zambezi Valley in present-day Zambia around 1840. Makololo porters, sent by chief Sekeletu, journeyed with Livingstone on his famous African transcontinental journey (1852-56) (Kalusa 2009:60-61).

Mambari – Name given to Ovimbundu traders from Angola who had established long distance caravan routes in central Africa (Birmingham 1981:86).

Mang'anja – Called Maganja by Livingstone. African ethnic group based in present-day southern Malawi, who are part of the larger Maravi group. The Mang'anja are often described as the earliest occupants of Malawi's Shire Highlands and Shire Valley (Morris 2016:59, Kalinga 2012:281).

Mang'ete – Called Banyeti and Manyeti by Livingstone. Livingstone's usage suggests this is a specific ethnic group, but the word is actually a Lozi term meaning "foreigners" (Colson and Gluckman 1959:19; Schapera 1963,1:14n3).

Maravi – Cluster of related ethnic groups who traditionally consider themselves to be descendants of the Maravi States, a confederacy established by groups who migrated into central and southern Malawi and the Shire Valley in the late fifteenth century, and which declined in the 1700s. Maravi groups include the Chipeta, the Chewa, the Nyanja, and the Mang'anja (Darch 2019:246-47, Morris 2016:62).

Matlapatlapa – Reference uncertain. Nineteenth-century records indicate this was one of various groups who settled in the Highveld of present-day central South Africa in the late eighteenth century. According to Livingstone, this group was part of the Basotho nation (present-day Lesotho) founded by Moshoeshoe I (Etherington 2001:22, 41n70).

Mbangala – Called Bangala by Livingstone. African ethnic group of northern and eastern Angola. The Mbangala were involved in long-distance commerce to the Angolan coast from the seventeenth century, and became an important trading partner of the central Lunda (or Ruund) (Oppen 1993:56).

Mbundu – Called Ambonda and Ambunda by Livingstone. Major African ethnic group based primarily in Angola's north-western and north-central regions. Today, the Mbundu are Angola's second largest ethnic group following the Ovimbundu (Young 2010a:163-64).

Mfengu – Called Fingoe by Livingstone. African ethnic group based primarily in present-day South Africa's Eastern Cape. They were formed over time from a variety of immigrant groups who arrived in AmaXhosa territory. In the nineteenth century, the term Fingo was also used with less specificity to refer to workers from the AmaXhosa homelands seeking employment in the Cape Colony (Keegan 1996:146, Appiah and Gates Jr. 2010:168).

Najwa – Called Banajoa by Livingstone. African ethnic group based in present-day Botswana. They were originally Namyba speakers who relocated from present-day Zimbabwe as a result of conflict with the AmaNdebele, and settled near the Boteti River (Schapera 1960a:14n3; Frawley 2003,3:126).

Ovimbundu – Called Kimbonda by Livingstone. Major African ethnic group primarily based in Angola's central regions. By the late eighteenth century, Ovimbundu states had established an extensive trading network from the Angolan coast into the interior. Today, the Ovimbundu are Angola's largest ethnic group (Birmingham 1981:85-87, Young 2010c:281).

Sangu – Also known historically as the Rori. Called Baroro by Livingstone. African ethnic group based in present-day Tanzania, and settled primarily in the Mbeya and Iringa regions (Olson 1996:509).

Shinji – Called Bashinje and Chinge by Livingstone. African ethnic group based in northern and eastern Angola, who are part of the larger Lunda group (Schapera 1963,1:123n1; Oppen 1993:212).

Shona – Also known as Mashona. Major African ethnic group of present-day Zimbabwe, southern Zambia, and west-central Mozambique. The Shona consist of a number of linguistic subgroups who speak variants of the same language, including the Korekore, Zezuru, Karanga, Kalanga, Manyika, and Nadau (Young 2010d:379).

Songo – Called Basongo by Livingstone. African ethnic group based in present-day north-central Angola, who are part of the larger Mbundu group (Olson 1996:532, James 2011:164).

Subiya – Called Bashubia by Livingstone. African ethnic group based primarily in present-day Botswana, as well as south-western Zambia and Namibia's Caprivi Strip. They were subject to the Makololo during the period of Makololo ascendancy from the 1830s to 1864 (Olson 1996:536, Kanguma 2011:36-38).

Watuta – Called Batutu by Livingstone. Itinerant Ngoni in and around lakes Tanganyika and Victoria. In the early 1820s, the Ngoni began to migrate from the south under the leadership of Zwangendaba, eventually crossing the Zambezi River in 1835. Following his death around 1845, the group splintered into separate states, with one branch becoming known as the Watuta (Rockel 2012:224, Spear 2012:253-54).

 

Other Groups, Collectives, Organizations    Top

27th (Inniskilling) Regiment of Foot – Called Enniskillens by Livingstone. Irish infantry regiment in the British Army, dating from 1689, acclaimed for its role at the Battle of Waterloo. In 1881, it merged with the 108th (Madras Infantry) Regiment to form the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers (Chant 2013:183-84).

Aboriginal – Livingstone uses the term to refer to indigenous inhabitants.

Admiralty – Government department responsible for managing the British Royal Navy, from the early nineteenth century until 1964 when it was amalgamated into the newly created Ministry of Defence.

Afro-Portuguese – Called African Portuguese, Native Portuguese, and "half-caste" by Livingstone. These variety of terms are used to refer to traders of Afro-Portuguese descent who had established routes and networks in central Africa.

Algerine Arabs – Reference to the people of Algeria, or more broadly to North African Muslim communities.

Ambaquistas – Called Ambacistas and Ambakistas by Livingstone. Inhabitants of Ambaca, an early Portuguese trading centre in west Africa. The term originated in the 1840s to describe Kimbundu-speaking Afro-Portuguese traders from Ambaca, who had acquired a significant presence in west African commerce, particularly in slaves and ivory. Later, it was also used less precisely by some contemporary commentators to refer to any Kimbundu-speaking traders in Portuguese Africa who behaved in ways regarded as "European" (Fish and Fish 2002:76, Dias 1986:292-93).

Anatolian Sipahis – Called Annatolans by Livingstone. Cavalrymen of the Ottoman Empire, in Asia Minor. They were a privileged class, holding local fiefdoms in exchange for military service. Livingstone draws a parallel between the sipahis, fighting on behalf of their people, and the "Kaffir Police," an AmaXhosa force established by the Cape Colony in the 1830s which largely revolted against the colonial administration during the Eighth Cape Frontier War (Augustyn et al. 2017g, Ross 2014:183).

Anglo-Portuguese Mixed Commission for the Suppression of Slavery in Cape Town – Mixed or Joint Commissions were judicial bodies created as a means of enforcing anti-slavery treaties in international contexts. Held between nation states, in this case between Britain and Portugal, they delivered verdicts on vessels seized for suspected slave trafficking (Niekerk 2004a:196-97).

Baptist – Protestant movement, with origins in seventeenth-century English Puritanism. It encompasses a range of groups and denominations, which lay particular emphasis on the doctrine of believer's baptism by immersion. Most Baptists follow a congregational model of church governance. The Baptist Missionary Society was formed in 1792 and made African missions a priority from the 1840s (Stanley 1992).

Boers – European farmers of Dutch, German, and Huguenot origin who settled at the Cape in the eighteenth century. Large numbers of their descendants left the Cape Colony, migrating north beyond British rule in the "Great Trek" of 1836-46. These settlers, or Voortrekkers, established independent states in the southern African interior, including the South African Republic (or the Transvaal), the Natalia Republic, and the Orange Free State (Raugh 2004:53-54).

British German Legion – German military unit, raised in 1854 to fight for the British in the Crimean War. The war ended before the legion saw combat, and in 1856 the majority were instead settled in British Kaffraria. Sir George Grey, the Cape Governor, hoped they would provide increased protection against the AmaXhosa on the eastern Cape and act as a civilising influence. The scheme was unsuccessful. Half the legion left South Africa in 1858 to fight against the Indian Mutiny, and in 1861 the remainder were decommissioned (Laband 2009a:85-86, 101-03).

British Museum – Britain's premier national museum, established in 1753. Its current building in Bloomsbury, London, was built between 1823 and 1852.

Bushmen – Another term for the San people of southern Africa (primarily resident in Botswana, Namibia, and south-eastern Angola), who historically adopted a hunter-gatherer lifestyle. The term Bushmen is still in use, but it is contested and sometimes considered pejorative (Heath 2010a:222).

Chartist movement – Working class movement of the 1830s and 40s that advocated British political reform through parliamentary means. Their major goals were articulated in The People's Charter which demanded universal male voting rights, voting by secret ballot, salaries for MPs, an end to property qualifications for election, the construction of equal electoral districts, and annual parliamentary elections. The movement was also active in campaigning for land reform (Epstein 1994:136).

Church Missionary Society – Church of England missionary agency. A product of the evangelical revival, it was established in 1799 as the Society for Missions in Africa and the East, before becoming the Church Missionary Society in 1812. It was the major means of the global spread of Anglicanism in the nineteenth century. The majority of its supporters were low church and evangelical Anglicans (Melton 2005:147).

Circassians – People group of the Circassia region in the north-western Caucasus. From the 1760s the Circassians engaged in an extended war of resistance against Russian territorial expansion in the Caucasus, before finally being defeated in 1864 (Augustyn et al. 2017a).

Coldstream Guards – Oldest infantry regiment in the British Army in continuous service, dating from 1650 (Chant 2013:75-76).

Covenanters – Seventeenth-century Scottish Presbyterians who resisted the imposition of episcopal modes of worship, forming "Covenants" to maintain their religious principles in 1638 (the National Covenant) and 1643 (the Solemn League and Covenant). Having supported the Parliamentarians in the English Civil War, they temporarily achieved religious liberty. Following the Restoration in 1660 and the reintroduction of Episcopalianism in Scotland, they experienced severe persecution for over twenty-five years (Kapic and Vander Lugt 2013:38, Spear 1992:88).

Dollond – Optical instrument makers. John Dollond (1707–1761) and his son, Peter (1731–1820 ), established themselves as opticians in the 1750s and developed a reputation for producing high-quality instruments. They made improvements to refracting telescopes and later developed the achromatic lens (Clifton 2013).

Dutch Reformed – Protestant tradition that emerged in the Netherlands during the sixteenth-century Reformation. Its key theological documents are the Belgic Confession, the Heidelberg Catechism, and the Canons of Dort. The Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa originated in this tradition, having arrived with Dutch emigrants in the seventeenth century. It became the largest denomination among South Africa's Afrikaner population and continues to be their major church (Augustyn et al. 2017b, 2010).

Empacasseiros – A name given to ancillary African troops employed by the Portuguese army in west Africa. They served as part of Portuguese colonial defences in Angola, but could also be employed on a private basis as sentinels and messengers. The term broadly translates as "buffalo hunters," originating in the seventeenth century as a compound of the Kimbundu word for red buffalo, "mpakasa," and the "Portuguese suffix -eiro for the person associated with an object" (Birmingham 2011:92, Miller 1976:160).

Episcopalian – Christian denominations that follow the episcopal form of ecclesiastical structure, in which the church is governed by a hierarchy of bishops. Many Epsicopalian churches belong to the worldwide Anglican communion.

Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow – Institution for the licensing of physicians and surgeons, founded in 1599 (known today as the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow). It was unique in serving as a regulatory body for both sections of the medical profession, physicians and surgeons. Livingstone had hoped to join London's Royal College of Surgeons, but the London Missionary Society found the fees prohibitive. Instead, they paid for him to take the more affordable examinations of the Glasgow institution, and he became a licentiate on 15th November 1840 (Geyer-Kordesch and Macdonald 1999:ix, Ross 2002:22).

Government House, Cape Town – Colonial Governor's residence, built in the 1790s. It is now called De Tuynhuis and houses the offices of the State President.

Griqua – Southern African group of Khoekhoe and European descent, though their ancestry also includes the San and Bantu peoples. They developed group identity in the eighteenth century, and established several influential states on the borders of the Cape Colony in the nineteenth century. European colonialism deprived them of most of their territory by the 1880s (Schweitzer 2015:15, 18-19).

Henry Monteith & Co. – Textiles manufacturer, who owned the Blantyre cotton works where Livingstone began employment in 1823.

Hottentot – Term referring to the Khoekhoe people of southern Africa (primarily resident in Namibia and South Africa), who were historically pastoralist in lifestyle. The term dates from the seventeenth century and is now considered pejorative. It reportedly originates in a Dutch word for "stutter" or "stammer," "Huttentut," applied to the group on account of the clicking sounds in the Khoekhoe language. In the nineteenth century, Khoekhoe physicality and behaviours were the subject of much evolutionary speculation and racial science (Heath 2010c:573, Nave 2010a:650).

Independent – Another term for Congregationalism, a Protestant movement that advocates the independence of individual congregations and their right to self-government, while rejecting higher ecclesiastical structures. Livingstone left the Church of Scotland and joined the local Congregationalist church in the early 1830s. The London Missionary Society was predominantly a Congregationalist organisation.

Jesuits – Members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic order founded by Ignatius of Loyola in 1540. The Society is notable for its defence of Catholicism during the Counter-Reformation, and for its commitment to education and missionary activity. It first sent missionaries to Africa in the 1550s and eventually commissioned more foreign mission agents than any other order (Newitt 2005:139, Augustyn et al. 2019d).

Kaffir – Also called Caffre by Livingstone. Term referring to the AmaXhosa of southern Africa. During the early period of European colonisation, it was applied to all Bantu-speaking Africans but in the nineteenth century it came to have its more specific application to the AmaXhosa. The term, however, continued to be used to generalise about Bantu peoples and is now considered derogatory. It has its origin in the Arabic word "kafir," which means "unbeliever" (Mills 1996:615).

Knights of Malta – Christian military order (also known as the Knights of St. John or the Knights Hospitaller), which originated in the twelfth century to defend the Holy Land and provide health care to Christian pilgrims. Following the Muslim reconquest of Jerusalem in 1187, they settled on the island of Rhodes where they battled with the Ottoman Empire. Defeated in 1522, they relocated to Malta where they held a sovereign territory until conquered by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1798 (Greene 2009:313).

Korana – Called Corannas by Livingstone. One of the Oorlam groups that emerged in the late eighteenth century around the Cape Colony’s northern frontier. Oorlam communities were mixed race, with a combination of Khoesan, Sotho-Tswana, slave, and European descent. The Korana were largely Khoekhoe and Sotho-Tswana in ancestry (McDonald 2015, Legassick 2010:48).

Light Brigade – British cavalry brigade led by James Thomas Brudenell (Seventh Earl of Cardigan), which charged a well-defended Russian stronghold in the Battle of Balaklava (25th October 1854) during the Crimean War. The failed assault, in which the cavalry was decimated, was famously memorialised in Alfred, Lord Tennyson's poem, "The Charge of the Light Brigade" (Bunting 2017).

Locrians – Inhabitants of Locris, a central region of Ancient Greece that was divided in two by the states of Phocis and Doris. The Locrians established a colony called Locri in Italy in 700BCE, where they developed the first written legal system in the Greek world, known as the "Locrian Code" (Buckler 2012:854, Sacks 1996:132).

London Missionary Society (LMS) – Evangelical missionary society formed in England in 1795, primarily serving missions in Africa and the South Pacific. Although established on a non-denominational basis, it was increasingly regarded as a Congregationalist organisation. Livingstone was commissioned by the Society in 1840 and served as one of its missionaries until 1857 (Porter 2004:49-50).

Lords of the Isles – Scottish title, dating to the Middle Ages, used by the rulers of the islands off Scotland's west coast and parts of the western mainland. These lords had considerable power and autonomy until the late fifteenth century, when the title was appropriated to the Scottish monarchy by King James IV. By describing Toka-Leya chiefs near Victoria Falls, deposed by Sebitwane, as "Lords of the Isles," Livingstone characterises them as despotic rulers who had been domesticated by a higher authority (Panton 2011:303)..

Madras Army – Army of the Madras Presidency, formed by the East India Company in the mid-eighteenth century. It was transferred to the British Crown in 1858 following the Indian Rebellion, along with the Bengal and Bombay Armies and the Company's other possessions (Schmidt 2015:60, Raugh 2004:216).

Mansion House, London – Official residence of the Lord Mayor of London, built in the mid-eighteenth century at Bank Junction.

Mantatees – General term applied to Sotho-speaking migrants and labourers in the nineteenth century. It was originally used to denote the BaTlokwa, deriving from a distortion of the name of their leader, Mmanthatisi (Sekonyela's mother). It came, however, to be applied less precisely to wandering groups in the regions around the Vaal and Orange rivers and to migrant workers seeking employment by Europeans (Etherington 2001:148, Sheldon 2012:233, Beinart 2003:59).

Mechanics' Institute, Cape Town – The Mechanics' Institutes movement originated in the early nineteenth century as a means of educating the adult labouring classes in mathematics, sciences, and the arts. The Cape Town institute was founded in 1828, but closed a year later. It was re-established in 1853 and remained active until the 1870s (Dubow 2006:49n124).

Mephato (pl.) or mophato (sing.) – Called mepato (pl.) and mopato (sing.) by Livingstone. Male "age-sets" or "regiments" among the BaTswana that operated as military and political units. Young men who passed through initiation together became life-long members of the same mophato (Morton 2012a:385-86).

Moravians – Protestant denomination, founded in the eighteenth century. In the 1720s, a remnant of the almost extinct Bohemian Brethren movement left their home in Moravia (in present-day Czech Republic) and established a community in Germany on the estate of Nikolaus Ludwig, Count von Zinzendorf. The settlement, Herrnhut, became the centre of a pietistic movement that had considerable influence on mainline Protestantism, particularly Lutheranism. The Moravians are highly service oriented, and began commissioning missionaries around the globe in the 1730s (Livingstone 2013:380).

Niger Expedition – British expedition to west Africa (1841-43), which sought to open trade and establish treaties along the Niger. It was supported by the Society for the Extinction of the Slave Trade and for the Civilization of Africa, founded in 1839 by Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton. Buxton's aim was to combat the slave trade by introducing Christianity, civilisation, and "legitimate commerce," ideas that Livingstone would develop in Missionary Travels. The expedition ended in failure, with a large number of the party dying of fever (Blouet 2010).

Presbyterian – Protestant denominations that follow the Presbyterian form of ecclesiastical structure, in which the church is represented and governed by bodies of elected lay elders and ministers. Presbyterianism is historically rooted in the sixteenth-century Reformation and Calvinist theology.

Quakers – Also known as the Society of Friends. Christian group founded in the mid-seventeenth century, which emphasises the leading of the Holy Spirit and rejects the need for ordained clergy. In calling the BaYeyi the "Quakers of Africa," Livingstone alludes to the Friends' advocacy of non-violence and pacifism.

Resurrectionist – Another term for the "body snatchers" of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, who robbed graves and mortuaries in order to supply corpses to the medical profession for dissection.

Rhenish – Person from the historical Rhine Province of Prussia (the present-day Rhineland region of western Germany).

Royal Geographical Society (RGS) – Learned society of geographers, founded in 1830 in London with the aim of advancing geographical knowledge and promoting exploration. The society awarded Livingstone the annual Founder's medal in 1855 and became one of his sponsoring organisations.

Royal Observatory, Cape of Good Hope – Observatory founded in 1820. It is South Africa's oldest scientific establishment and was the southern hemisphere's first major observatory.

Society for the Promotion of Permanent and Universal Peace – Also known as the Peace Society. Peace association, founded in 1816 by Quakers and other Christian pacifists in the wake of the Napoleonic Wars. The Society adopted an anti-war stance, opposing even defensive conflicts, and established local branches across Britain (Laity 2001:13-14).

South Sea Islanders – Collective term used in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to refer to the peoples of the Polynesian islands in the east-central Pacific.

St Mary Woolnoth – Anglican church on the corner of King William Street and Lombard Street, London, built by Nicholas Hawksmoor between 1716 and 1727.

Thames steamers – Paddle steamboats used as a means of public transport in nineteenth-century London, particularly in the 1830s before the ascendancy of the railway. At its peak, there were fifteen companies operating steamers on the Thames (Dumpleton 2002:40).

Thracians – Inhabitants of the area between the Danube River and Aegean Sea, known to the Ancient Greeks as Thrace. The region came under Persian authority in the 6th century BCE, and became a province of Rome in 46 CE. Today, the territory in the south-east Balkans that historically constituted Thrace is divided between Turkey, Greece, and Bulgaria (Augustyn et al. 2019f).

Troughton and Simms – Scientific instrument makers, established as a partnership between Edward Troughton (1753–1835) and William Simms (1793–1860). The business provided equipment for navigation and surveying, as well as large-scale astronomical apparatus. They were the official suppliers of the East India Company, and constructed and repaired instruments for the Royal Greenwich Observatory (McConnell 2004, 2007).

United Presbyterian Church – Presbyterian denomination in Scotland, created in 1847 by the unification of the United Secession Church and the Relief Church. In 1900, the United Presbyterian Church merged with the Free Church of Scotland to form the United Free Church of Scotland, which in turn rejoined the Church of Scotland in 1929 (Lyall 2016:123).

University of Coimbra – One of Europe's ancient universities and the oldest in Portugal. It was established in Lisbon in 1290, but moved permanently to Coimbra in the mid-sixteenth century.

Wesleyans – Movements and denominations with origins in the theology of John Wesley, the eighteenth-century cleric and evangelist. Wesleyanism began as a reform and revival movement within the Church of England, but became independent by 1795. It is often associated with Arminianism and an emphasis on the sanctification of the believer through the Holy Spirit. The Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society was formed in 1818 to support initiatives already under way across the globe. Wesleyan missionary work began in west Africa in 1811 and in South Africa in 1814 (Pritchard 2013:25-27).

Westminster – Area in London in which the United Kingdom's Houses of Parliament and other institutions of government are located. Westminster Hall in the Palace of Westminster was home to Britain's High Courts (Court of the Exchequer, Court of King's Bench, and Court of Common Pleas) until the Royal Courts of Justice were opened in the Strand in 1882 (Rivlin 2015:26-27).

Zambesians – Livingstone's collective term for groups resident in the Zambezi valley.

 

Settlements    Top

Aden – Port in Yemen, under British governance from 1839–1967. It occupied a strategic position between Africa and the Middle East, and played an important role in Britain's imperial trade network.

Ambaca – Early Portuguese trading centre in north-western Angola. From the seventeenth century it was one of the most important towns in the slave trade, occupying a key location on the caravan route between the Angolan interior and Luanda. It is estimated that in 1845, over half of the district's population of around 73,000 individuals were slaves (Vansina 2005:1-2).

Ambriz – Slave port in Angola, about seventy miles north of Luanda. It had long been a point of departure for slaves headed to the Americas, but was only occupied by the Portuguese in 1855. In his journals, Livingstone describes it as a "notorious nest of slave-dealers" (Birmingham 2015:35; Schapera 1963,1:156n2, 189)

Babel – City in the land of "Shinar" described in the Old Testament. According to the book of Genesis, the inhabitants set out to construct an enormous tower "to make a name for [them]selves," before God intervened by confounding the language of the people and scattering them "over the face of the whole earth" (Genesis 11:1–9).

Bango – Village in north-western Angola, in the vicinity of Golungo Alto in present-day Cuanza Norte Province. It was probably a Mbundu settlement.

Bannockburn – Historic country in central Scotland and the location of the Battle of Bannockburn (1314) in which Robert the Bruce defeated the English army under Edward II. See also Robert I (Robert the Bruce).

Benguela – City on the west coast of Angola. It was founded in 1617 by the Portuguese and became a major port for the trade and transportation of slaves (James 2011:40).

Blantyre – Industrial and mining town about eight miles south-east of Glasgow in South Lanarkshire, Scotland, and the birthplace of David Livingstone.

Bloemfontein – City in present-day South Africa's Free State. It was the capital city of the Orange Free State (1854–1902), one of the independent Boer Republics.

Boomplaats – Site of the battle of Boomplaats, about fifty miles south of Bloemfontein in present-day South Africa's Free State. Following the annexation of the Orange River Sovereignty, a contingent of Boers under Andries Pretorius rebelled and installed itself at Boomplaats farm. They were defeated by the British, led by Sir Harry Smith, on 29th August 1848 (Raugh 2004:56).

Bothithong – Called Motito by Livingstone. Village in the north-eastern part of present-day South Africa's Northern Cape, where the Société des Missions Évangélique de Paris (Paris Evangelical Missionary Society) established its first mission station in 1833 (Newcomb 1855:47-48, Mosimann-Barbier 2014:21).

Bothwell – Village in South Lanarkshire, Scotland. Bothwell Bridge, over the River Clyde, was the site of the defeat of the Presbyterian Covenanters in 1679 by the Royalists under the Duke of Monmouth. The area is also home to the medieval Bothwell Castle, where repeated battles were fought during the Scottish Wars of Independence in the late thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries (Chisholm 1910-11,4:304; Hull 2008:82).

Cabango – Lunda village in north-eastern Angola, around forty-five miles east of Saurimo in present-day Lunda Sul Province (Schapera 1963,2:242n2).

Cabinda – Portuguese station in north-western Angola, in present-day Cuanza Norte Province. According to Livingstone's journal, it was four and a half hours east of Golungo Alto on the road to Ambaca (Schapera 1963,1:180).

Caconda – Town in west-central Angola, in the northern part of present-day Huila Province and about eighty miles south-west of Huambo.

Cahenda – Site of a former mission station in north-western Angola, just north of Ambaca. According to the nineteenth-century traveller, Francisco Travassos Valdez, it was established in 1651 by Anontio de Montecuculi, an Italian member of the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin (Valdez 1861:301).

Cambambe – Town in north-western Angola on the Cuanza River, in the southern part of present-day Cuanza Norte Province.

Cambondo – Clearing near Golungo Alto in north-western Angola, in present-day Cuanza Norte Province. It is also called Cambombe in Livingstone's journals (Schapera 1963,1:163, 179).

Cambuslang – Town in South Lanarkshire and a suburb of Glasgow, about five miles south-east of the city centre.

Candumba – Village in north-western Angola, in present-day Malanje Province. According to Livingstone, it was fifteen miles east of Pungo Andongo and 300 yards north of the Cuanza River (Livingstone 1857aa:686)

Cape Town – City on the south coast of present-day South Africa's Western Cape. In Livingstone's day, it was the capital of the Cape Colony. See also Cape Colony.

Cassange – Portuguese settlement in north-central Angola, in present-day Lunda Norte Province. It was about 300 miles east of Luanda, and was described by Livingstone as "the farthest inland station of the Portuguese in Western Africa" (Livingstone 1857aa:368, 375).

Cazengo – District just south of Golungo Alto in north-western Angola, in present-day Cuanza-Norte Province. In the mid-nineteenth century it became an important centre in Angola's developing coffee industry. Livingstone provides census information of 1854 for Cazengo in his journal (Birmingham 1999:97; Schapera 1963,1:178)

Chennai – Known historically as Madras. City in south-eastern India, on the Bay of Bengal coast. During the period of East India Company rule and the British Raj, it was the administrative capital of southern India.

Chonuane – Livingstone's second mission station, about fifteen miles south of present-day Gaborone in south-eastern Botswana. Livingstone established the mission in 1846 to develop his work among the BaKwena people. He had also quarrelled with his colleague Roger Edwards at Mabotsa, their shared station. Chonuane was poorly resourced with water and so the Livingstones and the BaKwena moved to Kolobeng in the following year (Ross 2002:51, 55; Schapera 1960a:74n2).

Coimbra – City on the Mondego River in western Portugal.

Culloden – Site of the Battle of Culloden (16th April, 1746) in Inverness-shire, Scotland. The battle was the last stand in the Jacobite rebellion (1745-46), which sought to restore the House of Stuart to the throne of Great Britain. See also Stuart, Charles Edward.

Dambarari – Village in the vicinity of present-day Jumbo (where the Jumbo mine was established in 1890), in northern Zimbabwe. According to Livingstone, it was also known as Bambala. In 1856, he identified it as a settlement with an active gold trade (Schapera 1963,2:431-32, 432n1).

Dikgatlhong – Called Likatlong by Livingstone. BaTlhaping settlement near the confluence of the Harts and Vaal rivers in Griqualand West (in present-day South Africa's Northern Cape), where the London Missionary Society had a station. It originated as an outpost of the more established mission at Griqua Town (present-day Griekwastad) (Laband 2014:160; Mackenzie 1871:90, 84-85).

Dithubaruba – Called Litubaruba by Livingstone. BaKwena settlement several miles from Molepolole, north-west of present-day Gaborone in south-eastern Botswana. It was occupied briefly by the Makololo between 1824 and 1826, and it served as the BaKwena capital from 1853 to 1863. Livingstone spent time there learning SeTswana after meeting Sechele in 1842. According to Livingstone, it was also known as Lepelole, after nearby caves of that name (Morton, Ramsay, and Mgadla 2008:95).

Duque de Bragança – Called Braganza by Livingstone. District and Portuguese station in north-western Angola, established in 1838. Now known as Calandula, it is about forty miles north-west of Malanje in present-day Malanje Province (Corrado 2008:10).

Eglinton Castle – Site of the Eglinton Tournament in Ayrshire, Scotland, held in August 1839. Organised and financed by the Earl of Eglinton, Archibald William Montgomerie, the tournament was a three-day historical recreation of a medieval joust consisting of fully armoured knights and guests attired in medieval garb. Attendees numbered in the thousands (Pionke 2008:27).

Fleet Street – Commercial London street, particularly associated with journalism, but which was also a popular address for scientific instrument makers in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

Gio – Also known as N'Gio-N'Gio. Village in north-western Angola about fifteen miles south-east of Malanje, in present-day Malanje Province. Livingstone adopts the spelling Ngio in Missionary Travels, but uses Gio in his journals (Schapera 1963,1:133).

Golungo Alto – Town in north-western Angola, in present-day Cuanza Norte Province, around 100 miles inland from Luanda. In his journal, Livingstone describes the wider Golungo Alto district as "about 67 ½ miles east & west and about 30 north and south," and "not so populous as Ambaca and some other districts, nor so destitute of inhabitants as others." He also provides information on the district's organisation (Schapera 1963,1:141).

Grahamstown – City in present-day South Africa's Eastern Cape. It began in 1812 as a defensive garrison on the frontier of AmaXhosa territory and by Livingstone's day had become the capital of the Cape Colony's Eastern Province (Vernal 2012:85-87).

Gravesend – Town in Kent, in south-east England.

Griekwastad – Known historically as Griquatown. Town in present-day South Africa's Northern Cape. In Livingstone's day it was the capital of the Griqua settlement, Griqualand West, where the London Missionary Society had established a mission in 1804 (Waldman 2007:62, Moffat 1842:193).

Hadley Green – A park in Monken Hadley, an historic village north of London (which is now part of the London Borough of Barnet). Livingstone rented a property there in 1857 while writing Missionary Travels, prior to his departure on the Zambezi Expedition (Roberts 2008).

Hamilton – Industrial town in South Lankarkshire, Scotland, about two miles from Livingstone's childhood home in Blantyre.

Icolo e Bengo – Called Icollo I Bengo by Livingstone. District and Portuguese station in north-western Angola, just east of Luanda in present-day Bengo Province. When Livingstone visited, its headquarters were on the shore of Lake Quilunda. In his journal, Livingstone offers more information about the district from a census taken in 1852-53 (Schapera 1963,1:160, 176).

Interra – Village in east-central Mozambique near the Cuacua River, about thirty miles inland from Quelimane (Shapera 1963,2:472n2).

John o' Groats – Village in Scotland, at the most northerly point of the mainland United Kingdom.

Kat River Settlement – Settlement on the Kat River in the Cape Colony's eastern frontier (present-day South Africa's Eastern Cape). It was established in 1829 as a defensive barrier between AmaXhosa territory and the Cape, and was populated with Khoekhoe and "mixed race" groups. It remained loyal to the British during the Sixth and Seventh Frontier Wars (1834-35 and 1846-47). However, fuelled by discriminatory Cape policy and land dispossession, the settlement unexpectedly refused to support the Cape Colony in 1851 during the Eighth Frontier War, with a considerable proportion joining the AmaXhosa forces. The rebellion was defeated and the settlement lands were allocated to European colonists (Kirk 1973:412, 425, 427).

Katima Mulilo – Called Katima-molelo by Livingstone. Town on the Zambezi River in present-day Namibia's Caprivi Strip, bordering Zambia's Western Province and directly across river from Sesheke.

Kilombo – Presumably a Mbundu village, in the vicinity of Golungo Alto in Angola's present-day Cuanza Norte Province. The word may be a descriptor for a settlement rather than a proper name. The Mbundu term, "kilombo," initially meant a "male initiation camp" and was later used to describe "a military encampment in constant readiness for attack." In his journal, Livingstone uses the spelling Quilombo (Jaede 2007:406; Schapera 1963,1:183).

Langside – District in south Glasgow and the site of the Battle of Langside (13th May 1568) fought between Mary Queen of Scots and James Stuart, the Earl of Moray, her half brother. Following defeat, Mary fled to England where she was soon imprisoned by Elizabeth I (Wagner 1999:180-81).

Lattakoo – Historical name for Dithakong in present-day South Africa's Northern Cape, where the London Missionary Society mission to the BaTlhaping people had initially been based. When the Moffats moved the mission south-west to Kuruman, it was known for some time as New Lattakoo or simply Lattakoo (Schapera 1961:13n2, 42n5; Weinberg 2015:147). 

Letlhakane – Called Lotlakani and Lotlakane by Livingstone. Village in present-day east-central Botswana, about twenty miles south of the outskirts of Ntwetwe Pan.

Letloche – Settlement about twenty miles north of the BaNgwato capital, Shoshong, in present-day east-central Botswana (Parsons 1973:100n55).

Libebe – Village on the Okavango River, in the western part of present-day Namibia's Caprivi strip (Schapera 1963,2:334n1).

Libonda – Called Libonta by Livingstone. Village on the Zambezi River in the north-western part of present-day Zambia's Western Province, near the Liuwa Plain National Park. In Livingstone's day it was the "last town of the Makololo" when travelling westward (Livingstone 1857aa:250; Schapera 1963,1:16n1).

Linangelo – Former town on the Zambezi River in the vicinity of Naliele, in the western part of present-day Zambia's Western Province. It is described by Livingstone as the "old town of Santuru" (the former Lozi King, Mulambwa Santulu) and also as "the town of one of Santuru's wives" (Livingstone 1857aa:685, Schapera 1960a:211). See also Mulambwa Santulu.

Linyanti – Town on the Chobe River, on the border between present-day Botswana and Namibia's Caprivi Strip. It was the capital of the Makololo kingdom during the period of Makololo ascendancy in the Zambezi Valley (c.1840–1864). Livingstone hoped his transcontinental expedition (1852-56), which took him from Linyanti to both Angola and Mozambique, would establish a trade route connecting central Africa with the west and east coasts (Kalusa 2009:55-56, Livingstone 1857aa:203).

Litofe – Island and Makololo town on the Zambezi River north of Ngonye Falls, in present-day Zambia's Western Province. Livingstone describes it as one of Sebitwane's "stations" (Schapera 1960a:22, 199; Livingstone 1857aa:685).

Luanda – Known historically as São Paulo de Luanda or St Paul de Loanda. Also called Loanda and Loando by Livingstone. Coastal city and capital of Angola, founded in the 1570s by the Portuguese. It developed into a major centre for the international export of slaves, mainly to Brazil (James 2011:152).

Mabotsa – Livingstone's first mission station, in present-day South Africa's North West Province near the border with Botswana (about fifty miles south of Gaborone). The station was established with Roger Edwards in 1844 and was over 200 miles north-east of Kuruman. According to Livingstone, permission to establish the mission was given by the BaKgatla chief, Mosiele. After quarrelling with Edwards Livingstone moved to a new site, Chonuane, in 1846 (Livingstone 1843; Ross 2002:45, 51; Schapera 1960a:299n6).

Makolontwane – Called Melita by Livingstone. Former BaNgwaketse capital in the vicinity of Moshaneng, south-west of Gaborone in present-day Botswana (Morton 2014:31).

Malanje – Called Malange by Livingstone. Village in north-western Angola. It is now the capital city of present-day Malanje Province and lies about fifteen miles from the Cuanza River.

Massangano – District and town in north-western Angola, in present-day Cuanze Norte Province. It is about fifty miles south-west of Golungo Alto, where the Lucala River enters the Cuanza River. The Portuguese fortress at Massangano was established by Paulo Dias de Novais, the first Governor of Portuguese Angola, and dates to the late sixteenth century (Newitt 2010:18-19).

Mazaro – Point at which the Muto channel (called Mutu by Livingstone) connects the Zambezi and Cuacua rivers in east-central Mozambique. It is in the vicinity of present-day Mopeia district and about seventy miles from the main mouth of the Zambezi River (Schapera 1963,2:471n3, 471n5)

Mitilone – Reference uncertain. Presumably Ilha Mitaone or another port at the Chinde mouth of the Zambezi River, which is about twenty-five miles above the river's main mouth on the Mozambique coast (Schapera 1963,2:470n3).

Naliele – Important town on the Zambezi River, near the capital of present-day Zambia's Western Province, Mongu. Naliele had previously been a major Lozi centre, but when Livingstone visited in the early 1850s it was the Makololo's northern capital under the governorship of Mpepe (Kalusa 2009:66, Rijpma 2015:52n45).

Nameta – Village on the Zambezi River, just north of Ngonye Falls in present-day Zambia's Western Province (Livingstone 1857aa:684).

Namissan – Called Ngabisane by Livingstone. Settlement on the Boteti River in present-day north-central Botswana. It is south-west of Nxai Pan, and about 100 miles east of Lake Ngami. In his journals, Livingstone also uses the spelling Ñabisane (Schapera 1960a:69n4, 306).

Quelimane – Called Kilimane and Quilimane by Livingstone. Port city near the Mozambique coast. Originally an Islamic settlement, it became a Portuguese trading post in 1544 and by the mid-eighteenth century had developed into a colonial town. It was a significant entrepôt for the trade and export of slaves in the eighteenth and ninteenth centuries (Augustyn et al. 2017f, Newitt 1995:139).

Sanza – Village in north-western Angola, about thirty-five miles east of Malanje in present-day Malanje Province.

Sena – Called Senna by Livingstone. Town on the Zambezi River in central Mozambique, about 125 miles from Quelimane and about 130 miles from Tete. It had originally been an Islamic settlement, but was occupied by the Portuguese in the late sixteenth century. It was an important post on the major trade route from the east African coast (Newitt 1995:141).

Sesheke – Town on the Zambezi River. When Livingstone visited, it was an important Makololo centre and was located in the south-western corner of present-day Zambia's Southern Province. The modern town of Sesheke is located today around sixty-five miles further north-west, in Western Province (Livingstone 1857aa:684).

Shokwane – Called Shokuan and Shokuane by Livingstone. BaKwena settlement, just north-east of Molepolole in present-day south-eastern Botswana. The BaKwena were resident there when Livingstone first met Sechele in 1842 (Schapera 1974:49n2).

Smithfield – Area in north-west London, known for its meat market which dates from the middle ages.

Sofala – Historic harbour on the Mozambique coast, in present-day Sofala Province. It was southern Africa's oldest seaport, its use dating from the tenth century. Conquered by Pero de Anhaia in 1506, it became one of the first Portuguese possessions in east Africa. Sofala declined in importance during the nineteenth century and was eventually eclipsed when the port city, Beira, was founded in 1891 (Augustyn et al. 1998b, Newitt 2005:74).

Tala Mungongo – District and Portuguese station in north-central Angola, around sixty miles east of Malanje in present-day Malanje Province.

Tete – Port town on the Zambezi River in west-central Mozambique, about 130 miles from Sena and 250 miles from Quelimane. Originally an Islamic settlement, it was occupied by the Portuguese in the sixteenth century. It was a key destination on the trade route into central Africa from the east coast, and in the eighteenth century surpassed Sena as a centre of commerce (Newitt 1995:141, 144-45).

Timbuktu – Known historically as Timbuctu or Timbuctoo. City in present-day Mali, west Africa, and historically a major trading centre. From the Renaissance, it acquired mythical status in the western imagination as a place of unrivalled opulence and isolation. It was visited by European explorers in the early nineteenth century, but remained symbolic of the inaccessible outer reaches of the known world (Heffernan 2001:203, 205-06).

Tlomtla – Settlement just north of Ntwetwe Pan in present-day north-eastern Botswana. It was described by Livingstone as an BaNgwato "cattle post" (Schapera 1960a:9).

Trombeta – Portuguese station in north-western Angola in present-day Cuanza Norte Province, just west of Golungo Alto and about ninety miles inland from Luanda (Schapera 1963,1:144n2).

Zumbo – River port at the confluence of the Luangwa and Zambezi rivers, and the westernmost town of Mozambique. It was established in 1715 by the Portuguese and was a destination on the trade route into central Africa from the east coast. For a time it was the largest Portuguese town on the Zambezi River, but it declined later in the eighteenth century and was abandoned in 1836. It was in ruins when Livingstone first visited in the 1850s, but it was re-established in 1862 (Newitt 1995:202-06, 284).

 

Regions    Top

Barotseland – Called Barotse country by Livingstone. Region in present-day western Zambia to the west of the Kafue River, and homeland of the Lozi people. Historically, it covered a larger area including Zambia's current Western, North-western, and Southern Provinces (Minahan 2002:1115).

Bashan – Country appearing in the Old Testament, which formed part of ancient Palestine. The Israelites' victory over Og, the King of Bashan, is recorded in Numbers 21:33-36. See also Deuteronomy 3:1-11, which recounts the events in more detail and describes Og's enormous iron decorated bed, held by the Ammonites, as a relic of his kingdom.

Bechuanaland – Called Bechuana country by Livingstone. Region in southern Africa, and homeland of the BaTswana groups. It was annexed by Britain in 1885, with the area south of the Molopo River becoming a crown colony and the northern area becoming the Bechuanaland Protectorate. It became independent Botswana in 1966 (Curran 2003:52).

Benguela – Region on the west coast of Angola. Its capital city, also named Benguela, was founded in 1617 by the Portuguese and became a major port for the trade and transportation of slaves (James 2011:40).

Boróro – Livingstone uses the term to mean the country of the "Baroro," or the Sangu people (also historically known as the Rori). Their historic homelands are in the Mbeya region, north of Lake Malawi in south-western Tanganyika (Olson 1996:509).

Canaan – Name used in the Old Testament and other sources for ancient Palestine. The Israelites' occupation of Canaan, which was for them the "promised land," in the second millennium BC is described in the book of Joshua.

Cape Colony – British colony in the south and west of what is now South Africa. It began as a Dutch port and settlement in 1652, but was occupied by the British in 1795. It was briefly returned to the Dutch in 1803 before becoming a British possession in 1814. With the Union of South Africa in 1910, it became the Cape Province (or the Province of the Cape of Good Hope) (Olson 1991:115).

Cassange valley – Upper valley of the Kwango (or Cuango) River, in north-central Angola.

Central African basin – Called central basin and central valley by Livingstone. Roderick Murchison, the President of the Royal Geographical Society, had proposed in 1852 that the physical structure of southern Africa was an elevated "central trough or basin" encircled by a highland ridge. Although based on limited information and mistaken geological premises, his theoretical speculation proved largely correct. Livingstone came to the same view of Africa's continental structure during his cross-continental expedition, and considered his observations to provide empirical confirmation of Murchison's proposition (Stafford 1988:8, 17; Murchison 1852:cxxii; Livingstone 1857aa:475, 500; Schapera 1963,2:314).

Crimea – Peninsula located between the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. It was the site of the Crimean War (1853-56), in which Russia was defeated by the combined forces of Britain, France, and the Ottomans. The conflict was the result of power struggles in the Middle East, and was precipitated by a dispute between the Ottomans and the Russians over the protection of Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman Empire. It was a badly organised campaign, with infection and unsanitary conditions responsible for a large proportion of lives lost (Kohn 2013:133).

Dande – Coastal region of north-western Angola, in present-day Bengo Province.

Darfur – Region of present-day western Sudan, predominantly consisting of extensive plains.

Eastern Province – Eastern region of the Cape Colony. The colony's eastern frontier and the AmaXhosa territories beyond, known in the nineteenth century as "Kaffraria" or "Kaffreland," were the site of the century-long series of disputes between the AmaXhosa and the British known as the Cape Frontier Wars (1779–1879). See also Kaffraria.

Hebrides – Group of islands off the west coast of Scotland. Those to the west of the Minch and Little Minch channels are known as the Outer Hebrides, while those to the east are known as the Inner Hebrides.

Kaffraria – Called Caffraria and Caffreland by Livingstone. Region in the Eastern Cape of present-day South Africa, and historically homeland of the AmaXhosa people. It was the site of the century-long series of disputes between the AmaXhosa and the British, known as the Cape Frontier Wars (1779–1879). The region was annexed in 1835 as Queen Adelaide Province, but this was annulled within the year. It was annexed again in 1847 as British Kaffraria and was integrated into the Cape Colony in 1865 (Augustyn et al. 2017c).

Kashmir – North-western region of the Indian subcontinent. In 1846, following the first Anglo-Sikh War, Kashmir became a princely state under British indirect rule.

Katonga – Area on the Zambezi River in present-day Zambia's Western Province, bordering Namibia's Caprivi Strip. According to Livingstone, it was twenty-five miles west of where Sesheke was then located (Livingstone 1857aa:684).

Lanarkshire – Historical county in south-central Scotland, covering the area of present-day North Lanarkshire, South Lanarkshire, the City of Glasgow, and East Dumbartonshire.

Luanda – Called Loanda and Loando by Livingstone. Region in western Angola, which is today one of the country's eighteen provinces.

Luba – Major central African state, which existed in the region between the Lomami and Lualaba rivers in what is now southern Democratic Republic of the Congo. Luba had become a "dynastic kingdom" by 1700, and expanded its sway throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries as far east as Lake Tanganyika, as far south as Lake Mweru, and as far north as Kasuland and Songyeland (Macola 2016b:1320-21).

Lunda – Also called Lui, Loi, and Londa by Livingstone. Significant central African commonwealth of autonomous but interlinking states, encompassing what is now southern Democratic Republic of the Congo, north-eastern Angola, and north-western Zambia. At the heart of the commonwealth was the central Lunda state (known as the Ruund), situated between the Kasai and Lubilash rivers. Other Lunda polities traced their origin to the Ruund and derived their status from its royal title. The commonwealth stretched west to Kasanje's kingdom on the Kwango (or Cuango) River, east to Kazembe's kingdom in the Luapula valley, and south to a number of smaller states (Macola 2016a:34, 2016b:1320-22).

Luvale – Called Lobale by Livingstone. Region encompassing parts of present-day north-western Zambia and south-eastern Angola, that was historically homeland of the Luvale people (Schapera 1963,1:38n2; Augustyn et al. 2017d).

Makololo country – Territory occupied by the Makololo in the 1830s and 40s, predominantly in the Bulozi Plain of present-day Zambia's Western Province. Before the Lozi uprising of 1864, the Makololo empire extended from the northern point of the plain as far south as the Linyanti swamps and Victoria Falls (Kalusa 2009:62).

Mango – Also called Manga by Livingstone. Area around the confluence of the Lungwebungu and Zambezi rivers, in the northern part of present-day Zambia's Western Province.

Manica – Also called Manoa and Manwa by Livingstone. Region historically occupied by the Shona-speaking Manyika people, in the eastern part of present-day Zimbabwe (Manicaland Province) and the bordering area of Mozambique (Manica District). Its gold fields and gold trade date to at least the seventeenth century (Augustyn et al. 2017e; Schapera 1963,2:426n3).

Mashonaland – Called Mashona hills by Livingstone. Historic homelands of the Shona people, in present-day north-eastern Zimbabwe.

Mokwankwa – Area in eastern Angola, in the vicinity of present-day Cazombo in Moxico Province (Schapera 1963,1:69n1; Livingstone 1857aa:306-07, 685).

Natal – British colony in what is now KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The region, which had been established as an independent Boer Republic in 1839, was annexed by Britain in 1843. In 1910, it was integrated into the newly formed Union of South Africa as Natal Province (Augustyn et al. 2007).

Ophir – Wealthy region described in the Old Testament, which traded with King Solomon in gold and opulent goods (see 1 Kings 9:28, 10:11, and 2 Chronicles 8:18). It has been identified variously with sites in the Arabian Peninsula, India, and east Africa.

Orange Free State – Boer Republic between the Orange and Vaal rivers, in what is now east-central South Africa. The region was initially annexed by Britain as the Orange River Sovereignty in 1848, but was granted status as an independent Boer Republic in 1854. In the Second Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902), it was defeated by the British and made into the Orange River Colony. In 1910, it was integrated into the newly formed Union of South Africa as the Orange Free State Province (Olson 1991:473).

Polynesia – Known historically as the South Sea Islands. Group of over 1000 islands in the east-central Pacific Ocean.

Pungo Andongo – Region of north-western Angola, and the site of a seventeenth-century Portuguese fort, about fifty miles west of Malanje in present-day Malanje Province. Before it was conquered by the Portuguese in 1671 and established as a military enclave, it was a stronghold of the Ndongo Kingdom (Pungo-a-Ndongo). Pungo Andongo is also the site of a celebrated formation of giant monoliths (Thompson 2017:51, Wheeler and Pélissier 1971:39).

Salisbury Plains – Chalk plateau in Wiltshire, south-west England, best known for its archaelogical sites and prehistoric monuments including Stonehenge.

South African Republic – Also known as the Transvaal. Boer Republic between the Vaal and Limpopo rivers, in what is now north-eastern South Africa. The state was established with the Sand River Convention of 1852, which conceded the independence of the Boer communities north of the Vaal River. It was annexed in 1877 as the British Transvaal Territory, but this was revoked as a result of the Boers' victory in the First Anglo-Boer War (1880-81). Defeated by the British in the Second Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902), it became the Crown Colony of the Transvaal. In 1910, it was integrated into the newly formed Union of South Africa as the Transvaal Province (Laband 2009b:264-65, Augustyn et al. 2009).

Tweeddale – District in the central Scottish Borders.

 

Geographical Features    Top

Algoa Bay – A bay of the Indian Ocean in South Africa's Eastern Cape.

Azores – Archipelago of nine islands in the Atlantic Ocean, around 900 miles off the west coast of Portugal.

Baramuana – Reference uncertain. According to Livingstone, a hill in the vicinity of Mount Morrumbala in central Mozambique.

Barotse Floodplain – Also known as the Zambezi Floodplain and the Bulozi Plain. Called Barotse Valley by Livingstone. Extensive wetlands region around the Zambezi River in the Western Province of present-day Zambia.

Bengo River – Also called Senza by Livingstone. River in northern Angola that enters the sea about ten miles above Luanda.

Bié Plateau – Called Bihe by Livingstone. Large plateau in central Angola that covers about one tenth of the country.

Boatlaname – Spring in present-day south-eastern Botswana, about seventy miles north of Gaborone (Schapera 1961:169n2).

Bombue Rapids – Reference uncertain. According to Livingstone, rapids on the Zambezi River between Ngonye Falls in present-day Zambia's Western Province and Katima Mulilo in present-day Namibia's Caprivi Strip.

Boteti River – Called Zouga by Livingstone. River in present-day northern Botswana that issues from the Thamalakane River just south of Maun and that forms part of the drainage system of the Okavango Delta. In periods of high floods, the Boteti River flows south-east to Lake Xau before continuing to the Makgadikgadi Pans (Hughes and Hughes 1992:607, 620).

Cahora Bassa – Called Kebrabasa by Livingstone. Rapids on the Zambezi River in present-day western Mozambique. Livingstone bypassed these rapids during his transcontinental expedition (1852-56), but during his later Zambezi Expedition (1858-64) he realised that they were impassible and prevented the navigation of the river. The rapids were dammed in the 1970s to form Lake Cahora Bassa which is used to generate hydroelectricity (Ross 2002:105).

Caloi – Reference uncertain. According to Livingstone, a tributary of the Bengo River.

Camaue River – Also called Kamaue by Livingstone. Reference uncertain. According to Livingstone, a stream in north-eastern Angola that flows into the Tshikapa River, which is in turn a tributary of the Kasai River.

Cape of Good Hope – Promontory on the southern tip of the Cape Peninsula in present-day South Africa's Western Cape.

Ceylon – British Colony in South Asia from 1796 until its independence in 1948. It became known as Sri Lanka in 1972.

Chifumage River – Called Chifumadze by Livingstone. River in eastern Angola that joins the Zambezi River about thirty miles north of present-day Lumbala (Schapera 1963,1:78n4).

Chisekesi – Called Kisekise by Livingstone. Hill near the present-day settlement of Chisekesi in Zambia's Southern Province (Schapera 1963,2:350n2).

Chiumbe River – Called Chihombo by Livingstone. River in eastern Angola that joins the Luemba River about twenty miles north of the Angolan border in the south-western part of present-day Democratic Republic of the Congo (Schapera 1963,1:108n2).

Chiume River – Called Chihune by Livingstone. River in eastern Angola which flows into the Chiumbe River near present-day Dala (Schapera 1963,1:106n1).

Chobe River – River that marks the border between present-day Botswana and Namibia's Caprivi Strip, and that flows into the Zambezi River at Kazungala (at the quadripoint boundary between Botswana, Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe). The river rises in central Angola as the Cuando River before becoming the Linyanti River and then, from Lake Liambezi (in Namibia), the Chobe River (Augustyn et al. 1998a).

Chuantsa – Reference uncertain. Possibly Nkokwane Pan, just south of Ntwetwe Pan and about ten miles north-east of present-day Orapa in north-eastern Botswana.

Chukutsa Pan – Called Nchokotsa by Livingstone. Pan or depression to the south of Ntwetwe Pan and in the immediate vicinity of Ryasana Pan, in present-day north-eastern Botswana (Schapera 1960a:6n2, Ransford 1978:49).

Chundu – Called Chondo by Livingstone. Island in the middle of the Zambezi River, on the boundary between present-day south-western Zambia and north-western Zimbabwe. It is about fifteen miles upstream from Victoria Falls (Schapera 1963,2:325n5).

Congo River – Formerly known as the Zaire River. Also called Zerézeré by Livingstone. Major river in Africa and the second longest on the continent after the Nile River. It rises in present-day north-eastern Zambia and flows in an arc to the west coast, entering the Atlantic Ocean at Banana in Democratic Republic of the Congo. During his final journey (1866-73), Livingstone explored parts of the Congo River system while under the misconception that it connected to the Nile.

Cuacua River – Also known as Rio dos Bons Sinais. Called Kilimane by Livingstone. River in Mozambique that enters the sea near the port city, Quelimane.

Cuanza River – Called Coanza by Livingstone. Major river in Angola that rises on the Bié Plateau and flows to the west, entering the Atlantic about thirty miles south of Luanda.

Cuije River – Called Quize by Livingstone. River of north-western Angola and tributary of the Cuanza River, which it joins near present-day Cangandala in Malanje Province (Schapera 1963,1:133n1).

Dande River – River in northern Angola, that enters the Atlantic about twenty-five miles above Luanda at Barro do Dande.

Danube River – Second longest river in Europe (after the Volga), rising in western Germany and flowing to the Black Sea.

Fingal's Cave – Sea cave on the south-west coast of Staffa, one of the islands of the Inner Hebrides. The cave is notable for the hexagonal basalt columns that surround it.

Goha Hills – Called Ngwa by Livingstone. Hills in the Savuti region of present-day northern Botswana.

Guanabara Bay – Called Bay of Rio de Janeiro by Livingstone. A bay of the South Atlantic Ocean in south-eastern Brazil. The city of Rio de Janeiro is located on the bay's western shore.

Impalila Island – Called Mparia by Livingstone. Island at the confluence of the Chobe and Zambezi rivers in present-day Namibia's Caprivi Strip (Schapera 1963,2:325n3).

Isle of Dogs – Area of east London consisting of Millwall, Cubitt Town, and Canary Wharf that is surrounded on three sides by the River Thames.

Kabompo River – River in south-central Africa and a major tributary of the Zambezi River. It rises in present-day Zambia's North Western Province and flows south and west to enter the Zambezi River about fifteen miles north of Lukulu in Western Province. Livingstone sometimes mistakenly refers to the Kabompo River as the Leeambye (another name for the Zambezi River), since he incorrectly believed the Kabompo to be the main stream of the Zambezi rather than a tributary (Schapera 1963,1:27n3).

Kafue River – River in present-day Zambia and a major tributary of the Zambezi River. It rises in North Western Province near the border with present-day Democratic Republic of the Congo and winds southwards to join the Zambezi River several miles above Chirundu on the Zimbabwean border.

Kalahari Desert – Large sandy plain in southern Africa, covering much of present-day Botswana, the eastern part of Namibia, and the northern part of South Africa's Northern Cape. Livingstone first crossed the Kalahari to reach Lake Ngami in 1849.

Kalai Island – Island on the Zambezi River, about six miles upstream from Victoria Falls.

Kale Rapids – Reference uncertain. According to Livingstone, rapids on the Zambezi River between Ngonye Falls in present-day Zambia's Western Province and Katima Mulilo in present-day Namibia's Caprivi Strip.

Kalomo River – Tributary of the Zambezi River, which it joins in present-day Zambia's Southern Province about thirty-five miles downstream from Victoria Falls.

Kaluze River – Reference uncertain. Schapera suggests this is the Calozi River, which he identifies as a tributary that joins the Kasai River about forty miles south-east of Dala in present-day Lunda Sul Province in eastern Angola (Schapera 1963,1:101n2).

Kandehy – Reference uncertain. A valley probably in the vinicity of present-day Kasinka in northern Botswana's Chobe District (Schapera 1960a:111n1).

Kanesi River – Reference uncertain. Possibly the Tchinege River, which flows into the Chiumbe River in eastern Angola's present-day Lunda Sul Province (Schapera 1963,2:241n2).

Kaongeshi River – Also known as the Lueta River. Called Caunguesi by Livingstone. Tributary of the Kasai River in the southern part of present-day Democratic Republic of the Congo (Schapera 1963,2:245n3).

Kasai River – Also called Casai and Loke by Livingstone. River in central Africa and a major tributary of the Congo River, that forms part of the border between present-day Angola and Democratic Republic of the Congo. The Kasai River rises in Angola on the Bié Plateau and flows into the Congo River at Kwamouth in the western part of Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Kasala – Reference uncertain. According to Livingstone, a mountain in the vicinity of Cassange in north-central Angola's present-day Lunda Norte Province.

Khama-Khama Pan – Called Kama Kama by Livingstone. Pan or depression in present-day north-eastern Botswana. On one of Livingstone's visits there in March 1853, it was the home of members of the Khoesan led by Horoye and Mokantsa (Schapera 1960a:102).

Kolobeng River – River in present-day south-eastern Botswana. Livingstone built his third mission station near this river in 1847, just west of present-day Gaborone.

Koobe – Reference uncertain. According to Livingstone, a spring on the south-western edge of Ntwetwe Pan in present-day north-eastern Botswana.

Kopong – Called Khopong by Livingstone. River crossing the northward road from Kolobeng, about seventeen miles north of present-day Molepole in Botswana. Today, there is a village of this name about ten miles north of Gaborone (Schapera 1960a:3n3).

Koue Bokkeveld Mountains – Called Bokkefelt by Livingstone. Mountain range in present-day South Africa's Western Cape.

Kuruman River – River in present-day South Africa's Northern Cape that is now mostly dry. Robert and Mary Moffat, Livingstone's parents-in-law, established the Kuruman mission station near this river in the 1820s.

Kwango River – Also known as Cuango River. Called Quango by Livingstone. Major river of central Africa that rises in central Angola and flows into the Kasai River near the present-day city of Bandundu in the western part of Democratic Republic of the Congo (Kisangani 2016:365).

Kwilu River – Called Quilo and Kweelo by Livingstone. Major river that rises in Angola and flows north into the western part of present-day Democratic Republic of the Congo. It joins the Kwango (or Cuango) River near the city of Bandundu, shortly before the Kwango flows into the Kasai River (Kisangani 2016:366).

Lake Dilolo – Lake in present-day Moxico Province in eastern Angola.

Lake Malawi – Also known as Lake Nyasa (in Tanzania) and Lago Niassa (in Mozambique). Called Lake Nyassa by Livingstone. Third largest lake in east Africa, lying between Malawi, Mozambique, and Tanzania. Livingstone reached this lake in 1859 during his second major African expedition (1858-64).

Lake Ngami – Shallow lake in present-day north-western Botswana. It is north of the Kalahari Desert and at the south-western end of the Okavango Delta. Livingstone first reached this lake in 1849 with William Cotton Oswell.

Lake Tanganyika – Called Lake Tanganyenka by Livingstone. Second largest lake in east Africa. It lies mainly between present-day Tanzania and Democratic Republic of the Congo, while also entering Burundi and Zambia.

Lake Xau – Also known as Lake Dow. Called Kumadau by Livingstone. Intermittent lake in present-day north-central Botswana, about forty-five miles west of Orapa. The lake is usually dry but is sometimes fed by the Boteti River (Hughes and Hughes 1992:625).

Land's End – Peninsula in Cornwall and the most westerly point of mainland England.

Lekone River – Reference uncertain. Schapera suggests this is the Lukuni River, which he identifies as a feeder of the Sinde, a river that in turn flows into the Zambezi River just west of present-day Livingstone in Zambia's Southern Province (Schapera 1963,2:333n2).

Lephephe – Called Lopepe by Livingstone. Spring about fifteen miles north of Boatlanama and about forty-five miles south-west of the BaNgwato capital, Shoshong, in present-day east-central Botswana (Schapera 1959, 2:64n22).

Liambezi Lake – Called Zabesa or Zabenza by Livingstone. Shallow lake in present-day Namibia's Caprivi Strip near the border with Botswana formed by the broadening of the Chobe River (Schapera 1963,1:1n3; Hughes and Hughes 1992:696).

Libolo – Called Libollo by Livingstone. Highland region in north-western Angola's present-day Cuanza Sul Province.

Likuáre River – Reference uncertain. According to Livingtone, a feeder of the Cuacua River (or Rio dos Bons Sinais) in Mozambique.

Limpopo River – River of south-eastern Africa that rises in the Witswaterand in present-day South Africa and flows to the Indian Ocean.

Livoa River – Reference uncertain. Schapera suggests this is a tributary of the Luambo, a river that runs into the Chifumage River, which in turn joins the Zambezi River in present-day eastern Angola (Schapera 1963,1:78n2).

Lobotani – Spring about fifty miles west of the BaNgwato capital, Shoshong, in present-day east-central Botswana (Schapera 1960a:4n4)

Lokalueje River – Also called Kalueje by Livingstone. Reference uncertain. Schapera suggests this is the Luambo, a river that runs into the Chifumage River, which is a tributary of the Zambezi River in present-day eastern Angola (Schapera 1963,1:74n1; 1963,2:262n3).

Lombe River – River in north-western Angola and a tributary of the Cuanza River, which it joins about twenty miles west of present-day Cangandala (Schapera 1963,1:134n2).

Loyela – Island on the Zambezi River in present-day Zambia's Western Province, about eight miles south-west of Namushakende.

Lozeze River – Reference uncertain. Schapera suggests this is the Luicheze River, which he identifies as a tributary joining the Kasai River in north-eastern Angola's present-day Lunda Sul Province (Schapera 1963,1:101n1).

Luachimo River – Called Loajima by Livingstone. River rising in Angola and a major tribuary of the Kasai River, which it joins near the present-day city of Tshikapa in Democratic Republic of the Congo (Schapera 1963,1:112n1).

Lualua River – Called Luare by Livingstone. Tributary of the Cuacua River, which it joins in east-central Mozambique (Schapera 1963,2:471n3).

Luangue River – Also known as the Loange River. River rising in Angola and a tributary of the Kasai River, which it joins about fifteen miles upstream of present-day Dibaya-Lubwe in south-western Democratic Republic of Congo (Schapera 1963,1:227n1).

Luangwa River – Called Loangwa by Livingstone. River in present-day Zambia and a major tributary of the Zambezi River. It rises near Isoka and flows southwards to enter the Zambezi River between Luangwa (Zambia) and Zombo (Mozambique).

Luare River – Reference uncertain. Schapera suggests this is a feeder of the Lui River in northern Angola (Schapera 1963,1:131n3).

Lubilash River – Also known as the Sankuru River in its lower course. River in the southern part of present-day Democratic Republic of the Congo and the primary tributary of the Kasai River, which it joins near Bena-Bendi.

Lucala River – Called Lucalla by Livingstone. River in north-western Angola and a major tributary of the Cuanza River, which it joins near present-day Massangano in Cuanze Norte Province (Newitt 2010:142n4).

Luembe – Called Loembwe by Livingstone. River rising in Angola and a tributary of the Kasai River, which it joins about twenty-five miles upstream of present-day Tshikapa in south-western Democratic Republic of the Congo (Schapera 1963,1:108n2).

Lufige River – Called Lefuje by Livingstone. River in eastern Angola that joins the Zambezi River in present-day Moxico Province, about ten miles north of the Zambian border (Schapera 1963,1:47n1).

Lui River – River in northern Angola and a tributary of the Kwango (or Cuango) River, which it joins near present-day Milando in Lunda Norte Province (Schapera 1963,1:131n3).

Luinha River – River in present-day Cuanza Norte Province in north-western Angola.

Lulua River – Also called Lolo and Lolua by Livingstone. River in present-day Democratic Republic of the Congo. While Livingstone says this river flows southwards, it actually flows northwards to enter the Kasai River near Bena Makima (Schapera 1963,1:87n1).

Lunache River – Called Lonatje by Livingstone. River in eastern Angola and tributary of the Zambezi River, which it joins about twenty miles south-west of present-day Cazombo in Moxico Province (Schapera 1963,1:66n4).

Lungwebungu River – Called Loeti and Langebongo by Livingstone. River in south-west-central Africa and the largest tributary of the Zambezi River. It rises in central Angola, flowing east and south-east to join the Zambezi River about six miles north of present-day Lukulu in Zambia's Western Province (Schapera 1963,1:1n4).

Lunkuni – Called Longkonye by Livingstone. River in present-day north-western Zambia that joins the Zambezi River near the Angolan border, about seven miles north-west of Chinyingi in North-Western Province (Schapera 1963,1:37n2).

Lurilopepe – Reference uncertain. Indentifed by Livingstone as a pan or depression in the immediate vicinity of Khama Khama Pan in present-day north-eastern Botswana. In his journals, Livingstone uses the names Liuli Lipepe and Lurilophepe for the same place (Schapera 1960a:11, 102).

Lutembo River – Called Lotembwa by Livingstone. River in eastern Angola and tributary of the Chifumage River, which it joins about forty-five miles west of present-day Cazombo in Moxico Province (Schapera 1963,1:81n3).

Lutete River – Called Lotete by Livingstone. Tributary of the Lucala River, which it joins in north-western Angola (Schapera 1963,1:204n3).

Mababe River – Reference uncertain. Identified by Schapera as a watercourse connecting the Ngoga River to the Mababe Depression in present-day northern Botswana (Schapera 1960a:13n2).

Madeira Islands – Archipelago of two inhabited islands (Madeira and Porto Santo) and two groups of uninhabited islands (the Desertas and the Selvagens) in the Atlantic Ocean, about 600 miles south-west of Portugal.

Magaliesberg Mountains – Also called Cashan Mountains by Livingstone. Mountain range in present-day northern South Africa, extending from Pretoria to Rustenburg (Appiah and Gates Jr. 2005:251).

Magoye River – Called Makoe by Livingstone. River in southern Zambia and tributary of the Kafue River, which it joins near present-day Mazabuka in Southern Province (Schapera 1963,2:351n3).

Makondo River – River of present-day Angola and Zambia and tributary of the Zambezi River, which it joins near present-day Chinyingi in Zambia's North-Western Province.

Maloti Mountains – Also known as the Maluti Mountains. Mountain range in present-day Lesotho.

Manakalongwe Pass – Also called Unicorn's Pass and Porapora by Livingstone. Reference uncertain. According to Livingstone, a pass in the Shoshong Hills in present-day east-central Botswana.

Marico River – Also known as the Madikwe River. Called Marikwe by Livingstone. River in the north-eastern part of present-day South Africa, that forms one of the main headstreams of the Limpopo River (Schapera 1960a:18n18).

Marile River – Reference uncertain. According to Schapera, a river that branches off the Zambezi River and rejoins the main channel near Mongu in present-day Zambia's Western Province (Schapera 1960a:21n8, 224n1).

Mashuwe – Called Mashue by Livingstone. Spring about twenty-five miles west of the BaNgwato capital, Shoshong, in present day east-central Botswana (Ransford 1978:75, Schapera 1960a:4n2).

Mathuluani – Reference uncertain. According to Livingstone, a spring fifty miles north of Serotle on the road to Chukutsa Pan in present-day east-central Botswana (Schapera 1960a:304-5).

Matlomaganyana – Also called Links by Livingstone. Series of springs in the vinicity of present-day Matlamanyane in north-eastern Botswana (Schapera 1960a:10n5, Spinage 2012:202).

Mauritius – Island in the Indian Ocean, about 550 miles east of Madagascar. Livingstone sailed via Mauritius on his return to Britain in 1856, following his transcontinental expedition.

Mohotluani – Reference uncertain. Possibly another spelling for Mathuluani, a spring that Livingstone locates fifty miles north of Serotle on the road to Chukutsa Pan in present-day east-central Botswana (Schapera 1960a:304-5).

Mokoko River – Dry river bed in present-day east-central Botswana that remains a major landmark around Letlhakane (Steyn and Atamelang 2014:49).

Mokokonyani – Reference uncertain. According to Livingstone, a spring in the vicinity of present-day Letlhakane in east-central Botswana.

Mombo River – Called Moamba by Livingstone. River in eastern Angola that joins the Luachimo River about twenty miles north-east of present-day Saurimo in Lunda Sul Province (Schapera 1963,2:239n1).

Monzuma River – Called Mozuma and Dila by Livingstone. River in present-day southern Zambia that joins the Zongwe River near Lake Kariba (Schapera 1963,2:346n2).

Mosamba – Reference uncertain. Since Livingstone describes Mosamba as the source of the Kwango (or Cuango) River, he is possibly referring to the Alto Chicapa highlands of north-central Angola where that river rises.

Motlatsa – Reference uncertain. According to Livingstone, a spring in the vicinity of present-day Letlhakane on the road to Chukutsa Pan in east-central Botswana.

Mount Morrumbala – Called Morumbala by Livingstone. Mountain of central Mozambique in present-day Zambezia Province.

Mount Gorongosa – Mountain of central Mozambique in present-day Sofala Province.

Mull – Island of the Inner Hebrides, off the west coast of Scotland.

Mutirikwe River – Called Motirikwe by Livingstone. River in present-day south-eastern Zimbabwe and a tributary of the Runde, a river that latterly joins the Save River at the Mozambique border.

Muto River – Called Mutue and Mutu by Livingstone. Channel connecting the Zambezi and Cuacua rivers in east-central Mozambique, in the vicinity of present-day Mopeia District (Schapera 1963,2:471n3).

Namilanga – Spring in the vinicity of present-day Senkobo in Zambia's Southern Province (Schapera 1963,2:335n4).

Nampene Island – Island on the Zambezi River near present-day Katombora in Zambia's Southern Province.

Ngambwe Rapids – Called Nambue and Nambwe by Livingstone. Rapids on the Zambezi River about fifteen miles above present-day Sesheke in Zambia's Western Province (Schapera 1960a: 194n3).

Ngoga River – Called Chō and Tsō by Livingstone. Branch of the Okavango River in present-day north-western Botswana (Schapera 1960a:26n1, Van der Valk 2012:152).

Ngonye Falls – Also known as Sioma Falls. Called Gonye by Livingstone. Waterfall on the Zambezi River a few miles downstream from Sioma in present-day Zambia's Western Province.

Ngwezi River – Called Unguesi by Livingstone. River in present-day Zambia that joins the Zambezi River about ten miles upriver of Impalila island in Southern Province (Schapera 1963,2:336n3).

Niagara Falls – Major waterfall in North America on the Niagara River, at the boundary between Ontario and New York state.

Nile River – Major river in Africa and the longest river in the world. It rises in the Great Lakes region of central Africa and flows north to enter the Mediterranean at the Egyptian coast. The search for the source(s) of the Nile motivated the African expeditions of a number of important Victorian explorers, among them Richard Burton (1821-1890), John H. Speke (1827-1864), Samuel W. Baker (1821-1893), Henry M. Stanley (1841-1904), and, of course, Livingstone himself.

Nkowane – Called Nkauane by Livingstone. Spring in the vicinity of Nkowane Pan in present-day east-central Botswana, about forty miles south-east of Letlhakane (Schapera 1960a:5n8).

North Loch – Former loch in Edinburgh, Scotland, in the area that is now Princes Street Gardens. The loch was created by King James III in the fifteenth century in order to bolster the defences of Edinburgh Castle and was drained in the eighteenth century. Livingstone incorrectly identifies North Loch with the Edinburgh Meadows, but the Meadows are in fact on the site of the former Burgh Loch (also known as South Loch) (Crawford 2013:100, Coghill 2005:75).

Ntwetwe Pan – Large pan or depression in present-day north-eastern Botswana.

Nyamonga – Reference uncertain. According to Livingstone, a mountain of central Mozambique in the vicinity of Mount Gorongosa.

Okavango River – Called Embarrah and Varra by Livingstone. Major river in southern Africa. It rises as the Kubango River on the Bié Plateau of central Angola, and crosses present-day Namibia's Caprivi Strip into Botswana where it widens into the Okavango Delta.

Orange River – Major river of southern Africa that rises in present-day Lesotho and flows west to enter the Atlantic at Alexander Bay on South Africa's west coast.

Orapa – Spring in present-day north-eastern Botswana about fifteen miles north-west of Letlhakane. Today, Orapa is the site of a major diamond mine.

Otse – Spring in the vicinity of Otse Hill in present-day south-eastern Botswana, about twenty-five miles south-west of Gaborone. Otse is also the name of the local village.

Pezo River – Reference uncertain. Schapera suggests this is the Peso River, which he identifies as a tributary that joins the Luangue River in northern Angola's present-day Lunda Norte Province (Schapera 1963,1:234n3).

Piri – Also called Peeri by Livingstone. Hills near present-day Cazombo in eastern Angola's Moxico Province. Schapera notes that this is not a specific geographical place name but is rather the Luvale word for hill or mountain, "pili" (Livingstone 1857aa:306-07, 685; Schapera 1963,1:69n1).

Ranges of Cahenda – Reference uncertain. According to Livingstone, mountains in north-western Angola just north of Ambaca.

Rapesh – Reference uncertain. According to Livingstone, a spring to the north of Ntwetwe Pan, near present-day Gweta in north-eastern Botswana. In his journals, Livingstone also uses the name Kiadjara for the same place (Schapera 1960a:9, 10n1).

Rio Cataziana – Called Catrina by Livingstone. Distributary of the Zambezi River, that enters the sea about seven miles above the river's main mouth on the Mozambique coast (Schapera 1963,2:473n3).

Rio Mucelo – Called Maiudo by Livingstone. Distributary of the Zambezi River, which branches off that river about twenty-five miles from the Mozambique coast. It enters the sea about ten miles down the coast from the main mouth of the Zambezi River.

River Clyde – River in Scotland that rises in the Southern Uplands and flows into the Atlantic on the west coast. Livingstone's home town of Blantyre is on the Clyde. In the nineteenth century, Clydeside shipyards made Glasgow the world's leading shipbuilding city.

Roggeveld Mountains – Called Roggefelt by Livingstone. Mountain range in present-day South Africa's Northern Cape.

Saloisho – Reference uncertain. According to Livingstone, a range of hills in the vicinity of Shinde's town (the paramount of the southern Lunda), which was near the confluence of the Lumbala and Zambezi rivers in present-day eastern Angola's Moxico province.

Sanshureh River – Reference uncertain. According to Livingstone, a branch of the Chobe River filled by seasonal flooding in present-day Namibia's Caprivi Strip.

Save River – Also known as the Sabi River. Called Sabia and Sabe by Livingstone. River in south-eastern Africa that rises near present-day Harare in Zimbabwe and enters the Indian Ocean on the Mozambique coast.

Savuti Channel – Called Sonta by Livingstone. Intermittent and predominantly dry channel in present-day northern Botswana that connects the Linyanti Swamps and the Mababe Depression (Ransford 1978:62, Schapera 1960a:15n3).

Serinane – Reference uncertain. According to Livingstone, a hot spring in the vicinity of present-day Lephephe in east-central Botswana.

Serotli – Spring about fifty miles north-west of the BaNgwato capital, Shoshong, in present-day east-central Botswana (Schapera 1960a:304n7).

Shire River – Major river of present-day Malawi that flows south from Lake Malawi to join the Zambezi River in central Mozambique about thirty miles downstream of Sena. Livingstone explored this river and the Shire Highlands during his Zambezi Expedition (1858-64).

Shoshong Hills – Called Bamangwato hills and Bakaa mountains by Livingstone. Hills in present-day east-central Botswana. The BaNgwato and BaKaa settled there in the eighteenth century and were resident in the vicinity during Livingstone's period in Botswana (Schapera 1960a:304n6, 1961:17n1).

Southern Lueti River – Called Simah by Livingstone. River in present-day Zambia's Western Province (Schapera 1960a:175n3).

Sulina Channel – Distributary of the Danube River in Romania.

Taba Cheu – Reference uncertain. According to Livingstone, a hill in present-day southern Zambia in the vicinity of Lake Kariba.

Table Mountain – Mountain at the northern point of present-day South Africa's Cape Peninsula, notable for its distinctive flat top.

Tamba River – River in north-eastern Angola that joins the Mombo River in present-day Lunda Sul Province, shortly before the Mombo flows into the Luachimo River (Schapera 1963,2:237n3).

Taprobane – Name used by the ancient Greeks for Sri Lanka.

Thamalakane River – Called Tamunakle by Livingstone. River of present-day north-western Botswana that provides a line of drainage from the southern Okavango Delta. The river divides just south of Maun to form two branches: the Boteti River which flows south-east and the Nhabe River which leads south-west towards Lake Ngami (Hughes and Huges 1992:618).

Thaoge River – Called Teoughe by Livingstone. River in present-day north-western Botswana that was once the major western outlet of the Okavango delta. Previously, the river supplied Lake Ngami but it no longer does so as a result of diversions to its course (Hughes and Hughes 1992:618).

Thutsa – Reference uncertain. According to Livingstone, a spring in present-day north-eastern Botswana just north-east of Orapa (Schapera 1960a:70).

Tsaugara Pan – Called Maila by Livingstone. Pan or depression in present-day north-eastern Botswana, to the north of Ntwetwe Pan and the east of Khama Khama Pan (Schapera 1960a:11n1).

Tshikapa River – Called Chikapa by Livingstone. Tributary of the Kasai River, which it joins about forty miles north of the Angolan border in present-day south-western Democratic Republic of the Congo (Schapera 1963,1:116n1).

Tsodilo Hills – Called Sorila by Livingstone. Hills in present-day north-western Botswana about twenty-five miles west of Sepupa and thirty miles south of the Namibian border. They are known for their ancient rock paintings, which number over 4000 and appear at hundreds of distinct sites (Schapera 1960a:67n1; Morton, Ramsay, and Mgadla 2008:34-35).

Ulva – Island just west of Mull, and part of the Inner Hebrides off the west coast of Scotland. Livingstone's grandfather Neil had been a farmer in Ulva before he moved to Blantyre in 1792.

Unku – Reference uncertain. Possibly Kumsedisha Pan, just north-east of Khama Khama Pan in present-day north-eastern Botswana. In his journals, Livingstone also uses the name Gumkirreh for the same place (Schapera 1960a:11n4).

Upper Zambezi valley – Called valley of the Leeambye by Livingstone. Region surrounding the upper part of the Zambezi River.

Vaal River – Called Likwa by Livingstone. River of present-day South Africa and a tributary of the Orange River. It rises in Mpumalanga and flows south-west to join the Orange near Douglas in the Northern Cape.

Valley of the Nile – Region in Egypt around the course of the Nile River.

Victoria Falls – One of the world's largest waterfalls, located on the Zambezi River, and bordering present-day Zambia and Zimbabwe. Livingstone sighted the falls in November 1855 and gave them the name Victoria Falls. They are known as Mosi-oa-Tunya in Lozi and as Shongwe in the Shona language.

Wilge River – Called Namagari by Livingstone. River in present-day central South Africa and tributary of the Vaal (Dreyer 2001:73).

Zambezi River – Also called Leeba/Loiba and Leeambye/Liambai by Livingstone at parts of its course. Major river in south-central Africa that rises in present-day Zambia, then flows east across the continent to the Indian Ocean. During his transcontinental expedition (1852-56), Livingstone was hopeful that the Zambezi could provide a highway into central Africa, but during his later Zambezi Expedition (1858-64) he realised that he had overestimated the river's navigability. Livingstone provides various other local names for stretches of the river including Luambéji, Luambési, Ambézi, Ojimbési, Luabo, and Cuama.

Zangue River – Also called Pungue by Livingstone. Tributary of the Zambezi River, which it joins near present-day Caia in Mozambique's Sofala Province.

Zanzibar – Island in the Indian Ocean off the coast of present-day Tanzania. In the nineteenth century, Zanzibar was the major center of a commercial network extending across east and central Africa and the primary entrepôt of the east African and Indian Ocean slave trade (Sheriff 1987:1-4).

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